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4. Science

In addition to the Science method program outlined above,

Science in the curriculum: comparative studies.

Individualizing instruction in Science.

Laboratory organization and management.

Science curriculum design.

Specialist studies (the teaching of Chemistry, Physics, Biological Sciences, Environmental Sciences)

determination of objectives, design of teaching programs, evaluation of effectiveness.

Teaching strategies. Subjects and syllabuses in technical schools and colleges.

References Mathematics

Butler, C.H., Wren, F.L. The Teaching of Secondary Mathematics. 5th edn., McGraw-Hill, 1974.

Chapman, L.R. (ed.) The Process of Learning Mathematics.

Permagon Press, 1973.

Johnson, D.A. and Rising, G.R. Guidelines for Teaching Mathematics. 2nd ed., Wadsworth, 1972.

Sobel, M.A., Maletsky, E. Teaching Mathematics. Prentice Hall, 1975.


Andersen, H.G. and Koutnik, P.G. Towards More Effective Science Instruction in Secondary Education. Macmillan,


Colette, A.T. Science Teaching in the Secondary School.

Allyn & Bacon, 1973.

Tisher, R.P., Power, C.N. and Endean, L. Fundamental Issues in Science Education. Wiley, 1973.


Content General:

The role of physical education in the secondary technical curriculum.



Class organization and management: problem solving, day-to-day tasks.

Overview of curriculum areas and syllabuses.

Facility planning and use.

Safety procedures in physical education.

The law and the physical education teacher.

Integration of physical education within the total curriculum.

Community Programs in physical education and recreation.

Specialist Studies:

Skill development

General ball-skill acquisition related to major games — basketball, hockey, softball, cricket and soccer.

Progression and feedback in the teaching of ball-skill.

Minor lead up games; basic teaching techniques for skill development.

Safety and preparation for outdoor education.

Areas of outdoor education in technical schools — bushwalking, canoeing, light weight camping, skiing, skin diving, safety factors. Preparation of a school outdoor education program.

Lead up programs in outdoor education.

Equipment required for outdoors. Exposure — its cause and treatment.

The teaching of movement and dance

Types of dance e.g. creative dance, jazz, ballet, folk dance, national dance, social dance. Expression through movement and dance, Aerobic dance.

Human sexuality

Non-verbal communication. Social mores. Contra- ception and birth control. Sexuality in the schools.

Fitness performance and testing

What is fitness? Aerobic and anaerobic fitness.

Fitness tests. Fitness programs for individuals and groups, Elementary diet.

The teaching of gymnastics

Formal gymnastics — progressive teaching, skills, lead-up activities, Educational gymnastics. Safety factors in teaching gymnastics.

You, the Sportsmaster/Sportsmistress

The role and duties of the sportsmaster. Preparation of major carnivals. Intra-school sports programs.

Inter-school program.



References Cooper, K. New Aerobics. Bantaur Books, 1970.

Nobili, J.E. and Walker, W. Physical Education. Cassell, 1970.

Nixon, J. and Jenett, A.E. Introduction to Physical Education.

Saunders, 1974.


Core Studies Classroom organization and management.

Teaching problems and school experience.

Integration in the creative arts curriculum, the teacher of creative arts and integration of the total school curriculum.

Student assessment.

Evaluation of materials, equipment and services.

Lesson design and preparation: determination of objectives, selection and organization of content, selection of teaching methods, evaluation of effectiveness.

References Read, H. Art and Industry. Fiber and Faber, 4th edn.


Papanek, V. Design for the Real World — Making to Measure. Thames and Hudson, 1972.

Lowenfeld, V. and Brittain, W.L. Creative and Mental Growth. 5th edn., Collier-Macmillan Ltd., 1970.

Eisner, E.W. Educating Artistic Vision. Collier-Macmillan Ltd., 1972.

Read, H. Education Through Art. Faber, 1970.


Core Studies The role of clothing and textiles in the secondary technical curricula.

The practical classroom, clothing and shelter class organization and management.

Problem solving.

Lesson planning, selection and organization of content.

