Norman, A. H . 15 50
iPetrie, D. P . R. 15q Bewell, J . E. 90 Smith, L. H . 200
Wooloock, Violet 50
F u r t h e r analysis of Victorian grown potatoes, apples, oranges and root vegetables.
Analysis of further samples of vegetable foods eaten by tha Australian aboriginal.
The relation of causal effi- cacy and presentational im-
mediacy as factors in per- ception.
Investigation of problems in connection with pasture im-
provement in Australia.
Victorian Algal Flora.
The Action of Bacteriophage on Haemolytic Streptococci and Staphlooocci, with a study of t h e Relationship of Serological characteristics1
and Bacteriophage suscep- tibility of these organisms.
Fascist Ethics, Ethics of De- mocracy.
Embryology of Calandra ory- zea. Embryology of Insect wing muscle.
Mineralogy of Soils.
The n a t u r e of religious experi- ence and ite philosophical significance.
Production of Heavy Water, and t h e investigation of ite properties and those of heavy hydrogen and ite com- pounds.
Renal and Nervous diseases.
The Paraohor of the Triozoles and other Nitrogen Rings.
Work on blue colour front Mesitylene.
Development of Ampliibiaia Skiu.
ANNUAL RKFORT, 1934-35 1125 M. A. B a r t l e t t Research Scholars—
Bower, J . C. 100 The I n t e r n a l Absorption of X-rays in Gases.
James, R. W. 100 The Distribution of Atmos- pheric Radio Interference in different parts in Aus- t r a l i a .
Pincus, P . 100 Local factors affecting caries.
Bhaw, F . H . 100 Investigation of action of Acetyl Choline.
Toasdale, E. A. 100 Synthesis of cyclic structures.
Wark, Elsie E . 100 Surface Chemistry.
Fred K n i g h t Scholar—
Kannuluik, W . Studies on heavy hydrogen G. 250 using the thermal conduc-
Cancer Research Grants—
K i n g , Dr. E . S. Cytology of Malignant J . 450 Tumors.
Willis, Dr. R. A. 350 Work on Tumors.
T h e following is a report on the work of the Re- search Scholars who held in 1934 Scholarships available for general research: —
Dr. D. F . Thomson left Melbourne for his new investi- gations in Arnhem Land on March 16th, 1935. The University ketch " S t . N i c h o l a s " was sent to Cairns in advance, and from Cairns Dr. Thomson sailed her to Thursday Island. Later a visit was paid to Darwin t o confer with the administrator, and then the journey was made to Caledon Bay and the Crocodile Islands.
Dr. Thomson has made friendly contact with the Cale- don Bay natives, and has already sent to the University t h e negatives and film of Bloving pictures taken in this region. Previous to his departure for Arnhem Land ho continued his work in t h e Department of Anatomy, and as a result two papers have been published by t h e Anthropological I n s t i t u t e of Great B r i t a i n , two by t h e Zoological Society of London, ono by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, and one by t h e American Anthropologist. Both a t Caledon Bay and B l u e . Mud Bay the disaffected natives have given Dr.
Thomison a friendly reception, and there is every pros-
pect t h a t his visit will not only provide scientific know- ledge for specialists, but will also produce an understand- ing of local conditions t h a t may afford the Common- wealth Government, on whose behalf he is working, a basis for future policy in r e g a r d to the natives.
R. S. Russell has continued his work on the influence of impurities on the physical properties of lead. Cer- tain anomalies which he found in the crystallisation time of dilute alloys of lead with silver have been shown t o be associated with the dendritic segregation of the l a t t e r element. By cold working and1 prolonged annealing this irregularity has been removed. I n conjunction with other workers in the -Metallurgy School Mr. Russell has been investigating the influence of atmospheric gases on lead. I t has definitely been proved t h a t some gas from the atmosphere (probably oxygen) is absorbed by lead a t ordinary temperatures. This 1ms introduced an added experimental difficulty in the work of determining the influence of individual impurities, for i t has now been shown to be necessary not only to melt and cast the alloys in a vacuum, but also to keep the solid metals as far as possible from contact with air. This has been done by storing in a vacuum at ordinary or ele- vated temperatures, or otherwise by a heavy coating of vaseline. The influence of silver, antimony, bismuth, tellurium, zinc a n d oxygen on the creep r a t e of lead under different stresses is at present under investiga- tion. The influence of the same elements on the time taken to recrystallise after a standard cold working t r e a t m e n t has also been studied. Oxygen has given very irregular effects, and further investigation will be neces- sary.
Miss N. Atkinson has been investigating synergic gaa
•production by bacteria. I t was shown t h a t two organ- isms growing together, namely, B.typhosus and B.mor- gani, could produce synergic gas from xylose, and t h a t t h e amount of gas was greatly increased by the addition of calcium carbonate to the culture medium. Gas was formed by B.morgan! front broth culture filtrates, and killed broth cultures on which B.typhosus h a d been grown, in presence of Calcium carbonate. Thus the two organisms did not have to be growing together in order t o form gas.
ANNUAL REPORT, 1934-35 1 1 2 7 Some work has also been done on the production of
synergic gas by B.morgan! and various streptococci.
This investigation is p a r t i c u l a r l y interesting, since false;
positive presumptive tests for B.coli in water are often due t o the synergic action of a streptococcus and a bacillus which does not ferment lactose. A report of t h e work has appeared iu t h e Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science.
Miss D. Lush has been working under the direction of Dr. i'. M. B u r n e t a t the Walter and Eliza H a l l Insti- t u t e of Research, Melbourne Hospital, on t h e Staphy- lococcal Bacteriophages. The work was carried out on similar lines t o those followed by Dr. Burnet when in- vestigating the Dysentery phages. I t was found t h a t all Staphylococcus aureus strains will absorb phage, even those which are relatively insusceptible to its action. Three distinct types of aureus phages were
found, which are described in detail in a published paper. Several points of interest are still under in- vestigation.
Mrs. Inez W. Dadswell continued her work on tho inorganic constituents of plants and vegetable food- stuffs. Since the report of last year she has published two papers on her work, one on the food value of certain p l a n t s used as food by the Australian aboriginal, and t h e other on the inorganic materials in Australian wheats.
F. H . Shaw completed his work on the action of ethy- lene on enzyme action, and the results have been pub- lished. He has also continued his investigation into acetylcholine, and its occurrence i n the body; some of t h i s work is ready for publication.
Miss I. G. Balfe carried o u t an investigation of tho gametophytcs of Victorian ferns. She obtained a num- ber of these in pure culture, studied their development from the spore to t h e practically m a t u r e prothallus, and figured the various stages for future reference.
Miss K. M. Crooks commenced a. study of Victorian aquatic fungi. Collections were made from a wide field, and t h e forms obtained were cultured under suitable laboratory conditions. No previous work of this kind has been recorded from Australia, and t h e resulte have
disclosed some new forms. I t is hoped t h a t a know- ledge of the life history and periodicity of the fungi isolated will result from this research.
Miss F . J. Halsey collaborated with Mr. D. Adam, t h e former P l a n t Pathologist t o tho State Department of Agriculture, in some field' trials in connection with a disease of Raspberries. Laboratory work on this host was also continued, and a further attempt was made to reproduce the symptoms in green-house plants. At t h e same time an apparent s a l t a n t of Hypholoma fas- cicuiare arose in some laboratory cultures of this form.
I t was a white-spored type, whereas the typical Hypholomu is a purple-spored fungus. As t h e agarics arc classified primarily on their spore colour, experi- ments were undertaken to discover whether the change in colour of the spore was due to the artificial condi- tions of culture or was a genetic phenomenon.
Mrs. Philiipson (Miss Leila B. Hcyward) has com- pleted her work on Victorian Soil Algae, and the resulte have been embodied in a paper published by the Royal Society of Victoria. Some new species are included in this contribution.
J . W. H . Nioholls has collected over a wide area in Victoria, including t h e Brisbane Ranges, Steiglitz, Ranges, Comoidai, T a l l a n g a t t a , Grampians, Bennison Plains, etc., and many additions have been made to the University Herbarium as a result of this field work.
