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DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

Senior Lecturer-in-Charge: Miss D. DYASON, M.Sc.

This discipline is concerned with the critical study of scientific concepts and theories. Sometimes the problems will be mainly historical, to consider the character and development of scientific ideas; sometimes the problems will be mainly logical, to discuss the presuppositions of science and the relation of experiment to theory.

Often problems will straddle the two fields. The emphasis varies in the different subjects taught, depending on what is considered most appropriate to the class of students concerned.

ORDINARY DEGREE

( Details for the honours degree are set out at the end of this section.) GROUPING

A History and Philosophy of Science subject may be counted as either a Group 4 or Group 3 subject, but if a student takes more than one H.P.S. subject in his course, they must all be considered as in the same group (i.e. a sub-major or major in H.P.S. could not satisfy the requirements for both Group 3 and Group 4 except for combinations with Logic or Theory of Statistics.

There are four subjects available to students taking a pass Arts course and three of these may be taken as a major. History and Philosophy of Science I, II and III are designed specifically for Arts students. In these subjects the emphasis is largely historical, although logical criticism of the theories dealt with will be an important component. History and Philosophy of Science ( Science course ) is designed primarily for B.Sc. students but is suitable as the third stage of a major for Arts students whose main interests are philosophical. Arts students intending to take H.P.S.

( Science course) are advised to consult the department.

Majors:

1. H.P.S. I, H.P.S. II, H.Р.S. III or H.P.S. (Science Course) or Logic.

2. H.P.S. I, Theory of Statistics I, Theory of Statistics II or Logic.

Sub-majors:

1. H.P.S.

І.

H.P.S. II.

2. H.P.S. I, Logic.

3. Group 4(c) subject, H.P.S. (Science Course), provided a second subject iп Group 4 (c) has been passed.

For Science Students or Graduates who have passed in H.P.S. (Science Course) the following courses are available:

1. Group 4(c) subject, H.P.S. (Science Course), H.P.S. II.

2. H.P.S. (Science Course), H.P.S. II, H.P.S. III.

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3. Н.P.S. Science Course), H.P.S. , Logic. II

4. H.P.S. (Science Course), Theory of Statistics I, Logic.

and the following sub-majors:

1. H.P.S. SScience Course), Logic.

2. H.P.S. (Science Course), H.P.S. II.

Note:

Students with appropriate pre-requisites who wish to take the maximum number of Pass Н.P.S. subjects may complete a double major by taking H.P.S. I, Н.P.S. II, H.P.S. III, H.P.S. (Science Course) and any two of the following: Logic, an additional 4 (c) subject, Theory of Statistics I, Theory of Statistics II.

91. HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE I

A course of three lectures and one tutorial per week.

The general aim of this subject is to introduce students in the Arts Faculty to the way scientists think and work. Part of the course will be devoted to a discussion of the nature of scientific knowledge and explanation as understood from Classical Greek to modern times.

The main part of the subject will be a detailed study of the development of selected scientific theories using, where possible, the writings of the scientists con- cerned. This study will involve a discussion of the problems that had to be faced, the emergence of the new concepts necessary to solve these problems and the general outlook and philosophy of the times dealt with.

The theories selected have been chosen because they are:

1. comprehensible to students who have not had previous scientific and mathe- matical thrining and

2. are central to the overall development of science.

No scientific or mathematical knowledge will be presupposed in this course.

Such elementary science or mathematics as is required to understand these theories will be taught by the department. The tuition will be concentrated into one of the three weekly lecture times. Students with adequate scientific and mathematical backgrounds will be exempted from this part of the course.

Written work will be required during the year.

SYLLABUS

The following or similar topics.

A. The history of Astronomy from Greek times to Kepler.

B. Changing views of scientific explanation and method.

C. Development of the concept of air pressure.

D. The history of Evolution and Genetics.

BOOKS

(a) Preliminary reading:

(A sheet giving detailed advice on preliminary reading is available to intending students from the Secretary of the Department.)