Selection of teaching methods.

Syllabus planning, units of work, individualized programmes, aids materials and equipment.

TAFE programs in clothing and textiles.

Media training.



Reference Linderman, Earl W., Linderman, Marlene M., Crafts for the Classroom. Collier Macmillan Publishers, London, 1977.



Integrated Studies

The role of Food & Nutrition in the secondary technical curriculum.

Lesson planning, selection of material and organization, and management of the kitchen and classroom.

Timing and Control.

Control and Motivation.

Teaching techniques for Food & Nutrition.

Problem solving.

Selection of teaching methods.

Units of Work.

Syllabus breakdown.


Use, storage and purchasing of equipment.

Peer group lectures.

Individual demonstrations/mini lessons.

Open classroom discussions.


Individual work and group project work.


Also, programmes will be organized to develop the shelter component.

TAFE programmes in Home Economics (Foods).

Media training.

Hall, O.A. & Paolucci, B. Teaching Home Economics.

Wiley, 1970.

Fleck, H. Toward Better Teaching of Home Economics.

Macmillan, 1974.

Quigley, E.E. Introduction to Home Economics. Macmillan, 1974.

Classroom graphics and display techniques.

Comparisons of teaching methods in the creative arts.

Composite syllabus building.

Integrated creative activities for the secondary school:

drama, puppetry, choral.



Specialist Studies

Teaching strategies: the learning process and the teacher of Art, Music, Clothing and Textiles, Food and Nutrition.

Teaching strategies for the integrated creative arts program.

Subjects and syllabuses in technical schools and colleges (Design Education, Aesthetics and Knowledge of Art, Animation and Light Studies, Music — Alternative Methods Threads and Textiles, Drama, Film Making.) Photography, Middle Level Applied Art.

Lesson design and preparation: determination of objectives, selection and organization of content, selection of teaching methods, evaluation of effectiveness.

Teaching strategies: the teaching/learning process; teacher and student centred approaches, group and assignment methods.

Current programs in technical schools and colleges.

Philosophies and justifications for the teaching of the creative arts.


Content Core study:

The curriculum in business studies: overview of subjects and syllabuses; the role of business studies in the secondary technical curriculum and in TAFE.

Classroom organization and management: continuing analysis of teaching problems and school experience.

Integration of the business studies curriculum; the teacher of business studies and integration of the total school curriculum.

Elective Specialist studies: Accounting, Economics, Law, Business Education, Junior Commerce, Secretarial Studies, Advanced Secretarial Studies.

Lesson design and preparation: determination of objectives, selection and organization of content and methods, evaluation of effectiveness.

Teaching strategies: the learning process and the teacher of business studies; teacher and student centred approaches, group and assignment methods.

Subjects and syllabuses in technical schools and colleges.

Syllabus design.

Evaluation of materials, equipment, services, commun- ity and business resources.

Student assessment.



References General

Popham, E.L., Schrag, A.F. and Blockhus, W. A'Teaching- Learning System for Business Education. McGraw-Hill, 1975.


Boynton, L.D. Methods of Teaching Bookkeeping-Accounting.

South Western Publishing Co., 1970.


Lumsden, K.G. Recent Research in Economics Education.

Prentice Hall, 1970.

Mulholland, P. and Pinchew, S. Resource Materials for Teachers of Economics. V.C.T.A., 1978.

Law, Business Education

Doughtrey, H.S. Methods of Basic Business and Economics Education. South Western Publishing Company, 1965.

Junior Commerce

Green, I.R. Resource Materials for Teachers of Consumer Education. V.C.T.A., 1978.

Rosen, S. (ed.) Typewriting Methods in the Seventies.

Business Education Association of New York, 1970.

Teaching Consumer Education. Victorian Commercial Teachers Association, 1973.


Block, J.H. Mastery Learning. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971.


School-based core program:

Basic classroom competencies — lesson planning, unit writing, curriculum integration, classroom organization.

Interpersonal relationship skills.

College discussion and workshop sessions:

Language study — language in the learning process.

