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The course is intended to introduce students to the works of rationalist metaphysicians, with special reference to Leibniz, Spinoza and F.



Particular attention will be paid to such topics as the following: the possibility of a


rationalist metaphysics, metaphysical system building, monism and pluralism, the concept of substance, etc. There will be two lectures and one tutorial class per week throughout the year.

Two essays are required of students in the course of the year.


(a) Preliminary reading:



on Method.

(b) Prescribed texts:

For: Descartes, Leibniz and Spinoza.

The Rationalists: ( Dolphin, Doubleday & Co., N.Y.) Bradley—Appearance and Reality. ( O.U.P. ) Alternative texts:

Descartes, Discourse on Method. ( Everyman 570, Dent.) Spinoza-Ethics. (tr. by Elwes, Bohn or Dover. )

Leibniz—Selections. (ed., P. Wiener, Scribner. ) (c) Recommended for reference:



J.-Revolution in Philosophy. Ch. 1.

Wisdom, J. Philosophy and Psychoanalysis. (Blackwell.)

Moore, G. E.—"Defence of Common Sense" in Contemporary British Philosophy, series 2. (Allen & Unwin.)

Wittgenstein, L.—The Blue and the Brown Books. ( Blackwell.)

Russell, B.—A Critical Exposition of the Philosophy of Leibniz. Allen & Unwin.) Joseph, H. W. B.—Lectures on the Philosophy of Leibniz. (O.U.P.)

Joachim, H. Н.-А study of Spinoza's Ethics.

Wollheim, R. F. H. Bradley. (Pelican.) Saw, R. L.—Leibniz. ( Pelican. )

Hampshire, S.—Spinoza. (Pelican.)

Students may obtain lecture notes in this subject.

EXAMINATION. One 3-hour paper.


A course of two lectures and one discussion class per week throughout the year.


The rudiments of traditional and of modern formal logic. Logical necessity.

Meańing. How we learn and how we use language; the bearing of this on logical problems. Definition and classification. Facts, laws and theories. Framing and testing hypotheses. Types of explanation. Causation. Certainty and probability.


Two essays are required of students in' the course of the year.


(a) Recommended for preliminary reading:

Stebbing, L. s.— A Modern Elementary Logic. ( Methuen.)

Hospers, J.—Introduction to Philosophical Analysis. Chs. I-IV. ( Routledge.) (b ) Prescribed textbook:

Copi, I. M. Introduction to Logic. ( Macmillan, N. Y.) (c) For reference:

Cohen, M., and Nagel, E.—Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method. (Rout- ledge.)

Toulmin, S. E.—The Uses of Argument. (C.U.P.)

Strawson, P. F.-Introduction to Logical Theory. (Methuen.) Toulmin, S. E.—The Philosophy of Science. (Hutchinson. )

Dray—Laws and Explanation in History. (O.U.P., Oxford Historical Mono- graphs.)

Students may obtain lecture notes in this subject.

EXTERNAL STUDIES. Correspondence tuition is available in this subject.

EXAMINATION. One 3-hour paper.




A course of two lectures per week and one tutorial class throughout the year.


The course will


of a


of the nature and presuppositions of morality, of the logical status and character of moral principles and moral judge- ments, and of the relation between moral phenomena such as rightness, good, moral good and duty. These problems will be approached and introduced by first exam- ining important popularly held theories in their popular and more philosophical forms


those grounding morality in religion, conscience theories, cultural relativism and subjectivism. The discussion of these accounts of morality will be followed by an historical study of five great ethical writings—of


Kant, Mill, Bradley and Ross, at the end of which an attempt will be made to draw some positive conclusions, on the basis


their status, character and content of moral principles.

Two essays are required of students in the course of

the year.


(a) Background reading:

Ewing, A.

C. Ethics. (English

U.P. )


R. Patterns of Culture. ( New

American Library.)

Russell, B. Human Society


Ethics and Politics.

(Allen & Unwire.) . (b) Prescribed texts:

Hume, D.—Enquiry

concerning the Principles of

MoraLs. (Clarendon or Hafner or any edition.)


L—Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Ethics. (Longman

or any ed. )

Mill, J. S.—Utilitarianism.

( Everyman

or any ed.) . Bradley, F.

H.—Ethical Studies. ( Clarendon. )

Ross, W.

D. The Right and the Good. (Clarendon.)

Stevenson, C.




(Yale U.P.)

Smart, J. J. C.-Outline

of a system of Utilitarian Ethics. (M.U.P.)

(c) Recommended for reference:


H.—The Methods of Ethics. ( Macmillan. )


1.—The Theory of Good and Evil. (О.U.P.)