Miss E. M. Shackcll worked on the phototropio influ- ence of mono-chromatic light as expressed by the growth of etiolated maize seedlings, and also examined and tested the growth hormones responsible for similar cur- vatures.
Mrs. E. E. W a r k is studying various problems of a purely scientific n a t u r e t h a t have arisen out of the work on t h e theory of mineral flotation being carried out in tho Chemistry Department for a group of mining com- panies. The object of this work is to determine t h e physical and chemical principles upon which t h e flota- tion process is based. Many of the reagents added in (practice are adsorbed by the minerals, a n d Mrs. Wark's work has been mostly concerned with an attempt t o determine the mechanism of adsorption. Her work on t h e adsorption of amines by various minerals was com-
ANNUAL REPORT, 1934-35 1 1 2 9 pleted during t h e year, and is being published by t h e
J o u r n a l of Physical Chemistry. Problems a t present being investigated are, firstly, t h e "' a c t i v a t i o n " of sphalerite by various heavy metal salts, and, secondly,, jthe stabilising effect of various organic compounds upon) froths. Meaauremente of the life periods of individual bubbles of air a t t h e surface of dilute solutions of the-
" f r o t h e r " have been adopted for the latter problem.
I t is evident t h a t in all studies of adsorption i t is essen- t i a l to begin with clean surfaces, b u t t h e attainment of such surfaces has proved difficult, and much time has- been spent in seeking a satisfactory technique.
L. R. D. Pyko began an investigation with Dr. K.
N . Welch on t h e possibility of resolving racemic alde- hydes through the action of an optically active orgauio secondary base. For this purpose Mr. Pyke prepared' p u r e optically inactive valeraldehyde by the oxidation of the corresponding amyl alcohol, b u t the work, when- showing promise of success, was interrupted by Mr.
Pyke's proceeding to Oxford as the Victorian Rhodes Scholar.
E . A. Teasdale has iuvestigated, in association with, iDr. W . Davies, the action of alkali metals on aromatic hydrocarbons, particularly benzene. I t has been now.
shown t h a t benzene is attacked in the absence of air by the m e t a l s caesium, rubidium, potassium and sodium.
Caesium slowly reacts at room temperatures, and the most inert of t h e metals (sodium) reacts slightly above' 240 deg. The compounds produced are so reactive t h a t i t is impossible to isolate them, b u t pure derivatives, have been obtained. By allowing these reactive orgauo.
metallic compounds to react with carbon dioxide, benzoic acid and 4-diphenylcarboxylic acid have been formed as shown by their isolation in a crystalline condition.
Other products have also been obtained which are u n d e r investigation. Concurrently with this work Mr. Teas- d a l e has examined, with a view to the synthesis of cyclic
bases of alkaloidal interest, t h e condensation ot amines with the reaction products of aromatic aldehydes and malonic esters. Ho has very much simplified the pre- paration of these intermediate compounds, and has pre- pared a number of new members of t h e series. Mr.
Teasdale obtained industrial employment at t h e begin-
1 1 3 0 ANNUAL REPORT, 1934-35
n i n g of t h e year, and t h e two investigations are almost ready for publication.
L. H . Smith surrendered his scholarship on proceed- i n g t o Oxford with an 1851 Exhibition Research Scholar- s h i p ; his researches in t h e Chemistry Department have now been published in the Journal of the Chemical Society of London. An account of his work appeared in last year's report.
I. E. Orapp has investigated the salivary hydrogen ion concentration by means of the glass electrode, and h a s studied t h e relationship between such concentration and dental disease of h a r d and soft tissues.
P . Pincus investigated the question of the permea- bility of the enamel body t o fluids, and is now doing work on keratolyses at the Boyral Dental Hospital in London.
J . L. W. Harvey carried out research into the electro- magnetic forces in electric circuits. The forces were) determined by measuring small changes of inductance, and after some experiments, an investigation to deter- mine the most suitable type of A.C. bridge was under- taken. An Anderson bridge supplied by a valve oscilla- tor working at 1000 cycles, and used with a specially constructed amplifier and telephone as detector, was finally adopted.
E. J . C. Rennie and C. E. Moorhouse have been con- ducting research on wind motors of the aerofoil typo in order to obtain d a t a for the design of plants for tho generation of electricity by wind power. Some time h a s been spent in the development ot a method of test- i n g the rotors, and t h e behaviour, of a series of rotors of similar action but varying pitch to diameter has been studied.
M. G. Speedie has been investigating the fatigue strengths of weld metal deposited by the electric arc.
The usual methods employed for obtaining fatigue strengths take considerable time, and a study is being made of more rapid methods in the hope t h a t i t will be possible to apply them to this problem.
A. Coulson h a s prepared a paper on " Geological Notes on Lake Connewarrc, near Geelong."
The depths of silt in Lake Conncwarre have been de- termined, by the use. of a small hand-boring plant, and
ANNUAL REPORT, 1934 35 1131 the track of basalt tongues, covered with silt, have
been traced. The information has been applied to t h e geological history of the lake.
R. B. Withers, iu conjunction with Mr. K. A. Keble, published a paper on the Palaeozoic Brittlestars of Vic- toria. He has also been continuing field work on the Geology of the Kinglake district.
Miss Ann JSTicholls has been making a study of the mineral composition of the sand fractions of some Vic- torian soils. Most of t h e work deals with soils from the basaltic areas of t h e Western District, and iu these an attempt is being made to determine the proportion of the different minerals present, and t o correlate this with the fertility or otherwise of the soil.
T. H. Oddie has completed an investigation of the in- fluence of the various factors which arc under control on the yield of deuterium (the heavy isotope ot hydrogen)
•when water is electrolysed. I t is found that a high, current density increases tho efficiency of separation.
Variation of other factors had no observable effect. A paper embodying these observations "lias been forwarded to the Physical Society of London for publication.
Mr. Oddie's, Dr. Eddy's and Mr. Pugsley's investigation of the action of X-rays on certain bacteria has recently been published by the Royal Society of London. A mathematical discussion of the results which they ob- tained is given,'and i t is shown'that the assumption t h a t one quantum of X-rays will kill a bacterium is consistent
•with their observations. Mr. Oddie has been appointed physicist in lthe Commonwealth Radium Laboratory University of Melbourne.
During the 'year 1935-6 "R/W. Boswell is holding the Dixson Research 'Scholarship, and lias pursued a rres"earch into the meteorological conditions associated with sources
"of atmospherics. It was ; found "that "many atmospherics originate near a cold'front. -Mr. -Boswell -has been a p - pointed ;pliysicist to ' t h e 'Radio 'Research 'Board. 'Dr.
Webster and Mr. 'Boswell, in conjunction with the Gom-
rtnbu'wc'alth Meteorological 'Bureau, hrive Undertaken 'an 'investigation of the correlation rof ^atmospheric sources 'with-cold'fronts, and -'there 'is -evidence -that the'ooirela- 'ton is higher in 'spring Lahd "sumnjer ' t h a n 'in winter.
J . C. Bower has investigated, in conjunction with Dr.
L. H . Martin, by means of t h e Wilson cloud track ex- pansion chamber, the absorption of X-rays in gases, and the Auger effect in the rare gases argon, krypton and xenon. Two papers embodying the earlier result of this investigation have been published, and another
has been completed. Mr. Bower was awarded an 1851 Exhibition Scholarship, and he is now a research student in the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge. I t is interesting to note t h a t the wave mechanical theory, of the Auger effect has been investigated in Cambridge by Mr. I-:. H . S. Burhop, with t h e assistance of Dr. H . S. W. Massey, former 1S51 Exhibition Scholars from this University.
D. P . R. Pctrie has published in the Proceedings of the Physical Society the resulte of an investigation of long X-raye. His paper contains a valuable discussion of t h e resolving power of a plane g r a t i n g spectrometer of new design. Ho used this instrument t o determine the structure of the K a line of carbon, and for the comparison of long X-ray wave-lengths. Mr. P e t r i e is holding tho 1851 Exhibition Scholarship, which he was awarded in 1934, a t Cambridge.