Study of society — theoretical bases, values clarification an and moral education. Development of resources and materials.

Literacy — techniques of teaching initial and remedial reading.

Community language studies — the teaching of ethnic languages in the secondary school. Teaching techniques, program development, materials and equipment.

TAFE programs: Language and Social Studies for apprentice, technician and adult education programs.

References Language

Britton, J. Language and Learning. Penguin, 1971.

Barnes, D., Britton, J. and Rosen, H. Language, the Learner and the School. Penguin, 1971.

A Language for Life. Report of a Committee of Enquiry appointed by the Secretary of State, H.M.S.O., 1975.

(The Bullock Report) Social Science

Dufty, D.G. (ed.) Teaching about Society. Rigby, 1970.

Hunt, F.J. (ed.) Social Science in the School Curriculum.

Angus and Robertson, 1971.


Content Selection and evaluation of materials:

Secondary curricula, children's interests and hobbies;

TAFE programs, community-use resources.

Organization of the Resource Centre:

Technical organization of materials, finance and general administration, use of Resource Centre staff, Resource Centre design.

Effective ways of relating to:

Students, as individuals and in groups, for the purpose of instruction in the use of resources and the encouragement of the creative use of leisure time.

Teaching staff, for the purpose of advising on selection of materials and assistance with curriculum design.

The community, for the purpose of encouraging contacts which will facilitate the achievement of the school's object- ives.

References Student-developed bibliographies are prepared as a class exercise.


Conduct Teaching methods will vary between areas but may include lectures and seminars, workshop sessions, school based procedures, simulation activities, individual and group project methods, excursions and field work.



Assessment Assessment in Principles and Methods of Teaching is based on class exercises and assignments. Details for each area will be issued at the commencement of the program.


The contribution of a wide range of educational media to the teaching process is an integral part of all specialist areas. Provision for training in the use of equipment is made through the Open Access Media program of the College's Resources Centre.

EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY — GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN EDUCATION The subject aims to increase student teachers' understanding of the social, emotional and intellectual development of individuals and of important factors involved in the teaching—

learning process.

It is hoped that such an increased understanding will enable the teacher to be more competent in dealing with personal relationships in the teaching situation and in facilitating the learning of students.

The subject comprises:

an introductory unit during the first term; and;

two units, one in each of Terms 2 and 3

The following subject details may be taken aka guide.

Final details for 1979 will be available early in the new year.

General Reading Books offering a useful overview of the subject area are:

1. Educational Psychology

Lefrancois, G.R. Psychology for Teaching. Wadsworth Publishing Co., Calif., 1972.

Sprinthall, R.C. and N.A.: Educational Psychology:

A Developmental Approach. Addison-Wesley, 1974.

2. General Psychology:

McConnell, J.V. Understanding Human Behaviour.

Holt Rinehart & Winston, N.Y., 1974.

Common Introductory Unit

The common unit introduces the areas of psychology and educational psychology, and focusses on topics which have been selected on the basis that



they are central and basic to human functioning, and are especially applicable to the experience of beginning teachers in that they serve as a foundation for

understanding classroom behaviour and learning situations in terms of both the teacher's and the learners' functioning and the interaction between them; and

they serve to introduce students to some major areas of study in psychology and the methods relevant to them (e.g. personality, learning theory, human inter- action).

Content 1. What is psychology? — an introduction to the various branches of psychology.

2. Anxiety — origins, symptoms, defences, effects on behaviour and performance.

3. Interpersonal communication — Carkhuff counselling principles applied to the communication process.

4. Self concept — origins, self esteem, relation to behaviour and achievement.

5. Behaviour modification — basic behaviourist principles of learning.

6. Group processes — role behaviour and the dynamics of groups.

Conduct 1. Class contact — one hour per week for two terms.

2. Class size tends to be 16-18; classes ordinarily comp- rise students from the same specialist background so that the 'home group' effect of Principles and Methods classes is preserved in this introductory stage.

3. The usual format is lecture discussion, but extensive use is made of videotaped materials and role-play is used occasionally.