Beck, S. D: The

Simplicity of Science. (Pelican.) History of Science,

A

Symposium.

( M.U.P., 1958.) Asimov,

I.—Wellsprings of Life. ( Mentor,

1961.)

Butterfield,

H.—The Origins of Modern Science. (Bell,

1957.) Koestler, A.—The

Sleepwalkers, ( Hutchinson,

1959. )

(b ) Prescribed textbooks:

*Roneoed Source Material issued by the Department.

*Kuhn,

T.-The Copernican Revolution. (Longmans,

1954, Random House paperback, 1959.)

Darwin, C.—The

Origin of Species. (Mentor,

1958.)

Conant, J.

B.—Science and Common

Sense. ( Yale Paperback. ) (c) Recommended for continual reference:

Toulmin, S., and Goodfield,

J. Fabric of the Heavens.

(Pelican, 1963. ) Crombie, A.

C.—Augustine to Galileo.

(Mercury Books, 1961.) Nordenskjiold,

E.—The History of Biology.

(Tudor, 1949.)

A further bibliography will be issued to all students enrolled in this subject.

EXAMINATION. Two 3-hour papers.

FACULTY OF ARTS HANDBOOt

EXTERNAL STUDIES

Students who have already made satisfactory progress towards their B.A. degree may apply in writing to the department for permission to take this subject externally.

92. HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE II

A course of three lectures and two tutorials per week. One lecture and one tutorial per week will be devoted to the factual scientific content necessary for an under- standing of the historical material. Students who pass the initial or mid-year test will be exempted from further attendance at these classes.

The approach to this subject is similar to H.P.S. I, but involves a more ad- vanced study of the logic of the theories dealt with. These theories will be more sophisticated from a scientific point of view. The course will make extensive use of original sources and study the logical and conceptual problems that are raised.

Written work will be required during the year.

SYLLABUS

A selection from the following or similar topics.

1. Greek Dynamics.

2. Dynamics in the Middle Ages.

3. Rise of modem mechanics.

4. Theories of the structure of matter.

5. Gas chemistry, including its application to biological problems.

6. Theories of combustion.

7. Foundations of the atomic theory.

BOOKS

(a) Preliminary reading:

Conant, J. B.—The Birth of a New Physics. (Heinemann, 1961.) Jaffe, В.—Crucibles: The Story of Сheтiтtry. ( Premier, 1957.) (b) Prescribed textbooks:

*Roneoed Source Material issued by the Department.

*Hall, A. R.—From Galileo to Newton. ( Collins.)

*Stillman, J. M.—The Story of Alchemy and Early Chemistry. (Dover, 1960.) (c) Recommended for continual reference:

Leicester, H. M.—The Historical Background of Chemistry. (Wiley 1958.) Partington, J. R.—A Short Нistory of Chemistry. (2nd

ed.,

Масmillan.) A further bibliography will be issued at the beginning of the year.

EXAMINATION. Two 3-hour papers.

EXTERNAL STUDIES

Students who have already made satisfactory progress towards their В.А. degree may apply in writing to the department for permission to take this subject externally.

185. HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE III The aim of this course is to study the development of scientific ideas and technology which have had important social or economic consequences.

A course of weekly lecture seminars (2-3 hours) plus weekly tutorial.

Written work will be an integral part of the course.

SYLLАВUS

A selection from the following or similar topics:

1. The Aristotelian concept of science and its methods; its influence and over- throw.

2. Science during the Renaissance. The influence of the artist and artisan on scientific thought. Science and Humanism.

3. Science and Religion.

4. The rise of chemical industry.

5. Development of steam power.

6. Development of electrical power.

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7. 18th Century French biology and its interconnections with the intellectual movements in pre-revolutionary France.

8. Development of Public Health measures.

9. Newtonian world system.

10. Problem of statics in relation to architecture and civil engineering.

BOOKS

The emphasis will be on original scientific publications. Roneo Source Material and bibliographies will be issued by the department.

(a) Preliminary reading:

Gale, A. H.—Epidemic Diseases. (Penguin, 1959.)

