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for Water Treatment Technologies

Ongoing costs Initial costs

Environmental efficiency Minimal waste

Government regulations Safe to operate Easy to understand Social benefits

Demand during busy times Complete package Operational requirements Maintenance requirements Robust and reliable

Figure 26. Score 3 for Water Treatment Technologies

4.4.2 4.4.2 4.4.2

4.4.2 Performance of Wastewater Technologies Performance of Wastewater Technologies Performance of Wastewater Technologies Performance of Wastewater Technologies

The results of the telephone survey of manufacturers are shown in Table 32 for wastewater treatment technologies.

Table 32. Performance Matrix for Wastewater Treatment Technologies

Technology Name and Treatment Mechanism

Criterion Indicator

Ozzi Kleen RP10 Aerobic + chlorination

Novaclear 10EP Membrane bioreactor

Novaclear 10EP w/Cl MBR with chlorination

Advantex AX 20 Packed bed

Envirocycle 10NR Aerobic + UV Warranty Tank: 25 years Tank: 15 years

Membranes: 3 years Electrical: 2 years

Tank: 15 years Membranes: 3 years Electrical: 2 years

5 years, subject to maintenance by an approved agent

Structure and fittings:

15 years

Electrical: 1 year Robust and

reliable

Service life 30 years Tank: 35 year Membranes: 15 years Electrical: 15 years

Tank: 35 year Membranes: 15 years Electrical: 15 years

20 years Structure and fittings:

20 years

Electrical: 5 years Frequency Every 3 months Every 4 months (first

12 months included in purchase price)

Every 4 months (first 12 months included in purchase price)

Maintenance frequency 6 months initially.

Every 3 months.

Maintenance requirements

Who can perform?

Ozzi Kleen personnel or someone trained by OzziKleen & certified to do maintenance

themselves.

Currently in NT can only be performed by distributors in Katherine and Darwin.

Currently in NT can only be performed by distributors in

Katherine and Darwin.

Trained personnel.

Monitoring system as well. Can just be on-site alarms.

AWTS staff or local technician.

Technical

Operational requirements

What does the unit require to operate?

Power. Can be solar powered if 2.6V can be supplied on kick-in.

Power for air blower. Power for air blower.

Chlorine.

Power,

communication costs (landline or GSM) if remote monitoring selected

Can't handle chemicals that kill bacteria. Power for aerator pump &

irrigation pump.

Table 32 (continued). Performance Matrix for Wastewater Treatment Technologies

Criterion Indicator Ozzi Kleen RP10 Novaclear 10EP Novaclear 10EP w/ Cl Advantex AX 20 Envirocycle 10NR Complete

package

What else is required for it to work?

Power, irrigation dispersal mechanism. May require addition of blood and bone or sugar to correct pH.

Power. Power, chlorine. Monitoring system Power, connection to irrigation. Operates automatically, should not require any adjustments.

Technical (continued)

Demand during busy times

Variability in input handled

Has a 1000L buffer tank to handle 'shock loads'.

Can't really deal with prolonged absences.

5000L tank capacity (1500L buffering in primary chamber), designed to recycle 2200L/day

5000L tank capacity (1500L buffering in primary chamber), designed to recycle 2200L/day

Can have no input for up to 6 months

Could handle 12 people for a couple of days. Couldn't handle a permanent load of 15 people.

Social benefits Health or other benefits to users

Increased water

availability for irrigation

Increased water for sub-surface irrigation

Increased water for sub-surface irrigation & in-house use.

Water for irrigation Increased water availability for irrigation & possibly internal use.

Easy to understand

Is the unit easy to understand?

Yes. Anyone can do the OzziKleen training and be ticketed to do the

maintenance.

Yes, operation is very simple BUT you have to be trained in maintenance.

Yes, operation is very simple BUT you have to be trained in maintenance.

Operation is easy.

Maintenance can be trained.

Has an alarm for faults and troubleshooting guide.

Social

Safe to operate Risk of harm when operating

Pretty safe Very safe. Not much that can go wrong.

Very safe. Chlorine must be added. Not much that can go

Very safe. Very safe, there is little that can go wrong other than

Table 32 (continued). Performance Matrix for Wastewater Treatment Technologies

Criterion Indicator Ozzi Kleen RP10 Novaclear 10EP Novaclear 10EP w/ Cl Advantex AX 20 Envirocycle 10NR

Institutional Government regulations

Compliance with regulations

Approved for use in NT, SA.

Approved for use in NT, SA.

Approved for use in NT, SA.

Seeking approval in WA and NT next year

Approved for use in WA, SA.

Minimal waste Nature and disposal mechanism

No pump-out should be required.