Assessment is based on satisfactory attendance at and participation in classes, and completion at satisfactory standard of out-of-class exercises, etc.

Sprinthall, R.C. and Sprinthall, M.A. Educational Psychology:

A Developmental Approach. Addison-Wesley, 1974.



Options Since students operate in very diverse school environments ranging from lecture situations to practical workshops and over a vast range of subject matters and age range of learners, the provision of options tailored specifically to each class- room situation is impracticable. Options have therefore been conceived along two dimensions:

• whether they focus primarily on the psychology of learning and performance or on the psychology of personality and behaviour;

• whether they provide a general introduction to those areas or deal with a particular aspect of them.

Thus the list of options, may be displayed as follows —

Learning Psychology of Learning Psychology of Instruction-

and al Methods

Performance Psychology of Classroom

Inter-action Visual Perception Social Influences on Learning

Personality Individual Development Adolescence

and Counselling

Behaviour Understanding Personality

and Behaviour Classroom Behaviour Workshop

Group Workshop in Inter-personal Behaviour





Aims To enable teacher students to acquire a clearer under- standing of the teaching-learning process.

Content 1. Overview of factors affecting the teaching-learning process.

(i) the teacher:

(ii) the learner:

(iii) content:

(iv) situation:

2. Learning and abilities.

The changes in ability and performance with age and their implications for teaching and learning. In particular a critical evaluation of Piaget's theory with special reference to the transition from the concrete to the formal stages.

3. Learning and remembering.

The registration, processing, storage and retrieval of informational inputs.

4. Theories of learning.

A consideration of the main theoretical explanations of learning.

5. Learning in Technical Schools and Colleges.

Implications of such matters as social class and culture, attitudes and aspirations, literacy levels, language and learning, self concept, vocational learning, school status, home and school or college.

In the light


the above, an appraisal of such concepts as educational disadvantage, remedial education, learn- ing difficulties, multicultural education.

philosophy, values, knowledge of subject, self-concept, personal characteristics, etc.

individual differences, age, abilities, self-concept, personal history, culture, family and social class, affective factors, etc.

types of knowledge and skills, organization and structure of material, methods of presentation, practice, etc.

size of group, physical conditions, time available, social organisation and philosophy of the learning institution.



Conduct Lecture-discussion, individual or group presentations of topics investigated, group experiment, A.V. materials.

Assessment Account will be taken of students' participation in, and contribution to, the unit; and of the quality of their individual or group assignments.

References Farnham-Biggory, S. Cognitive Process in Education. Harper and Row, 1972.

Gorman, Richard M. The Psychology of Classroom Learning.

Charles E. Merrill, 1974.

Lindgren, M.C. Educational Psychology in the Classroom.

Wiley, 1972 4th ed.

Tyler, L.E. The Psychology of Human Differences. Meredith, 1965.


Aims To enable teacher students to acquire a clearer understanding of the instructional process and the contributions that various theorists have made to that understanding.


Conduct Assessment References

1. The usefulness of theories: Differences between a theory of instruction and a theory of learning.

2. The contributions of Bruner, Gagne, Ausubel and Bloom to instructional techniques.

3. A comparison of the theorists.

4. The influence of personality and preferred instructional style.

5. Designing instruction.

6. Individualising instruction.

Lecture, discussion, individual or group presentation of topics.

Account will be taken of students' participation in sessions and the quality of their individual or group assignments.

Ausubel, D.P. The Psychology of Meaningful Verbal Learning Grune & Stratton, New York, 1963.

Bloom, B.S. et al Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Vol I Longmans, London, 1966.

Bruner, J.S. Toward a Theory of Instruction W.W. Norton, New York, 1966.

Crittenden, B. Bruner's Educational Theory School of Education, La Trobe University, 1977.

Gagne, R.M. & Briggs, C.J. Principles of Instructional Design Holt, New York, 1974.




The unit is designed to help teachers become more aware of certain aspects of their teaching style, and to understand some of the relationships between their behaviour and student achievement and attitudes.






This includes an analysis of teaching behaviours and the psychological principles involved in communicating with students.