Moore, G.

E.—Ethics. ( H.U.L. )

Moore, G. E.—Рrincipia


Ch. 1. ( C.U.P. )

Ayer, A. J.—Language, Truth and Logic. Ch. 6. Gollanez. ) Ross, W. D.—The

Foundations of Ethics. (

О.U.P. )


S.—The Place of Reason in Ethics. ( C.U.P. )

Hare, R.

1.—The Language of Morals. ( Clarendon. )

Hare, R.

M. Freedom and Reason. (O.U.P.) Nowell-Smith, P. Ethics.


Ewing, A.

C.—The Definition of Good.


Ewing, A. C.—Second

Thoughts on Moral Philosophy.

(Routledge & Kegan Paul.)

Ginsberg, M.—The

Diversity of Morals. ( Macmillan. )

Stevas, N. St.J.—Life, Death


the Law. (Eyre & Spottiswoode.)

Maclagen, W. G.—

The Theological Frontier of Ethics.

(Alen and Unwire.) Brandt,


Theory. (Prentice-Hall.)

Campbell, C. A.—In Defence of Free Will. (Jackson.) Hospers, J.—Hunan


(Rupert Hart-Davis.)

EXAMINATION. One 3-hour paper. .


A course of two lectures per week, and one tutorial class, throughout the year.


A study of the main currents of thought concerning political society from mediaeval times to the present day, having as its object a clearer understanding of political philosophies and ideologies in our own times.



are required of students in the course of the year.



(a) Recommended for preliminary reading:

Bowle, J.—Western Political Thought. ( University Paperbacks.) Lipmann, W.—The Public Philosophy. ( Mentor Books.) Radcliffe, Lord-The Problem of Power. ( Comet Books. ) (b) Prescribed readings from the following texts:

Aquinas, St. Thomas—The Political Ideas of St. Thomas Aquinas. Selections edited by D. Bigongiari. (Hafner, 1957. )

Hobbes, T.—Leviathan. ( Everyman.)

Social Contract—Essays by Locke, Hume and Rousseau. Ed. Ernest Barker.

( The World's Classics. )

Mill, J. S.--On Liberty. ( Everyman or Blackwell.)

Marx and Engels—Basic Writings on Politics and Philosophy. Ed. Lewis S.

Feuer. ( Doubleday Anchor.)

Leo XIII, Pope—On the Christian Constitution of States. (Immortale Dei.) (Anу ed. )

Barth, K.—Againd the Stream. ( N.Y., 1954. ) ( c) Recommended for reference:

Field, G. C.—Political Theory. ( Methuen, 1956. ) Mabbott, J. D.—The State and the Citizen. ( Hutchinson. )

Sabine, G. Н. History of Political Theory. ( Наггар, 3rd ed., 1963.) Utley, T. E.—Documents of Modern Political Thought. (C.U.P., 1957.) EXTERNAL STUDIES. Correspondence tuition is available in this subject.

EXAMINATION. One 3-hour paper.


A course of two lectures, with one tutorial class per week, throughout the year.

No correspondence tuition is at present available, but it is hoped to make it available in the near future.


The object of the course is to study directly certain standing problems of Phil- osophy as they arise in the ordinary way of experience. Problems rather than ideologies are its primary concern but issues pertinent to contemporary ideologies will constantly arise.

The course does not set out to review systematically all the main problems of philosophy; it proposes rather to select a few which are representative and important, and to deal with them thoroughly.

In 1964, the problems under consideration will be grouped as follows:

1. Those concerned with the nature of perception and knowledge, especially in so far as views on this subject have affected views about the nature of things.

2. Those concerned with determinism, freedom of will, responsibility and causation.

3. Those concerned with the relations of mind and body. (A survey of views on this subject will be made.)

Two essays are required of students in the course of the year.


The reading required will be mainly articles and sections from books. Detailed reading guides will be issued during the course:

(a) Preliminary reading:

Russell, B.—The Problems of Philosophy. (H.U.L.) Descartes, R.-Meditations.

Berkeley, G.—Three Dialogues. First Dialogue.

(b) For general consultation:

Stout, G. F.—Mind and Matter. (C.U.P.)

Russell, B.—Our Knowledge of the External World. (Allen & Unwin.) Ryle, G. The Concept of Mind. (Hutchinson..)


Price, H. H.—Perception. ( Methuen.)

Ayer, A. J.—Language, Truth and Logic. (2nd ed., Gollanez.)

Garrigou-Lagrange—God: His Existence and His Nature. (tr. Doni Bede Rose.