Poynter, F. N. L., and Keele, K. D.—A Short History of Medicine. (Mills &

Boone, 1961.)

Winslow, C. E. A.—The Conquest of Epidemic Disease. (Princeton, 1943.) Winslow, C. E. A.—Man and Epidemics. (Princeton, 1952.)

Further bibliography for Preliminary reading may bø obtained from the Depart- ment.

EXAMINATION. Two 3-hour papers.

EXTERNAL STUDIES. Correspondence tuition is not available in this subject.

93. HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE ( SCIENCE COURSE )

A course of three lectures and one tutorial per week throughout the year, together with prescribed essay work. The essays will be regarded as

ar'

essential part of the course and the student must reach a satisfactory standard in these before he will be granted permission to take the final examination. The normal requirement will be two 3,000-word essays on approved topics.

SYLLABUS

The main emphasis of this course will be on the philosophy or logic of science, although the course will include a detailed historical case study, and historical examples will be used to illustrate logical points.

1. Introductory Lectures on Logic. The purpose of these lectures is to introduce the student to some of the tools of modern logical analysis.

2. The Nature of Mathematics. A discussion of empiricist, formalist, intuitionist, and other views about the foundations of arithmetic and geometry, and of the relation- ship between mathematics and physical theory.

3. General Problems in the Philosophy of Science. A selection of not more than four of the following topics:

(a) theories and explanations;

b) verification and meaning;

c) causality and probability;

d) laws and concepts;

e) . metaphysical principles ( e.g. the principles of simplicity, sufficient reason, symmetry, and essential connectivity).

4. Concept Analysis. A detailed logical analysis of one of the following groups of physical concepts:

(i) force and related concepts, (ii) heat and temperature;

(ш) space and time;

(iv) measurement.

5. Historical Case Study. A detailed historical case study of some part or parts of the history of science, involving careful analysis of relevant primary source material.

BOOKS

The student will be provided with fairly extensive reading lists of books and journal articles as the course proceeds, and roneoed source material will be provided by the department.

FACULTY OF ARTS HANDBOOK (a) Recommended for preliminary reading:

Butterfield,

1.—The Origins

of

Modern Sсieпсе.

(Bell, 1957.)

Hospers;

j.—An Introduction to Philosophical Analysis.

(R.K.P., 1959.) Chap- ters 1-5.

(b) Prescribed textbooks:

*Nagel,

E.—The Structure of S

ćience. (R.K.P., 1961.)

Dante, A., and Morgenbesser,

S.—Philosophy of Science.

(Meridian, 1960.) Pap, A.—An

Introduction to the Philosophy of Science.

(Еyrе & Spottiswoode,

1963.)

EXAMINATION. Two 3-hour papers.

EXTERNAL STUDIES. Correspondence tuition is not available in this subject.

HONOURS DEGREE O. SCHOOL OF HISTORY AND

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE ( For possible combination with this school see p. 223. )

1. The course for the degree with honours in the school of History and Philosophy of Science comprises the following subjects:

(a) History and Philosophy of Science I.

History and Philosophy of Science II.

History and Philosophy of Science ( Science course).

History and Philosophy of Science C.

History and Philosophy of Science D.

(b) Logic and Logic (hons. ) or

History subject and History and Philosophy of Science III ( hus).

(c) A part I Science subject* and either

A part II Science subject

or Two other subjects at least one of which is a Science subject.

(d) Two additional subjects for either B.A. or B.Sc. degree of which at least one is above first year level.

Candidates must be placed in the class list or reach honours standard in all subjects of group (a) and Logic (hois). or H.P.S. III in group (b).

Note:

To suit individual needs the faculty, on the recommendation of the head of the department, may permit a student to make certain substitutions of, subjects especially in group (b).

2. The range of subjects specified permits a considerable variety of courses.

A candidate must have the approval of the head of the department for the choice and order of subjects to be taken before entering the second or third year of the honours school.

3. ( a) Students who have completed one year of the B.A. degree or two ot.

the B.Sc. must be approved by the faculty of Arts (on application through the sub-dean) as candidates for the degree with honours before entering the Second or Third Year respectively of the honours school. The department of Hjstory and Philosophy of Science will normally recommend such approval for candidates who have gained first or second

class

honours in History and Philosophy of Science I or Science Course, provided that the content and quality of the remaining subject may be considered in deciding on a recommendation. Candidates who have failed to gain first or second class honours in these subjects but who wish to proceed to the honours school should see the head of department who will be guided in making the recommendation by the merits of the case.

A student who has not obtained honours in the requisite subjects but who, at the end of the Third Year wishes to enter the honours school, must make special application to the faculty through the sub-dean for permission to do so

.

*Science subject means subject prescribed for B.Sc. degree.

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If such permission is granted the faculty will prescribe what further work must be completed before the student is allowed to proceed to the final examinations.

(b) Students may also be advised to attend other lecture ' courses which are regarded

as

relevant to their work.

4. The final honours examination

will

consist of the papers for H.P.S.C. and H.P.S.D., together with either three essays of 3,000 words or one essay of 9,000 words on approved subjects. In the final assessment results in other subjects may be taken into account.

91. HISTORY AND PHILOSPHY OF SCIENCE I (Ions)

A. course of lectures as for the ordinary degree.

SYLLABUS

As for the ordinary degree.

BOOKS

As prescribed for the ordinary degree.

EXAMINATION

Two 3-hour papers as for the ordinary degree. Candidates for honours will be expected to show a wider and more detailed knowledge than

pass

candidates in both the examination and the essay work.

92. HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE II (Ions)

A course of lectures as for the ordinary degree.

SYLLABUs

As for the ordinary degree.

BOOKS

As for the ordinary degree.

EXAMINATION

Two 3-hour papers as for the ordinary degree. Candidates for honours

will

be expected to show a wider and more detailed knowledge than pass candidates in both the examination and the essay work.

93. HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE ( SCIENCE COURSE ) (Ions)

A course of lectures as for the ordinary degree.

SYLLABUS

As for the ordinary degree.

BOOKS

As prescribed for the ordinary degree.

EXAMINATION

Two

3-hour papers

as

for the ordinary degree. Candidates for honours will be expected to show a wider and more detailed knowledge than pass candidates in both the examination and the essay work.

185. HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE III (Ions.)

A course of lectures as for the ordinary degree.

SYLLABUS

As for the ordinary degree.

BOOKS

As prescribed for the ordinary degree.

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FACULTY OF ARTS ØBOOK EXAMINATION

Two 3-hour papers as for the ordinary degree. Candidates for honours will be expected to show a wider and more detailed knowledge than pass candidates in both the examination and the essay work.

168. HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE C A course of one lecture-seminar per week throughout the year. The purpose of this course is to develop the philosophical and logical topics previously introduced.

This course will normally be taken in the year after H.P.S. (Science Course).

Written work will be required.

EXAMINATION

One 3-hour paper to be taken in the final honours year.

169. HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE D

At least two lecture-seminars per week throughout the year, together with written work.

SYLLABUS

An intensive study of topics in the history and philosophy of science to be decided on in the light of the scientific, historical and philosophical backgrounds of the students concerned.

EXAMINATION. Three 3-hour papers.

MASTER OF ARTS

O. SCHOOL OF HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE Candidates are required to prepare a thesis on an approved subject. They will work under the supervision of a member of the History and Philosophy of Science department, to whom they should regularly report on the progress of their work. They may also be required to attend any lectures or discussion classes bearing on their work.

Before the subject of the thesis is approved, candidates may be required to sit for an examination at honours standard in the field of the proposed thesis.

An entry form for examination for higher degrees must be submitted to the Registrar.

Three copies of each thesis (quarto, typewritten, double-spaced) should be submitted, one of which will be deposited in the University Library. The attention of candidates is drawn to the recommendations of the Professorial Board on the format of theses (regulation 4.6 in the University Calendar).

Candidates may also be examined orally on the subject of their thesis.