• Lecture-discussion and films;

• analysis of lesson transcripts and formal classroom observation schemes;

• micro-teaching, role-playing and structured exercises in communication skills;

• the video-taping of a section of each teacher's classroom lesson, for which an individual scheme of analysis is devised.

This is based on participation in the course, on the scheme devised to analyze the video-tape and a short written report on the results of the analysis.

Ctarizio, H.F. Towards Positive Classroom Discipline. Wiley, 1976.

Dunkin, M.J. and Biddle, B.J. The Study of Teaching. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1974.

Good, T.L. and Brophy, J.E. Looking in Classrooms. Harper and Row, 1978.

Gordon, T. T.E.T. Teacher Effectiveness Training. Wyden, 1974.

Kounin, J.S. Discipline and Group Management in Classrooms. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970.


Aims To provide a background in visual perception for teachers of graphic communication that should assist them to design effective graphic materials and to provide curricular materials in graphic communications courses appropriate to the abilities of the learners.

Content 1. Science of vision — the function and malfunction of the eye; the perception of colour; photopic and scotopic vision; colour blindness; acuity.



Conduct Assessment References

2. Perceptual processes — Gestalt principles; feature analysis; eye movements in relation to graphic material;

spatial abilities; attention, set and expectancy; visual memory; illusions, ambiguous and oscillating figures;

right hemisphere functions in visualisation processes, including sex differences; the perception of depth — ocular-motor and picture cues; information processing models; redundancy in figure drawings.

3. Developmental and cultural factors — developmental stages in children's perception of graphic materials;

perception of graphic displays in primitive cultures.

4. Perceptual deprivation and distortion studies; visual problem solving and insight learning.

Lecture-demonstrations together with practical out-of- class activities.

Satisfactory completion of practical assignments.

Arnheim, Rudolph. Art& Visual Perception. Uni. of Cal.

Press, 1974. Rev. ed.

Eisner, E.W. Educating Artistic Vision. Collier MacMillan, 1972.

Haber, R.N. & Hershensen, M. The Psychology of Visual Perception. Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1973.

Rock, Irwin. An Introduction to Perception. MacMillan, 1975.

EDUCATIONAL Social Influences Aim

PSYCHOLOGY on Learning

This unit aims to study the process of social learning and to assist students to appreciate the influence of social and cultural context on individual behaviour. The main emphasis of the course will be to develop an understanding of how a person's ethnic origin social class and sex can affect his or her educational achievement.

Content 1. Social learning through reinforcement, initiation and identification.

2. Development of attitudes and prejudice. Strategies used to meet prejudice in the school.

3. Minority responses to mainstream culture. Some basic concepts e.g. culture, stereotype, self-concept, group identification.

4. Education of immigrants: From assimilation to multi- cultural education. Parents and the school. Language use, teacher-aides.



5. Social class and personal socialization. Social class and educational outcomes.

6. Sex-role and education, particularly in Technical and T.A.F.E. institutions.

Conduct Lecture/discussions Visiting speakers Video and audio tapes Students' presentation Work shops

Assessment Assessment is based on written or practical assignments and class participation.

References Teasdale,T.C. Social Psychology. Lloyd O'Neil, 1976.

Martin, J. The Education of Migrant Children in Australia 1945 — 1975. Price, C. and Martin, J. Australian Immigration:

A bibliography and Digest No. 3 Pt 2. 1975.

Victoria, Committee on Equal Opportunity in Schools, Report to the Premier of Victoria, Premiers Department, 1977.

Connell, R.W. Ruling Class, Ruling Culture Studies in conflict, power and hegemony in Australian Life. Cambridge Uni., 1977.



Aims A better understanding of behaviour through the study of theories in the various facets of human development.

Content A consideration of environmental factors which are associated with individual differences and similarities in social,

emotional, physical, moral and intellectual development.

Influences such as family, school, peer group and work environment will be considered.

Possible pathways of development in such areas are also studied.

Conduct Lectures, seminars, group discussion, case-studies, surveys.

Assessment Class participation.

Major assignment — seminar.