A1 No further assessment of the Aboriginal heritage within the Subject Area is required to inform the rezoning proposal. Also within the Subject Area are a number of Heritage items which are on Schedule 5 of the LEP.
Search the National Heritage List (NHL), Commonwealth Heritage List (CHL) and the Register of the National Estate (RNE) maintained by the Australian Heritage Council (AHC). Seven (7) previously unknown scattered Aboriginal artefacts were identified during the course of the study (see Table 9).
Governors Hill (land including Wilton Aerodrome and land on both sides of Picton Road west of the Hume Highway). Lending lease (land north-west of Hume Highway-Picton Road junction; but excluded from survey requirements).
Vision for Wilton Junction
Delivering the Vision and Project Description
Integrated water, waste water and stormwater management systems and access to all other utilities including gas and NBN.
Study Aim and Objectives
Aboriginal Cultural Heritage
Review of available extant documents, including previous archaeological assessments carried out within the subject area and surrounding region. Consult with Aboriginal stakeholders known to have cultural knowledge related to the field.
Historic Heritage Assessment
This Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Assessment (ACHA) has been conducted to identify the limitations of Aboriginal cultural heritage within the subject area that may affect the proposal. Site survey to identify any additional sites within the subject area Assessment of the significance of all sites within the subject area.
Structure of Report
Development of recommendations for the management of local heritage sites in the subject area Preparation of an appropriate report for inclusion in the rezoning application.
Projects completed to date have been undertaken within a wide range of statutory contexts ranging from lead roles undertaken as part of the master planning process, conservation management planning (CMP), preparation of environmental impact studies (EIS), site specific reviews of environmental factors (REF), and the needs that develop as a result of ongoing development applications. The following section provides a brief overview of the laws relevant to the management of cultural heritage in NSW.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Heritage Protection Act 1984
Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal cultural heritage in Australia is protected and managed under a range of legislation. It is important to note that these acts are presented as a guide and are not legal interpretations of legislation by the consultant.
Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act)
Under the new system, National Heritage will join six other major 'things of national environmental significance' (NES) already protected by the EPBC Act. The heritage provisions of the EPBC Act provide for a transitional period while the National and Commonwealth Heritage Lists are finalized.
Native Title Act 1993 (Amended)
Approval under the EPBC Act is required if you propose to take an action that will have, or is likely to have, a significant impact on the National Heritage Values of a National Heritage Site and/or any other NES matter. The Minister will decide whether an action will have or is likely to have a significant impact on a matter of national environmental interest.
New South Wales Legislation
- Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979
- Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979
- National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974
- The Heritage Act 1977 (NSW) (Amended 1999)
- Wollondilly Local Environmental Plan (LEP) (2011)
Heritage items are protected under the provisions of the Wollondilly Local Environmental Plan (LEP) (2011) Section 5.10. If a proposed development does not have a negative impact on the significance of the heritage object, the permit does not.
Non Statutory Listings
OEH recognizes that Aboriginal people who have cultural knowledge should be given an opportunity to inform OEH of the cultural significance of objects or sites and have input into the management of their cultural heritage. Give Aboriginal people an opportunity to comment on the design of field methods for identifying Aboriginal objects or sites within the subject area;.
Community Requests and Outcomes
These two organizations are generally accepted as the primary organizations that have the right to speak about the location of the subject area. The assessment reported here included consultation with the Aboriginal community, background research, the completion of a pedestrian archaeological field survey and an assessment of the potential for the survey area to contain Aboriginal cultural objects and historic heritage relics.
An overview of the various tasks undertaken to achieve the objectives of this assessment is set out below.
Archaeological Survey and Data Collection
Certain parts of the Subject Area were inspected which were subject to heavy, moderate or light disturbance which may assist in an assessment of archaeological potential of the Subject Area. There are parts of the Subject Area that have not had a detailed archaeological survey undertaken, mainly due to the multitude of land ownership arrangements.
The first is located south of the ridge identified above and contains a series of relatively short unnamed ephemeral watercourses that drain directly into either the Cordeaux or Nepean Rivers. It is the largest of the 3 catchments and, in addition to a number of unnamed ephemeral creek lines, also includes Stringybark Creek.
Former Land Use and Disturbance
Interpretation of Aerial Photography
In particular, areas around streams appear to have been minimally affected in the past. Although not visible from the air, there are also several underground services such as the Sydney Water Pipeline and gas lines.
AHIMS Database Search
Regional Archaeological Context
Kayandel Archaeological Services (KAS) (2006) undertook an Aboriginal excavation at Wilton Park as part of the Wilton Parklands Estate Development, on behalf of Delfin Lend Lease Limited. The sites were covered as part of the management strategy to preserve the Aboriginal cultural heritage (KAS 2010:1).
Previous Assessment within the Subject Area
Of these, 47 (excluding the 5 locations mentioned in KAS (in preparation)) lie within the boundaries of the Subject Area. This group of sites, 26, occurs within the boundary of the Bingara Gorge area and the remaining 26 occur within the rest of the subject area.
Previous Predictive Models
In one case, a scattered object was located on top of the sandstone ridge. Most of the sites were within 100 m of the river, but not right on the banks of the river;.
Aboriginal Heritage Predictions for the Subject Area
As such, any archaeological material present within the subject area may provide additional insight into the selection of raw materials in the surrounding region (Woronora Plateaux). Rock shelters are likely the most prevalent site type encountered within the subject area.
