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weekly discussion between members of the staff and Honour students

during the

Third and Fourth Years. Theory and Method of History is designed to


encourage reflection on the assumptions, the methods and the conclusions of historical study.

The Third Year discussions on which the General Paper in Part I of the Final Examination will be mainly based, will be concerned with some leading ideas of selected writers whose work has influenced thinking about the problems of society, or with selected document studies.

In the Fourth Year, students will be given an introduction to those branches of logic most relevant to the study of History, with special attention to the prob- lems of ascertainment, explanation and interpretation. Thereafter, the programme will include an examination of some important Philosophies of History, and of the relationship of History to other disciplines. Some attempt will be made to assess the influence of theories about History on the practice of various historians.

Reading guides will be given to students during the Third and Fourth Years.

Books. Fourth Year. Recommended for preliminary reading:

Bloch, M.—The Historian's Craft. (Manchester Univ. Press.)

Walsh, W. 1.—An Introduction to Philosophy of History. (Hutchinsoń s Univ. Library.)

*Collingwood, R. G.—The Idea of History. .(O.U.P.) Stern, F.—The Varieties of History. (Meridian Books.)

Gardiner, P.-The Nature of Historical Explanation. (0.U.P.) Dray, W.—Laws and Explanation in History. (O.U.P.)


1. The course for the Degree with Honours in the School of Philosophy comprises the following subjects :

Philosophy Part I, Logic,


Modern Philosophy, Greek Philosophy,

Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, Political Philosophy,

Contemporary Philosophy, Aesthetics,

Philosophical Psychology,

in accordance with the Details set out below, and for the Ordinary Degree. Candi dates for the Degree with Honours must also take in addition either four pass subjects or two pass subjects and one Honours subject.

2. In their First Year, candidates must take the Honour course in Philosophy Part I, together with three other subjects at Pass standard, or one other subject at Pass and one at Honours standard; including, in either case, a language other

than English. .

This year is regarded as a preliminary year of general study and students who have completed it must be approved by the Faculty of Arts as candidates for the Degree with Honours before entering the Second Year of the Honour School. The Professor of Philosophy will normally recommend such approval for candidates who have gained First or Second Class Honours in Philosophy Part I. Candidates who have failed to gain First or Second Class Honours in this subject but who wish to continue in the Honour School are advised to inter- view the Professor of Philosophy, as he will be guided in his recommendation by the merits of the case.

Students who, without attempting Honours, have passed in their First Year in Philosophy Part I, and who at the beginning of their Second Year wish to enter the Honour School, must make special application to the Faculty through the Sub-


Dean for permission to do so. The Professor of Philosphy will recommend such permission if the standard reached in Philosophy Part I was sufficiently high. Such students will be required to sit for and obtain Honours in the special Honours paper in Philosophy Part I at the end of their Second Year.

In the Second Year of the course, students shall take the courses in Modern Philosophy, Political Philosophy (Pass), and a Special Course in Logic, consisting of Logic (Pass) and additional lectures in Symbolic Logic; to- gether with one other subject, which shall be either History and Philosophy of Science A or B, or the second part of one of the additional subjects passed in the first year. There will be an examination in the Philosophy subjects, at Honours standard, at the end of this year.

In the Third Year of the course, students shall take the courses in Greek Philosophy, Contemporary Philosophy Part I, Aesthetics, the pass course in Ethics, and the Honours Course in Logic. The first four of these subjects will be examined at the end of the year, at an independent examination which will not be regarded as the first part of the Final Examination.

In the Fourth Year, students shall take the Honours courses in Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, Contemporary ' Philosophy II, Ethics, Political Philosophy and Philosophical Psychology. There will also be seminar groups in which there will be supplementary work in Logic, and a general study of selected problems in metaphysics. The examination at the end of this year shall be the Final Honours examination.

NOTE. Ti addition to essays set for pass students in those pass courses which are prescribed for them, Honours students are required to submit, during their third and fourth years, three essays of about 3,000 words each, in their special capacity as Honours students. Combined Honours students are required to submit two such essays. They must be handed in on the dates specified by the head of the department, and may be considered in the determination of class at the third year examination and the final examination respectively.

The Final Examination in the School of Philosophy shall consist of papers in the following subjects

1. Logic.

2. Ethics.

3. Political Philosophy.

4. Kant's Critique of Pure Reason.

5. Contemporary Philosophy Part II.

6. Philosophical Psychology.

7. Metaphysics.

The papers on Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, Contemporary Philosophy II, and Philosophical Psychology will cover in detail the work done in those courses during the Final Year. The papers in Logic, Ethics, Political Philosophy will be more general, and will be set to test the students' familiarity with each of those subjects as a whole. The paper on Metaphysics will be a general test of thinking on the fundamental problems of philosophy.

Candidates may also be required to attend an oral examination.

A combined course for the Degree with Honours in the School of Philosophy and the Diploma of Social Studies has been approved. Details are included in the Social Studies Handbook.


A course of three lectures per week, with one tutorial class, throughout the year.

SYLLAВus. As for the Ordinary Degree, together with a study of the main doctrines of Berkeley.

Booкs. As for the Ordinary Degree, together with the following:

(a) Prescribed text:

*Berkeley—The Principles of Human Knowledge; Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous. (Both these are printed in the Everyman volume, New Theory of Vision and Other Writings.)


(b) Specially recommended for reference:

Warnock, G.—Berkeley. (Pelican.)

(c) Recommended for reference as directed in lectures:

Dawes Hicks, G.—Berkeley. (Benn.)

Johnston, G. A.—The Development of Berkeley's. Philosophy. (Macmillan.) Moore, G. E.—Philosophical Studies. (Kegan Paul.)

Price, H. H. Perception. (Methuen.)

Hume, David. Engtury Concerning Human Understanding. (O.U.P.) Broad, C. D.—"Berkeley's Argument Against Material Substance", in Pro-

ceedings of the British Academy, 1942.

Lecture notes are available in the subject.

ExAaINATior. Two 3-hour papers: