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4612310175

3020 15020

Centre Number

Student Number

2012

H I G H E R S C H O O L C E R T I F I C A T E E X A M I N A T I O N

Ancient History

General Instructions

• Reading time – 5 minutes

• Working time – 3 hours

• Write using black or blue pen Black pen is preferred

• A source booklet is provided at the back of this paper

• Write your Centre Number and Student Number at the top of this page and page 5

Total marks – 100

Section I Pages 2–6 25 marks

This section has two parts, Part A and Part B

• Allow about 45 minutes for this section Part A – 15 marks

• Attempt Questions 1–7 Part B – 10 marks

• Attempt Question 8 Section II Pages 7–16 25 marks

• Attempt ONE question from Questions 9–18

• Allow about 45 minutes for this section Section III Pages 17–20

25 marks

• Attempt ONE question from Questions 19–30

• Allow about 45 minutes for this section Section IV Pages 21–29

25 marks

• Attempt ONE question from Questions 31–46

• Allow about 45 minutes for this section

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Section I — Cities of Vesuvius – Pompeii and Herculaneum

25 marks

Allow about 45 minutes for this section Part A – 15 marks

Attempt Questions 1–7

Allow about 25 minutes for this part

For multiple-choice questions, fill in the response oval next to the alternative that best answers the question. For other questions, answer in the spaces provided. These spaces provide guidance for the expected length of response.

Refer to the Source Booklet to answer Questions 1–7.

1 Which archaeologist developed the technique that created the plaster casts seen 1 in Source A?

 (A) August Mau

(B) Amedeo Maiuri (C) Giuseppe Fiorelli (D) Vittorio Spinazzola

2 What was produced by using the structures shown in Source C? 1

 (A) Flour

(B) Glass (C) Olive oil (D) Pots

3 What was the function of the tallest structure depicted in Source D? 1

 (A) To store grain

(B) To distribute water (C) To incinerate waste

(D) To illuminate the streetscape

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4 Using Sources A and B and your own knowledge, explain what human remains 4 reveal about the causes of death in the eruption of AD 79.

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5 What does Source E reveal about the nature of elections for the aedileship in 1 Pompeii?

 (A) Only guild members could vote in aedileship elections.

(B) Only guild members could be elected to the aedileship.

(C) Candidates for the aedileship had to have the support of a guild.

(D) Guilds attempted to influence the voting outcome for the aedileship.

6 What were the responsibilities of the position of aedile mentioned in Source E? 1

 (A) The administration of the city in an emergency situation

(B) The regulation of markets and the maintenance of the roads (C) The holding of the census and the overseeing of public morality (D) The administration of justice and the overseeing of public funds

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7 Using Sources F and G and your own knowledge, discuss the contribution that 6 slaves made to society in Pompeii and Herculaneum.

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2 0 1 2 H I G H E R S C H O O L C E RT I F I C AT E E X A M I N AT I O N

Ancient History

Centre Number

Student Number

Section I (continued)

Part B – 10 marks Attempt Question 8

Allow about 20 minutes for this part

Refer to the Source Booklet to answer Question 8.

Answer the question in the space provided. This space provides guidance for the expected length of response.

Question 8 (10 marks)

Using Sources A, B and H, and your own knowledge, explain the different ways in which archaeologists have reconstructed the past in the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum.

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Question 8 continues on page 6

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Question 8 (continued)

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2 0 1 2 H I G H E R S C H O O L C E RT I F I C AT E E X A M I N AT I O N

Ancient History

Section II — Ancient Societies

25 marks

Attempt ONE question from Questions 9–18 Allow about 45 minutes for this section

Answer parts (a) (b) and (c) of the question in a writing booklet.

Answer part (d) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet.

Extra writing booklets are available.

Question 9 — Option A – Egypt: Society in Old Kingdom Egypt, Dynasties III to VI (25 marks)

Answer parts (a), (b) and (c) of the question in a writing booklet.

(a) What was a nomarch? 1

(b) What do the Instructions of Ptahhotep indicate about society in this period? 4 (c) Describe the building tools and construction techniques used by the Egyptians 5

in this period.

Answer part (d) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(d) With reference to Source I and other sources, what does the evidence reveal 15 about non-royal funerary practices in this period?

Source I: False door in the tomb of Mehu

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Question 10 — Option B – Egypt: Society in New Kingdom Egypt to the death of Amenhotep III (25 marks) Answer parts (a), (b) and (c) of the question in a writing booklet.

(a) What was Malkata? 1

(b) What does the Instruction of Ani indicate about society in this period? 4 (c) Describe the building tools and construction techniques used by the Egyptians

in this period. 5

Answer part (d) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(d) With reference to Source J and other sources, what does the evidence reveal

about non-royal funerary practices in this period? 15

Source J: Scene from the tomb of Reneni

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Question 11 — Option C – Egypt: Society in New Kingdom Egypt during the Ramesside Period, Dynasties XIX and XX (25 marks)

Answer parts (a), (b) and (c) of the question in a writing booklet.

(a) What was Per-Ramesses? 1

(b) What does The Report of Wenamun indicate about society in this period? 4 (c) Describe the building tools and construction techniques used by the Egyptians

in this period. 5

Answer part (d) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(d) With reference to Source K and other sources, what does the evidence reveal

about non-royal funerary practices in this period? 15

Source K: Scene from the tomb of Roy

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Question 12 — Option D – The Near East: Assyrian society from Sargon II to Ashurbanipal (25 marks)

Answer parts (a), (b) and (c) of the question in a writing booklet.

