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SMS Technology and TAM

Chapter 3: Theoretical Framework

3.2 SMS Technology and TAM

(2012) stated, “The core concepts of ease of use and functionality prove to be a successful basis for a number of revised models. This suggests these two factors [ease of use and usefulness] are particularly valid in an understanding of technology use.”

In the present study, the focus is on students’ attitudes toward SMS rather than on intention to use SMS technology. Potential users’ attitudes toward technology can predict their behavioural intention and actual future use (Ajzen, 1991(. Students’ attitudes toward technology greatly influence their adoption and acceptance of such technology (Yusuf &

Balogun, 2011). In addition, the study measured the relationship between the two proposed factors in the original TAM, students’ perceptions of usefulness and ease of use of SMS technology and students’ attitudes toward using SMS.

To explore students’ attitudes toward SMS technology, the current study employed the original TAM presented by Davis (1986) to guide the investigation of the attitudes toward SMS technology present in Kuwaiti students. The original TAM appears well suited to the present research objectives. Several research studies (e.g., Huang et al.,

2012;Edmunds et al., 2012) have found that ease of use and usefulness factors were useful for predicting and explaining potential users’ attitudes toward technology. Edmunds et al.

(2012( examined students’ attitudes toward technology in woru, social and study contexts.

Four hundred and twenty one university students completed a questionnaire related their attitudes toward technology. The results showed that usefulness and ease of use were key dimensions of students’ attitudes toward technology in all three contexts.

The current study represents the first step in research in Kuwait in relation to the use of SMS as an education tool. Students’ attitudes toward SMS use in learning are still

unknown. The findings from this study might identify how the TAM can best be extended.

Extended versions of TAM are common in studies that aim to examine technology

acceptance. TAM has been repeatedly used to examine the adoption of SMS technology in different contexts. The following section discusses the applications of TAM in research that examines the use and adoption of SMS for different purposes.

2008; Muk & Chung, 2015) and an SMS library catalogue search service (Goh, 2011).

Studies have shown that TAM was effective for predicting and understanding users’

attitudes, intentions to use and actual use of SMS technology for different purposes. TAM can be used to better understand people’s attitudes and use of SMS in different contexts.

A study using extended TAM investigated the intention to use SMS advertising among young Chinese consumers. Zhang and Mao (2008) used TAM with two additional factors: perceived trust and subjective norms, in addition to perceived usefulness and ease of use, to predict behavioural intentions to use SMS advertising. The researcher employed a cross-sectional study design in which there were 262 responses for a questionnaire. The findings showed that the four factors were significant in predicting consumers’ intentions to use SMS advertising. The results showed that perceived usefulness had a stronger

relationship with behavioural intention to use SMS advertising than it had with intention to use SMS advertising.

In a higher education setting, Goh (2011) used an extended version of TAM to investigate students’ perceptions of an SMS library catalogue search service. The extended TAM included one additional factor, self-efficacy, along with perceived usefulness and ease of use to predict behavioural intentions to use an SMS library catalogue search service.

Ninety university students participated in a cross-sectional study design. The findings showed that the model was effective in predicting students’ intentions to use an SMS library catalogue search service. The correlation results showed that for the participants, perceived usefulness had a stronger relationship with intention to use than ease of use had with intention to use.

Muk and Chung (2015) conducted a study with the aim of investigating the factors that influence consumers' acceptance of SMS advertising in the United States and South Korea. The researchers used an extended version of TAM with one additional factor, social influence, in addition to the perceived usefulness and ease of use, to predict attitudes toward acceptance of SMS advertising. Three hundred and two university students participated in a cross-sectional survey. The findings showed that attitude toward SMS advertisements was significantly related to perceived usefulness and social influence. In addition, attitude toward SMS advertisements was positively related to intention to use

SMS advertisements. SMS ease of use was significantly related to perceived usefulness; it was not significantly related to attitude toward SMS advertisement

Overall use of the TAM in the SMS adoption context has been successful, indicating the robustness of the model and its value for understanding potential users’

attitudes toward, intention to use and use of SMS technology for different purposes (Zhang

& Mao, 2008;Goh, 2011; Muk & Chung, 2015). The common findings in the above studies were the significant effects that usefulness and ease of use had on users’ acceptance of the use of SMS for different purposes. In order to understand potential users’ acceptance of SMS, the results of the above studies suggests that investigating students’ perceptions of the ease of use and usefulness of SMS is important. Usefulness and ease of use were key factors for predicting users’ acceptance of the use of SMS technology. Another common finding in the previous research studies was the stronger effect of the usefulness of SMS on users’ intention to use SMS compared to the effect of ease of use. This finding suggests that potential users’ perceptions of the usefulness of SMS technology are more important that their perceptions of the SMS ease of use (Zhang & Mao, 2008; Goh, 2011; Muk & Chung, 2015)

While studies have used the TAM to examine users’ attitudes and intentions regarding the use of SMS technology for advertising, banking and a library search service, research has not examined students’ attitudes toward SMS technology in educational settings. Users’ attitudes toward technology are a significant factor that influences their use of technology (Yusuf & Balogun, 2011). The higher educational setting has its own

characteristics in terms of students’ motivation and drives to use technology and there is a lack of research that employs TAM to understand university students’ attitudes and adoption of SMS in the higher education context. However, the extensive implementation of TAM for explaining and predicting users’ attitudes toward and use of technology gives an indication of its strength in this area of research (Edmunds et al., 2012). TAM has been used in a wide variety of technology acceptance studies (Edmunds et al., 2012). The next section discusses the applications of TAM in research studies that have been conducted in Kuwait.