No pump out No pump out Needs to be

de-sludged every 8-10 years

May need to be pumped out after 8 years, depending on maintenance

Environmental

Environmental efficiency

Resource consumption

1.5V for pump when constant.

240V pump 240V pump Recirc pump is

4.1A, effluent pump is 3.9A. 8A if both running.

Depends on the nature of the site and type of irrigation pump required.

Initial costs Purchase cost

$5,720 for secondary treatment only, $7,120 for RP10ASF (with sand filtration). Installation &

irrigation extra.

$9,000 $10,000 $16-17,000

installed (also includes some drip line installation)

$10,000

Economic

Ongoing costs Operation &

maintenance costs

25c per day power. 82c per day power,

$200 service

82c per day power,

$200 service

Monthly power cost $1.50-$2.50

50c per day

4.4.2.1 4.4.2.1 4.4.2.1

4.4.2.1 Discussion of Wastewater Treatment Technologies Discussion of Wastewater Treatment Technologies Discussion of Wastewater Treatment Technologies Discussion of Wastewater Treatment Technologies

The five on-site wastewater treatment units included in the analysis represented a wider range of technologies. All were designed to treat a population of 10 people.

The warranties offered on the units varied in duration depending on the component they related to. Structural components such as tanks were given the longest warranty (up to 25 years), whilst electrical components got as little as 1 year. This reflected the variation in expected service life, with tanks expected to last as long as 35 years and electrical components from 5 to 15 years.

All the units require regular maintenance checks, at frequencies ranging from every 3 to every 6 months. Some companies offer training to owners to carry out maintenance themselves, whilst others rely upon a service network of trained technicians. This point is an important one in the case of remote systems sustainability, as if a technician has to come twice a year to a remote location there would be substantial costs involved.

All manufacturers felt that operation of the units was straightforward, with only maintenance requiring additional training. They were also all considered to be safe to operate.

All units required power and some required additional items to operate, such as chlorine, blood and bone and communication infrastructure if set up to be remotely monitored.

The ability of the units to deal with variable loads was, as for the water units, an area in which the realities of remote communities differ from the design capability of the units.

All had some ability to ‘buffer’ sudden influxes. However none could deal adequately with the increases of up to 500% in population which were identified as occurring in the scoping section.

Each of the units would deliver water of a quality suitable for sub-surface irrigation.

Sub-surface irrigation was not found to be prevalent in the pre-scoping and scoping

studies, therefore this would have to be installed in most cases. Some of the units also included a disinfection option (chlorine or ultraviolet light) which opens up the possibility that the treated wastewater could be used for non-potable purposes indoors.

Institutional approval for the installation of the units in the Northern Territory and the states home to other large remote populations (WA and SA) varied a lot between the units. Some units had been approved for the NT and SA, others were seeking approval in the near future.

Most of the units offered a clear advantage over septic tanks in that they did not need to be pumped out on a regular basis. Two manufacturers stated that their units may require pump-out or de-sludging after about 8 years, depending on the maintenance regime followed.

The costs of the units varied considerably, from around $6,000 (Ozzi Kleen without sand filtration and not installed) to $16,000 (AX20 installed and with some drip irrigation). Owners would need to obtain more precise costing on delivery and installation to make a valid comparison of the units on price. Resource consumption in terms of power consumed also varied between the units.

4.4.2.2 4.4.2.2 4.4.2.2

4.4.2.2 Results of Different Scoring Methods Results of Different Scoring Methods Results of Different Scoring Methods Results of Different Scoring Methods

The results of Scoring Method 1, as shown in Figure 27, reflected the top ranking performance of Technology A against a number of criteria – including operational requirements, compliance with government regulations and initial costs. Technology D was the worst performer, ranking lowest against environmental efficiency, waste produced, social benefits, meeting demand during busy times and so on.

There was a large spread of scores when using this method, due to the assignment of zeros for the worst performer against any criterion. There was a less even spread of scores than was seen for the water treatment technologies, reflecting the range of wastewater treatment technologies considered and the broader range of performance.

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

Total Score

A B C D E

Technology

Score 1 for Wastewater Treatment Technologies

Ongoing costs Initial costs

Environmental efficiency Minimal waste

Government regulations Safe to operate Easy to understand Social benefits

Demand during busy times Complete package Operational requirements Maintenance requirements Robust and reliable

Figure 27. Score 1 for Wastewater Treatment Technologies

As for water treatment technologies, Scoring Method 2 has the effect of reducing the spread of performance as shown in Figure 28. The order of the technologies has not changed at all but the difference in score between Technology A and Technology E has reduced.

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

Total Score

A B C D E

Technology