The g i a n t to R. T. W. Bingham has been used to -construct, according to a design of Professor Laby, an Eagle
mounting for a Rowland concave g r a t i n g . Mr. Bingham proposes t o use this spectrometer for the accurate deter- mination of wave-lengths in t h e region of about EOOO A. The spectrometer has proved a very satisfac- tory instrument, and is a valuable addition to the spec- troscopic equipment of the N a t u r a l Philosophy Labora- tory. The cost of constructing the mounting in t h e physics workshop was a small fraction of the cost of importing one.
Dr. W. G. Kannuluik has carried o u t an experimental investigation of the thermal conductivity of unsatu- rated steam at lOOdeg.C, and he has made some pro- gress with a determination of the thermal conductivity of deuterium gas and deuterium-hydrogen mixtures, iwhich indicates t h a t t h e thermal conductivity of
^deuterium is about three quarters of t h a t of hydrogen.
Dr. Kannuluik has written an account of the develop-
ANNUAL REPORT, 1934-35 1 1 3 3 ment of physical science in the ancient Orient as p a r t of
m a t e r i a l which is supplied to studente of Natural Philosophy on the history of physics.
Florence V. Murray has continued with Dr. Tiegs t h e study of the embryonic development of Calaudra oryzae, following up the study of the metamorphosis of this in- sect already published in the Quarterly Journal of
Violet Woolcock has continued her study of the para- sites of Australian fishes, her second report on the Tre- inatode parasites being in t h e press. She has also described a new Protozoan parasite of the genus Chloro-
myseum in the gall bladder of Pristiophorus. This haa also been accepted for publication.
R. VVr. James only held a Bartlett Scholarship for a short period iu 1935, and during t h a t period he con- tinued and has subsequently completed his calculations of t h e interference which is to be expected to the recep- tion of broadcast signals by atmospheric interference.
H e uses in these calculations the known incidence of thunderstorms in various parte of Australia.
The grant made to J. S. Rogers was used to insure .£2000 worth of radium which was lent t o him by t h e Commonwealth Radium Laboratory. This radium haa recently been returned, as it is required for the pro- duction of radon. Mr. Rogers now uses radon, which does not require t o be insured, and is more effective t h a n radium, as a source of gamma rays in wave- length and absorption measurements. His wave-length measurements, extending from 20 to 230 XU, are nearly complete, and will shortly be published.
The increase in the incidence' ot a disease of cattle popularly known as Forage Poisoning and Grass Tetany made i t advisable for the Veterinary I n s t i t u t e t o com- mence investigations into ite n a t u r e . The disease is common in all dairying districts and is responsible for much economic wastage. A number of typical cases were examined during the year, Mr. Gorrie visiting the
•Western District to obtain suitable specimens. The in- vestigations have comprised biochemical and bacterio- logical examinations of blood and body fluids from
affected cattle, but so far the findings have failed to relate the Victorian disease to similar conditions which affect cattle in England and Europe. On account of its seasonal incidence, progress in this research is slow, b u t arrangements are being made lo make an intensive field study during next spring.
Diseases ot swine arc increasing in importance every year iu Victoria. Special experimental pens which have been provided tor the study of pig diseases will greatly assist Mr. l/ullar in liis investigations.
The study of nasal granuloma is proceeding slowly, and valuable confirmation of the previous work has resulted from the isolation of the fungus from a case which developed in another district in this State. Experiments on the reproduction of the disease have only been partially successful, and it appears possible t h a t some other factor is necessary to enable the fungus to produce the typical progressive lesions ot the disease.
Research into Contagious Mastitis of Cattle by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research has commenced, aud the laboratory work is being carried out by the Commonwealth Officers located at the Veterinary
•Institute. Miss MacLean is continuing her work on this disease and is collaborating with her colleagues on certain phases ot the work.
The Officers of the Dairy Products Research Laboratory, in addition to their routine surveys of butter factories in Victoria, have been studying the factors underlying t h e production of first quality casein. The effect of metallic contamination on the development ot " t a l l o w y " butter, and the cause ot certain " off flavours" iu butter have also been studied.
Miss Jean Polglaze in her research under the Kilmany Scholarship made an extensive examination ot the pro- fits of Australian industrial companies and of their re- lationship to the business cycle. The results tend to con- firm tlio anticipatory nature of profit changes, and they
•pave ^the way for further investigation of investment and national income.