• No results found


5.4 Conclusions


From Fig. 5-4d, a drop in pH was observed in the solution after adding coagulant in the C/F/DAF process. As the pH increases, there is also a corresponding increase in the difference between the initial pH and the final pH of the solution in both C/F/DAF and C/F/S processes. The final pH shows that the solution is more acidic after using chitosan from crab shell as a coagulant.


(4) The effect of pH using chitosan showed a different performance to using polyDADMAC in terms of As (V) removal where C/F/DAF removes more As (V) across the pH than C/F/S. Turbidity removal was similar for both processes. With increase in pH, there is little improvement in turbidity removal. The difference in pH after chitosan addition showed a reduction in pH except for pH 4.

These results showed that neither polyDADMAC nor chitosan from crab shell is good in removing arsenic from a contaminated water. The two processes considered showed > 40 % arsenic removal efficiency. Both polyDADMAC and chitosan recorded high turbidity removal at all the pH investigated in this study and would find application in removing turbidity in contaminated water. One of the challenges of using chitosan is its inability to dissolve readily in water, which will make its application on a large-scale process complicated.

Conflict of interest None

Appendix 5. Supplementary data

Contains supplementary data related to this Chapter



Affes, S., Aranaz, I., Hamdi, M., Acosta, N., Ghorbel-Bellaaj, O., Heras, Á., Nasri, M., Maalej, H., 2019. Preparation of a crude chitosanase from blue crab viscera as well as its application in the production of biologically active chito-oligosaccharides from shrimp shells chitosan. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 139, 558–569.


Amin, M.F.M., Heijman, S.G.J., Rietveld, L.C., 2014. The potential use of polymer flocculants for pharmaceuticals removal in wastewater treatment. Environ.

Technol. Rev. 3, 61–70. https://doi.org/10.1080/21622515.2014.966784

Bolto, B., Gregory, J., 2007. Organic polyelectrolytes in water treatment. Water Res. 41, 2301–2324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2007.03.012

Chiang, Z.-C., Yu, S.-H., Chao, A.-C., Dong, G.-C., 2012. Preparation and characterization of dexamethasone-immobilized chitosan scaffold. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 113, 654–660.


Chuah, L.H., Billa, N., Roberts, C.J., Burley, J.C., Manickam, S., 2013. Curcumin-containing chitosan nanoparticles as a potential mucoadhesive delivery system to

the colon. Pharm. Dev. Technol. 18, 591–599.


Dai, T., Tanaka, M., Huang, Y.-Y., Hamblin, M.R., 2011. Chitosan preparations for wounds and burns: antimicrobial and wound-healing effects. Expert Rev. Anti Infect. Ther. 9, 857–879. https://doi.org/10.1586/eri.11.59

Guibal, E., Saucedo, I., Jansson-Charrier, M., Delanghe, B., Le Cloirec, P., 1994. Uranium and vanadium sorption by chitosan and derivatives. Water Sci. Technol. 30, 183–


Huang, L., Bi, S., Pang, J., Sun, M., Feng, C., Chen, X., 2019. Preparation and characterization of chitosan from crab shell (Portunus trituberculatus) by NaOH/urea solution freeze-thaw pretreatment procedure. Int. J. Biol. Macromol.


Ilangumaran, G., Stratton, G., Ravichandran, S., Shukla, P.S., Potin, P., Asiedu, S., Prithiviraj, B., 2017. Microbial Degradation of Lobster Shells to Extract Chitin Derivatives for Plant Disease Management. Front. Microbiol. 8.


Kleimann, J., Gehin-Delval, C., Auweter, H., Borkovec, M., 2005. Super-Stoichiometric Charge Neutralization in Particle−Polyelectrolyte Systems. Langmuir 21, 3688–

3698. https://doi.org/10.1021/la046911u

Letterman, R.D., Pero, R.W., 1990. Contaminants in polyelectrolytes used in water treatment. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 82, 87–97.

Logesh, A., Thillaimaharani, K., Sharmila, K., Kalaiselvam, M., Raffi, S., 2012. Production of chitosan from endolichenic fungi isolated from mangrove environment and its antagonistic activity. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 2, 140–143.


López-León, T., Carvalho, E.L.S., Seijo, B., Ortega-Vinuesa, J.L., Bastos-González, D., 2005. Physicochemical characterization of chitosan nanoparticles: electrokinetic and stability behavior. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 283, 344–351.


Mahvi, A.H., Razavi, M., 2005. Application of Polyelectrolyte in Turbidity Removal from Surface Water.


Majam, S., Jonnalagadda, S.B., Thompson, P., 2004. Development of analytical methods for organic polymer determination used in water treatment, in: Proceedings of Environmental Science and Technology. Presented at the Water Institute of South African (WISA) Biannual Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, pp. 62–67.

Manhokwe, S., Zvidzai, C., 2019. Post‐treatment of yeast processing effluent from a bioreactor using aluminium chlorohydrate polydadmac as a coagulant. Sci. Afr. 6, e00125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2019.e00125

Mohammed, M.H., Williams, P.A., Tverezovskaya, O., 2013. Extraction of chitin from prawn shells and conversion to low molecular mass chitosan. Food Hydrocoll. 31, 166–171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2012.10.021

Pirgalıoğlu, S., Özbelge, T.A., Özbelge, H.Ö., Bicak, N., 2015. Crosslinked polyDADMAC gels as highly selective and reusable arsenate binding materials.

Chem. Eng. J. 262, 607–615. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2014.10.015

Pookrod, P., Haller, K.J., Scamehorn, J.F., 2004. Removal of Arsenic Anions from Water Using Polyelectrolyte-Enhanced Ultrafiltration. Sep. Sci. Technol. 39, 811–831.

Razali, M.A.A., Ahmad, Z., Ahmad, M.S.B., Ariffin, A., 2011. Treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater with various molecular weight of polyDADMAC induced

flocculation. Chem. Eng. J. 166, 529–535.


Rivas, B.L., Aguirre, M. del C., Pereira, E., 2007. Cationic water-soluble polymers with the ability to remove arsenate through an ultrafiltration technique. J. Appl. Polym.

Sci. 106, 89–94. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.26499

Rivas, B.L., Pereira, E.D., Moreno-Villoslada, I., 2003. Water-soluble polymer–metal ion interactions. Prog. Polym. Sci. 28, 173–208. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6700(02)00028-X

Rivas, B.L., Sánchez, J., Pooley, S.A., Basaez, L., Pereira, E., Bucher, C., Royal, G., Aman, E.S., Moutet, J.-C., 2010. Water-Soluble Polyelectrolytes with Ability to Remove

Arsenic. Macromol. Symp. 296, 416–428.


Samrot, A.V., Burman, U., Philip, S.A., N, S., Chandrasekaran, K., 2018. Synthesis of curcumin loaded polymeric nanoparticles from crab shell derived chitosan for drug

delivery. Inform. Med. Unlocked 10, 159–182.


Sheng, P.X., Ting, Y.-P., Chen, J.P., Hong, L., 2004. Sorption of lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel by marine algal biomass: characterization of biosorptive capacity and investigation of mechanisms. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 275, 131–141.


Teli, M.D., Sheikh, J., 2012. Extraction of chitosan from shrimp shells waste and application in antibacterial finishing of bamboo rayon. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 50, 1195–1200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2012.04.003

Yee, J.-J., Arida, C.V.J., Futalan, C.M., de Luna, M.D.G., Wan, M.-W., 2019. Treatment of Contaminated Groundwater via Arsenate Removal Using Chitosan-Coated Bentonite. Molecules 24. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132464

Zahrim, A.Y., Tizaoui, C., Hilal, N., 2011. Coagulation with polymers for nanofiltration pre-treatment of highly concentrated dyes: A review. Desalination 266, 1–16.


Zamani, A., Edebo, L., Sjöström, B., Taherzadeh, M.J., 2007. Extraction and Precipitation of Chitosan from Cell Wall of Zygomycetes Fungi by Dilute Sulfuric Acid.

Biomacromolecules 8, 3786–3790. https://doi.org/10.1021/bm700701w