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Peer Groups


10. Peer Groups


Conduct Lectures, tutorials and group discussions.

Assessment Students are required to write an essay on some aspect of adolescence,

or compile a case-study

or present a tutorial discussion on one of the lecture topics or complete an alternative assessment item relevant to the course devised after discussion with lecturer.

References Coleman, J.C. Relationships in Adolescence. Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1974.

Collins, J.K. and Harper, J.F. The Adolescent Boy. Sydney, Cassell, 1978.



Collins, J.K. and Harper, J.F. The Adolescent Girl. Sydney, Cassell, 1978.

Collins, J.K. ed. Studies of the Australian Adolescent Stanmore, N.S.W., Cassell Australia 1975.

Connell, W.F. et al. 12 to 20. Sydney, Hicks Smith, 1975.

Smart, M.S. comp. Adolescents. N.T., MacMillan, 1973.


Aims To help teachers to make more effective and helpful personal contact with their pupils. (Although introductory theoretical and practical aspects of counselling are drawn on, the unit is seen as applicable to normal classroom communication with both secondary and adult learners.

Emphasis will, however, be given to communication in cases of personal difficulty).

Content Nature of counselling communication; the counselling relationship — unique features; research evidence on the effectiveness of counselling (especially Robert Carkhuff's work); practical counselling skills; co-counselling.

Conduct • Lecture and lecture-discussion;

• structured and graduated experiential work involving face-to-face communication skills; sub-group and total-group exercises involving introductory inter- viewing and personal communication;

• analysis of audio video taped classroom exercises, films and video tapes, and counselling situations;

• visiting speakers.

Assessment The major emphasis in assessment is on continuous evaluation by the students of the concepts and experiences presented during the option — in relation to their personal as well as their professional growth as teachers. Specifically, the factors involved in the total assessment of a student are:

1. Attendance at sessions and adequate participation;

2. Satisfactory completion of assigned practical tasks outside of class time;

3. The submission of a week by week journal attempting to analyse and synthesise the research and theoretical information presented by the lecturer, and the practical work done during the term.

References Brammer, L.M. The Helping Relationship. Prentice-Hal1,1973.

Carkhuff, R. The Act of Helping. Human Resources Development Press, 1972.

Egan, G. The Skilled Helper. Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.1975.



Gurman, A.S. and Razin, A.M. "Effective Psychotherapy - A Handbook of Research': Pergammon Press, Inc. 1977.

Lett, W. (ed.) Counselling for What? Angus & Robertson,1973.

May, Rollo. The Art of Counselling. Abingdon Press, 1967.

Milner, P. Counselling in Education. Dent, 1974.




To help students to understand and interpret personality and interpersonal behaviour. The emphasis of the course will be upon the contribution of the selected theory to self-awareness and a practical understanding of behaviour.

The theoretical framework of transactional analysis will be used to study:

1. The development of personality and self-concept.

2. The structure of personality.

3. Communication patterns in interpersonal relating.

4. The determinants of response dispositions in inter- personal situations.

Lecture and lecture-discussion; analysis of problems presented by group members; study and analysis of individual particip- ation and group interaction.

Assessment Students are required to keep a weekly journal.

References Berne, E. Games People Play. Penguin, 1967.

Berne, E. 'What do you say after you say hello?" Corgi, 1975.

Ernst, K. Games Students Play. Celestial Arts. Pub. 1972.

Harris, T.A. I'm O.K. — You're O.K. Pan, 1973.

James, M. & Jongeward, D. Born to Win. Addison-Wesely, 1973.


The unit is designed to help teachers discover the personal psychological variables which are involved in everyday school situations which create anxiety for them and others with whom they are interacting; to provide an environment where teachers may present problems related to teaching and search for possible answers; and from the experiences evoked in pursuit of those aims to help teachers to become aware of the facilitating and constructive role which groups can play in solving problems; of the possible practical applications of psychological theory to the classroom situations; and of the possible disorientating effects of change associated with the learning process.







1. The relationship between the emotional and intell- ectual components (feelings and thoughts) of man and the role of communication in this relationship.

2. Major elements in the learning process.

3. Classroom behaviour as embodied in the discipline, punishment, classroom control, problem and non- problem students and student relationships.

4. Self-concept theory.

5. Staff room interaction; parents in and out of school.

• Lecture and lecture discussion;

• structured experiences designed to promote self- awareness, trust of others, communication, group cohesion and simulation of classroom situations;

• analysis of problems presented by group members via discussion and role playing;

• study and analysis of the group interactions which have evolved from the problem solving processes.

1. Students are required to keep a weekly journal. It is expected that it will refer to their own observations of personal interactions in both their College and school classes and any other relevant observations which can be made.

2. Attendance and participation are particularly relevant because of the class format and the relationship of these variables to the group.

3. Each student is required to make a presentation to the group which evaluates his personal performance in the unit.

References Clarizio, H.F. Towards Positive Classroom Discipline. Wiley, 1971.

Gaudrey, E. and Spielberger, C.D. Anxiety and Educational Achievement. Wiley, 1971.

Purkey, W.W. Self Concept and School Achievement.

Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1970.

Roberts, T.B. (ed.) Four Psychologies Applied to Education.

Wiley, 1975.




Aims To provide students with the opportunity to learn more about personality, interpersonal behaviour and group processes through firsthand experience in group interaction.

Content Group processes, interpersonal behaviour, non-verbal behaviour, personality theory.

Conduct Active participation, reading assignments.

Assessment Participation and pre-course and post-course self-report.

References Argyle, M. The Psychology of Interpersonal Behaviour.

Pelican, 1967.

Dyer, W.W. Your Erroneous Zones. Avon, 1977.

Fast, J. Body Language. Pan, 1971.

Rogers, C. Encounter Groups. Pelican, 1970.

Ruitenberg, H. The New Therapies Discuss, 1970.

Schutz, W. Elements of Encounters. Harrow, 1971.




This subject occupies the three terms and comprises one two hour class each week.

Aims Study in this subject area is aimed at:

1. assisting the induction of the beginning teacher in the secondary-technical school and TAFE college;


2. developing an awareness and understanding of the social context within which the school/TAFE college is located;

3. developing an awareness and understanding of some current problems and issues facing contemporary educators.


4. developing an appreciation of some strategies that have been implemented in schools/TAFE colleges to resolve these problems and meet societal demands.

A number of fundamental questions that teachers continually face in their concern for the educational and personal develop- ment of their students provide the major focus of the course;

consideration of these questions is intended, through obser- vation in schools and TAFE colleges, classwork and directed reading, to deepen understanding of the needs of students, current demands on teachers in the areas of curriculum design, implementation and reform, and recent trends in school organization.

These questions include:

1. Why do we educate? The aims and purposes of education and the effects of the "knowledge explosion" and social change.

2. Who shall educate? Sources of educational experiences, formal and informal.

3. What shall be taught? Basic curriculum issues, including the "total" curriculum, the "hidden" curriculum and values in classroom and school.

4. How shall we educate? Issues such as indoctrination, neutrality and objectivity. authority and freedom;

democracy and participation; school and classroom organization; teacher styles.



5. Where and when shall we educate? The technical-secondary