Herder Book Co.) ( Selected chapters.) (c) Articles and chapters in books:

Ayer, A. J. The Problem of Knowledge. pp. 1-133.

Berkeley, G.—Three Dialogues. First Dialоgие. (In Everyman edition of New Theory of Vision, etc.)

Hume, D.—A Treatise of Human Nature, Book 1, Part IV, Chapters 1 and 4.

(The Everyman edition or any other edition.) Warnock, C.—Berkeley. First 2 chapters.

Strãwson, P. F. Individuals. First 2 chapters.



( Oxford Edition, Vol. III.)

Hume, D. —Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. Chapters 3 and 8.

Hobbes, T.—Llberty and Necessity. (In Vol. IV of Works ed. Molesworth.) Ayer, A. J.—Philosophical Essays, Chapter 12.

Broad, C. D.—Ethics and the History of Philosophy—"Determinism, Indeter- minism and Libertarianism".

Campbell, C. A.—"Is Free Will a Pseudo Problem?" Mind, 1951.

Hobart, R. E.—"Free Will as involving Determinism and unconceivable with- out it" Mind, 1934.

Nowell-Smith, P. H. Ethics. Chapters 19 and 20.

Ross, W. D.—Foundations of Ethics. Chapter 10.

Wisdom, J —Problems of Mind and Matter. Chapter 8.

Austin, J. L.—"Ifs and Cans" Hertz Lecture for 1956 (in Philosophy Pamphlets section in the Baillieu Library).

Ewing, A. C.—Fundamental Problems of Philosophy. Pages on Determinism.

Hardie, W. F. R.—"Of My Own Free Will" Philosophy, 1957.

Gibson, A. Boyce—"Freedom" Australasian Journal of Psychology and Philosophy, 1936.

Anscombe, G. E. M.—Intention. ( Blackwells. )

Hampshire, S.—Thought and Action. (Chatte and Windus.)

Hart, H. L. A.-Essays on Logic and Language, Vol. I. (ed. A. G. N. Flew.) EXAMINATION. One 3-hour paper.


A course of two lectures per week and one tutorial class, throughout the year.


A critical study of selected texts from Plato and Aristotle.

Two essays are required of students in the course of the year.


(a) Introductory reading:

Burnet, J. Early Greek Philosophy. (Black.)

Guthrie, W. K. C.—The Greek Philosophers. ( H.U.L. ) (b) Prescribed textbooks:

Plato—Great Dialogues. (Mentor.)

Comford, F. M. Plato's Theory of Knowledge. (Kegan Paul.) Aristotle—Basic Works. ( Random House. )

(c) Recommended for reference:

Kirk, G. S., and Raven, J. E.—The Pre-Socratic Philosophers. (C.U.P.) Burnet, J.—Greek Philosophy. Part I, Thales to Plato. (Macmillan.) Hardie, W. F. R.—A Study in Plato. (О.U.Р.)

Lodge, R. C.—The Philosophy of Plato. (Routledge.) Ross, W. D.-Plato's Theory of Ideas. (O.U.P. ) Collingwood, R. G.—The Idea of Nature. (O.U.P.) Taylor, A. E. Plato: The Man and his Work. (Methuen.) Allan, D. J. The Philosophy of Aristotle. (H.U.L.) Ross, W. D.—Aristotle. (Methuen.)

Jaeger, W.—Aristotle. (O.U.P. ) EXAMINATION. One 3-hour paper.


A course of two lectures, and one tutorial class, throughout the year.


The course will consist of a study of certain philosophical topics as they present themselves in the works of representative mediaeval ` thinkers, e.g. the problem of universals, the body-soul problem, the philosophical proofs of the existence of God, logical theory, theory of knowledge. Emphasis will be placed upon critical examination of selected original texts. All texts will be studied in translation and knowledge of Latin is not essential.

Two essays are required of students in the course of the year.


(a) Recommended for preliminary reading:

Knowles, D.—The Evolution of Medieval Thought. (Routledge & Kegan Paul.) Leff, G.—Medieval Thought. ( Pelican. )

Fremantle, A.-The Age of Belief: The Medieval Philosophers. (Mentor.) Vignaux, P.—Philosophy in the Middle Ages. (Burns, Oates, 1958.) (b) Prescribed textbooks:

Anselm, St. Proslegion. (Roneoed translation. )

Abelard, P.—Logica'Ingгedientibus'. (In Selections from Medieval Philosophers, ed. R. McKeon, Scribners, 1957.)

Aquinas, St. Thomas—Introduction to Aquinas, ed. A. Pegis. ( Modern Library.) Scotus, John Duns—Philosophical Writings. ed A. Wolter. ( Nelson, 1961.) Ockham, William—Philosophical Writings. ed. P. Boehňer. (Nelson, 1957.)

(c) Recommended for reference:

Gilson, E.—History of Christian Philosophy in the Middle Ages. (Sheed & Ward, 1953.)

Copleston, F.-A History of Philosophy. Vol. II, Augustine to Scotus; Vol. III, Ockham to Suarez. ( Bums, Oates, 1950-3. )

EXAMINATION. One 3-hour paper.


C. SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY ( For possible combinations with this school see p. 220. )

1. The course for the degree with honours in the school of Philosophy comprises the following subjects:

Philosophy part I Logic


Modern Philosophy A Greek Philosophy

Kant's Critique of Pure Reason .

Political Philosophy Contemporary Philosophy Aesthetics

Philosophical Psychology

in accordance with the details set out below, and for the ordinary degree. Candidates for the degree with honours must also take in addition either four pass subjects or two pass subjects and one honours subject.

2. In their First Year, candidates must take the honour course in Philosophy part I, together with three other subjects at pass standard, or one other subject at pass and one at honours standard; including, in either case, a language other than English.

This year is regarded as a preliminary year of general study and students who have completed it must be approved by the faculty of Arts as candidates for the degree with honours before entering the Second Year of the honour school. The professor of Philosophy will normally recommend such approval for candidates who



have gained first or second class honours in Philosophy part I. Candidates who have failed to gain first or second class honours in this subject but who wish to continue in the honour school are advised to interview the professor of Philosophy, as be will be guided in his recommendation by the merits of the case.

Students who, without attempting honours, have passed In their First Year in Philosophy part I, and who at the beginning of their Second Year wish to enter the honour school, must make special application to the faculty through the sub-dean for permission to do so. The professor of Philosophy will recommend such permission if the standard reached in Philosophy part I was sufficientlyy high. Such students will be required to sit for and obtain honours in the special honours paper in Philosophy part I at the end of their Second Year.

In the Second Year of the course, students shall take the courses in Modern Philosophy A, Political Philosophy (pass), and a special course in Logic, consisting of Logic (pass) and additional lectures in Symbolic Logic; together with one other subject, which shall be either History and Philosophy of Science I, or the second part of one of the additional subjects passed in the First Year. There will be an examination in the Philosophy subjects, at honours standard, at the end of this year.

In the Third Year of the course, students shall take the courses in Greek Philosophy, Contemporary Philosophy part I, Aesthetics, the pass course in Ethics, and the honours course in Logic. The first four of these subjects will be examined at the end of the year, at an independent examination which will not be regarded as the first part of the final examination.

In the Fourth Year, students shall take the honours courses in Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, Contemporary Philosophy II, Ethics, Political Philosophy and Philo- sophical Psychology. There will also be seminar groups in which there will be supplementary work in Logic, and a general study of selected philosophical problems.

The examination at the end of this year shall be the final honours examination.

Note; In addition to essays set for pass students in those pass courses which are prescribed for them, honours students are required to submit, during their Third and Fourth Years, three essays of about 3,000 words each, in their special capacity as honours students. Combined honours students are required to submit two such essays.

They must be handed in on the dates specified by the head of the department, and may be considered in the determination of class at the Third Year examination and the final examination respectively.

The final examination in the school of Philosophy shall consist of papers in the following subjects:

1. Logic.

2. Ethics.

3. Political Philosophy.

4. Kant's Critique of Pure Reason.

5. Contemporary Philosophy part II.

8. Philosophical Psychology.

7. Essay paper.

The papers on Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, Contemporary Philosophy II, and Philosophical Psychology will cover in detail the work done in those courses during the Final Year. The papers in Logic, Ethics, Political Philosophy will be more general, and will be set to test the students' familiarity with each of those subjects as a whole.

The essay paper will consist of a single question chosen from a number of alternatives covering the main fields of philosophical study.

Candidates may also be required to attend an oral examination.

A combined course for the degree with honours in the school of Philosophy and the diploma of Social Studies has been approved. Details are included in the Social Studies Handbook.


A course of one lecture per week, throughout the year, in addition to the lec- tures and tutorial for the ordinary degree.


As for the ordinary degree, together with a study of the main doctrines of Berkeley.



As for the ordinary degree, together with the following:

(a) Prescribed text:


Principles of


Knowledge; Three Dialogues between Hylan and Philonus.

(Both these are printed in the Everyman volume,

New Theory of Vision-and Other Writings.)

