• No results found

2 CHAPTER TWO

2.7 Conclusions

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The dissociated di- or trivalent metallic ions generated combine with the dissociated hydroxyl ions of water at the cathode and form metal hydroxides of the anodic metals. This hydroxide surface is a good adsorbent for the metal ions. These hydroxides act as the adsorbent of arsenic, especially for As (V) species. (Ghosh (Nath) et al., 2019).

Iron and Aluminium are the two most common electrode materials used for the EC process. The use of iron as an anode (for generating iron hydroxide) material is more common than aluminium (for generating aluminium hydroxide) for removing arsenic due to its low cost, easy availability and higher efficiency of these materials (Nidheesh and Singh, 2017). Removal of arsenate is easier than that of arsenite (Table 2-12). Vasudevan et al. (2010) reported complete removal of arsenate from a contaminated water by the EC process. Kobya et al. (2014) tested the eight different electrode combinations (Al-Al-Al-Al; Fe-Fe-Fe-Fe; Fe-Al-Al-Fe; Al-Fe-Fe-Al; Fe-Al-Al-Fe-Fe-Al; Al-Fe-Al-Fe; Fe-Al-Al-Al; Al-Fe-Fe-Fe) to test arsenic removal from a contaminated sample with initial concentration 150 μg/L. The results showed that all the different electrode configuration reduced arsenic concentration to less than 10 μg/L within 8 min although the electrode combination of Al-Al-Al-Al took 15 min to reduce arsenic concentration to below 10 μg/L. Other electrodes used in addition to iron and aluminium for arsenic removal are titanium (Ratna Kumar et al., 2004), magnesium (Vasudevan et al., 2012c), zinc (Ali et al., 2013; Maldonado-Reyes et al., 2007), copper (Ali et al., 2013; Maldonado-Reyes et al., 2007), brass (Maldonado-Reyes et al., 2007) etc. Table 2-13 shows the advantages and disadvantages of the different technologies used in removing arsenic from contaminated water.

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applications such as agriculture. The aim of this research is to investigate conditions and methods by which the arsenic can be separated from the bulk of the solids. In this research, individual techniques including adsorption using DMI-65 media, use of different flocculants and coagulants and dissolved air floatation and sedimentation will be investigated to try and preferentially separate the arsenic from the suspended and dissolved solids.

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Table 2-13: Advantages and disadvantages of typical arsenic removal methods (Mohan and Pittman Jr., 2007; Mondal et al., 2013;

Wang et al., 2019).

Major Oxidation/precipitation technologies

Removal Efficiency (%)

As (III) As (V)

Advantages Disadvantages

Air oxidation Chemical oxidation

≤ 30

≤ 30

≤ 30 30 – 60

Relatively simple, low cost but slow process; in situ arsenic removal; also oxidizes other inorganic and organic constituents in water

Oxidizes other impurities and kills microbes;

relatively simple and rapid process; minimum residual mass

Mainly removes As (V) and accelerates the oxidation process

Efficient control of the pH and oxidation step is needed

Major Coagulation/co-precipitation technologies

Advantages Disadvantages

Alum coagulation

Iron coagulation

Lime softening

≤ 30

60 – 90

30 - 60

≥ 90

≥ 90

≥ 90

Durable powder chemicals are available; relatively low capital cost and simple in operation; effective over a wide range of pH

Common chemicals are available; more efficient than alum coagulation on weight basis

Chemicals are available commercially

Produces toxic sludges; low removal of arsenic; pre-oxidation may be required

Medium removal of As (III); sedimentation and filtration needed

Readjustment of pH is required

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Major sorption and ion-exchange technologies

Advantages Disadvantages

Activated alumina Iron coated sand

Ion-exchange resin

60 – 90 ≥ 90

Relatively well known and commercially available Cheap; no regeneration is required; removes both As (III) and As (V)

Well-defined medium and capacity; pH independent;

exclusive ion-specific resin to remove arsenic

Needs replacement after four to five regeneration Not standardized; produces toxic solid waste

High cost medium; high-tech operation and maintenance;

regeneration creates a sludge disposal problem; As (III) is difficult to remove; lifespan of resin is limited

Major membrane technologies Advantages Disadvantages

Nanofiltration

Reverse osmosis Electrodialysis

60 – 90

60 – 90 60 - 90

60 – 90

60 – 90

≥ 90

Well-defined and high-removal efficiency

No toxic solid waste is produced

Capable of removal of other contaminants

Very high-capital and running cost, pre-conditioning; high water rejection

High tech operation and maintenance Toxic wastewater produced

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