In addition to the above searches, KAS also consulted a number of heritage assessments specific to the Subject Area which also sought to identify the historic (non-Aboriginal) heritage items and assign a significance value to these items. These reports include the Heritage Assessment for the Nepean Tunnel Amplification Project (Rosen 1995), the Aboriginal and Historical Archaeological and Cultural Heritage Assessment prepared for Walker Corporation by Heritage Concepts (2007) and the Cultural Heritage Assessment prepared for Navin Officer (2008) Wilton Substation 66kV Feeder Works.
Expansion and Exploration
His original plans, which included a highway running directly through his land, also included the development of a private village, which in itself was not unusual at the time. While the highway eventually passed through his land (about 140 years later), an easier route to the west was initially established.
IBID) Mitchells plans for his estate are indicative of the speculative nature of such land holdings in this era. Ouseley Condell is also known for his other property of the same name in Bankstown.
The Village of Wilton
Agriculture and Pastoralism
By the 1820s grain farming was well established in the Campbelltown area and was second only to the Hawkesbury in terms of grain production. Blight reached the Appin region by 1856 and within twenty years grain production in the area had completely ceased.
IBID: P29) While cattle, sheep and pigs generally replaced wheat production after the 1880s, there is evidence of twentieth-century pastoralism in the subject area in the form of agricultural technology, which has been recorded as part of this study. There were six guesthouses in the camp which provided meals and two soda shops (Whiteaker 2005:45).
After the completion of the project the camp would be packed and the workers and their families would be transferred to the next job. The camps would be dismantled and reassembled in the next project, any structures not moved further were sold for demolition.
The Great Southern Rail Line
There is no evidence of camps or occupation at any of the sites listed here (Rosen 1995). The Picton Station Group and the Viaduct at Stonequarry Creek are parts of an early terminus system built within eight years of the first railway in NSW on the Great Southern Line (NSW Heritage Office in Heritage Concepts 2007:29).
Recent Assessment Reports
WFH1 is a scatter of 19th century European artefacts located within the Nepean Tunnel easement, approximately 125m east of Clements Creek and approximately 80m east of one of the sandstone piers (g). This site has been interpreted as the location of a possible camp/labourer's hut for the construction of the Nepean Tunnel and appears to date from this period.
Predictions for Historic Heritage
However, a description of the location of the site is outside the boundary of the subject area for this current assessment.
- Artefact Scatters
- Isolated Finds
- Rock Shelters with either PAD, art or artefacts
- Scarred Trees (Culturally Modified Trees)
The location of the site is approximately 80 meters south of a dam near the tree line at the edge of the gorge. The rock shelter is located northeast of Byrnes Creek with a southwest aspect.
Survey Unit 7 was surveyed on 30 April 2013 by Tom Knight, Veronica Zaghloul, Glenda Chalker and Neale Sampson. Survey Unit 8 was surveyed on 30 April 2013 by Tom Knight, Veronica Zaghloul, Glenda Chalker and Neale Sampson.
Survey Coverage and Visibility Variables
In section 7.8 it was identified that there was potential for unidentified historic heritage items and that there are still present within the subject area.
Identified Historic Heritage Items
Similar to the tool identified in WJ-HH-02, this tool may date from a slightly earlier period. The bottom of the bottle is visible and bears the maker's mark for the Australian Glass Manufacturing Company.
Inside the rock shelter are two cast iron bed frames and a range of other tin and metal implements and containers such as a billy can. At the time of identification, Glenda Chalker identified that she was aware that large numbers of people lived in rock shelters in the woods during the Depression because they could not afford anywhere else.
- Aboriginal Cultural Significance Assessment
- Archaeological Significance Assessment
- Archaeological Assessment of the Subject Area
- Statement of Archaeological Potential and Significance
Based on the assessment, a large part of the subject area is assessed to be of low archaeological importance, however there are other locations within the subject area that have been assessed as possessing high archaeological importance. Therefore, any artefacts found to be present within the subject area are likely to be contemporaneous with other open artefact distributions found in the vicinity.
Assessment of Significance
Historic Heritage Assessment of the Subject Area
Statement of Significance for the Subject Area
Much of the area was used continuously for this purpose throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. These themes are used to aid in the assessment of an item's meaning.
Suggested mitigation of impact
The significance of Aboriginal and historical heritage within the subject area has been established. See below (Section 12.1.1) This assessment has identified a number of Aboriginal and historical heritage sites within the subject area.
Legislative Obligations and Recommendations relation of Aboriginal Heritage
A2 An Aboriginal Heritage Impact Permit under Part 6 of the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974 for any impact on Aboriginal objects. A4 An Aboriginal Heritage Impact Permit under Part 6 of the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974 should be sought for the extent of each development application area.
Legislative Obligations and Recommendations – Historic Heritage
H1 No further assessment of the historical heritage within the Subject Area is required for the rezoning proposal; Report for the NSW Department of Commerce on behalf of the NSW Department of Education & Training.
AHIMS Results 21 st January 2013
Old Road Corridor looking east
Access track alongside runway looking northwest
View facing south of historic weir, located along the southern end of Allens Creek
View facing south of sandstone weir crossing Allens Creek. Note the sandstone hammer
Detail of post hole cutting in sandstone bedrock of Allens Creek
Survey unit 2, looking north
Survey unit 5, looking south
Survey unit 5, looking southeast
Survey unit 6, looking southwest
Historic Relics identified in WJ-HH-01
Heritage Item present at WJ-HH-02
Heritage Item present at WJ-HH-02
Implement present at WJ-HH-04