(b) Specially recommended for reference:




(c) Recommended for reference as directed in lectures:

Dawes Hicks,


(Benn. )

Johnston, G. A.—The

Development of Berkeley's Philosophy. (Macmillan.)

Moore, G.

E.—Philosophical Studies. (Kegan


Price, H.

H. Perception. ( Methuen.)

Hume, David—Enquiry

Concerning Human Understanding. ( O.U.P. )

Broad, C. D.-"Berkeleyy's Argument Against Material Substance",

in Proceedings of the British Academy,


EXAMINATION. One 3-hour paper in addition to the paper for the ordinary degree.

117. SYMBOLIC LOGIC ( For Second Year honours students) A course of fifteen lectures during first and second terms.


The rudiments of modern symbolic Iogic.


(a) Prescribed textbook:

Basson, A. H., and O'Connor, D. J.Introduction

to Symbolic Logic. (3rd

ed., Univ. Tut. Press, 1959.)

Other references will be given in lectures.

EXAMINATION. One 1%-hour paper.



One lecture-tutorial class per week for honours students in their Third Year.


As for the ordinary degree, together with a study of certain more advanced logical topics.


(a) Recommended for reading or detailed reference:

Strawson, P. F.—An

Introduction to Logical Theory. (Methuen.)

Other references will be given in lectures.

81. ETHICS (Hops ) A lecture-tutorial course extending throughout the year.


The additional work for the honours degree will fall into two parts.

(i) The ethics of, Aristotle.

(ii) The contemporary situation.


(a) Prescribed text:

Findlay, J.

N.—Values and Intentions.

(Allen & Unwin.) (b) Essential supporting reading:


Nicomachean Ethics.

Books I, II, III, VI, VII and X. (Trans.

Ross. World's Classics.)


FACULTY OF Alas ØB008 (c) Recommended for reference:

Brentano, F.—On the Origin of Ethical Knowledge.

Hartmann, N. Ethics. Vol. II. ( Trans. Coir, Allen & Unwin.) Ross, W.


Foundations of Ethics. (О.U.P.)

Bradley, F. H.—Ethical Studies. ( O.U.P. )

Muirhead J.


and End in Morals. ( O.U.P. )

Branshard, Brand—Reason and Goodness. ( Alen & Unwin.) Hare, R.


and Reason. (O.U.P.)

Matlagen, W. S.—The Theological Frontiers of Ethics. (Allen & Unwin.)


(Нons )

Details as prescribed for the ordinary degree.

118. KANT'S


One lecture-tutorial class ( one and a half hours) per week throughout the year.


A study of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason and its place in the history of phil- osophical thinking.


(a) For preliminary reading:

Körner, S.

Kant. (Penguin.


I. Prolegomena.

(tr.. Lucas.) ( Manchester U.P. ) (b) Prescribed text:



of Pure Reason. ( trs. Kemp-Smith.) (Macmillan.) (c) Recommended for reference:



Metaphysics and Theory of Science. (trans. by Lucas.) ( Manchester U.P. )

Paton, H.


Metaphysic of Experience. ( Allen & Unwin. ) Weldon, T. D.—Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. (Oxford.)


(Ions) One lecture-tutorial class per week throughout the year.


Issues to be considered in this course include; the nature and object of political philosophy; the nature of the state (with special references to Hobbes, Hegel and Marx); the function of the state (with special reference to Thomist, Marxist and liberal theories) ; ideals in politics—common good, rights, liberty, equality, justice ( with special attention to social justice, in relation to distribution of wealth) and punishment.


There will be no set texts, but essential reading will be indicated by the leo- turer. The following books will be relevant:

Aristotle—Politics. ( Oxford or any


Aquinas—De Regimine Ртiпciрит. Book I. ( Any ed. ) Mill, J.


( Everyman.)

Representative Government. (Everyman.) And Principles of Political Economy. (Longmans.) Ritchie, D.

G. Natural

Rights. (Allen & Unwin.) Hobhouse, L.


(H.U.P. )

Laski, J. H.—A Grammar of Politics. (Allen & Unwin.)

Plamenatz, J.


Freedom and Political Obligation. (O.U.P.) Maritain, J. Man and the State. (Hollis & Carter or Chicago U.P• ) Lindsay, A.


Modern Democratic State. (O.U.P.)

Tawney, R.


(Allen & Unwin.)

Benn, S., and Peters, R. S.—Social Principles and the Democratic State. (Allen

& Unwin.)

Berlin, I.—Two Concepts of Liberty. (Clarendon.) Hart, H. L. A.—The Concept of