(a) What was Nimrud? 1

(b) What do the royal annals indicate about society in this period? 4 (c) Describe the building materials and construction techniques used by the

Assyrians in this period. 5

Answer part (d) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(d) With reference to Source L and other sources, what does the evidence reveal

about religious personnel and sacred places in this period? 15

Source L: Assyrian cylinder seal showing a priest wearing a fish skin cloak

Acknowledgement: Assyrian cylinder seal showing a priest wearing a fish skin cloak, The British Museum, reproduced with permission

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Question 13 — Option E – The Near East: Society in Israel from Solomon to the fall of Samaria (25 marks)

Answer parts (a), (b) and (c) of the question in a writing booklet.

(a) Who was Elijah? 1

(b) What does the Samarian Ostracon indicate about society in this period? 4 (c) Describe the main features of fortified cities in this period. 5 Answer part (d) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(d) With reference to Source M and other sources, what does the evidence reveal

about religious personnel and sacred places in this period? 15

Awaiting copyright

Source M: Beersheba horned altar

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Question 14 — Option F – The Near East: Persian society at the time of Darius and Xerxes (25 marks)

Answer parts (a), (b) and (c) of the question in a writing booklet.

(a) What was Pasargadae? 1

(b) What does the Behistan inscription indicate about the king in this period? 4 (c) Describe the building materials and construction techniques used by the

Persians in this period. 5

Answer part (d) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(d) With reference to Source N and other sources, what does the evidence reveal about Persian policy towards the various religions throughout the empire in this period?

15

Source N: A wooden shrine door showing Darius I

Acknowledgement: A wooden Shrine door showing Darius 1, Persian Empire: A History, Lindsay Allen, The British Museum Press, 2005, page 110, reproduced with permission

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Question 15 — Option G – Greece: The Bronze Age – Society in Minoan Crete (25 marks)

Answer parts (a), (b) and (c) of the question in a writing booklet.

(a) What was Agia Triada? 1

(b) What were the roles of Gournia and Zakros? 4

(c) Describe the building materials and construction techniques used by the

Minoans in this period. 5

Answer part (d) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(d) With reference to Source O and other sources, what does the evidence reveal

about religious personnel and sacred places in this period? 15

Awaiting copyright

Source O: Lustral basin from Malia

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Question 16 — Option H – Greece: The Bronze Age – Mycenaean society (25 marks)

Answer parts (a), (b) and (c) of the question in a writing booklet.

(a) Who was the lawagetas? 1

(b) What do the Linear B tablets indicate about society in this period? 4 (c) Describe the building materials and construction techniques used for

Mycenaean citadels in this period. 5

Answer part (d) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(d) With reference to Source P and other sources, what does the evidence reveal

about religious beliefs and burial practices in this period? 15

Awaiting copyright

Source P: A tholos tomb at Mycenae

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Question 17 — Option I – Greece: Spartan society to the Battle of Leuctra 371 BC (25 marks)

Answer parts (a), (b) and (c) of the question in a writing booklet.

(a) What was the ephorate? 1

(b) What does the writing of Tyrtaeus indicate about society in this period? 4 (c) Describe how land ownership was organised in Sparta in this period. 5 Answer part (d) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(d) With reference to Source Q and other sources, what does the evidence reveal

about gods and festivals in this period? 15

Source Q: Temple of Artemis Orthia at Sparta

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Acknowledgement: Temple of Artemis Orthia at Sparta, Trinity College, reproduced by permission

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Question 18 — Option J – Greece: Athenian society in the time of Pericles (25 marks)

Answer parts (a), (b) and (c) of the question in a writing booklet.

(a) Who were the pentakosiomedimnoi? 1

(b) What does the education of children indicate about society in this period? 4

(c) Describe the main features of maritime trade in this period. 5

Answer part (d) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(d) With reference to Source R and other sources, what does the evidence reveal

about the role of temples and sanctuaries in this period? 15

Awaiting copyright

Source R: The Erechtheum at Athens

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Section III — Personalities in Their Times

25 marks

Attempt ONE question from Questions 19–30

Answer BOTH part (a) and (b) of the question you attempt Allow about 45 minutes for this section

Answer part (a) of the question in a writing booklet.

Answer part (b) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet.

Extra writing booklets are available.

In your answers you will be assessed on how well you:

demonstrate historical knowledge and understanding relevant to the question

use relevant sources to support your response

communicate ideas and information using historical terms and concepts appropriately

present a sustained, logical and cohesive response Question 19 — Option A – Egypt: Hatshepsut (25 marks) Answer part (a) of the question in a writing booklet.

(a) Describe how Hatshepsut became king (pharaoh). 10

Answer part (b) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(b) To what extent have the interpretations and images of Hatshepsut changed over 15 time?

Question 20 — Option B – Egypt: Akhenaten (25 marks) Answer part (a) of the question in a writing booklet.

(a) Describe the artistic innovations which occurred under Akhenaten. 10 Answer part (b) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(b) To what extent have the interpretations and images of Akhenaten changed over 15 time?

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In your answers you will be assessed on how well you:

demonstrate historical knowledge and understanding relevant to the question

use relevant sources to support your response

communicate ideas and information using historical terms and concepts appropriately

present a sustained, logical and cohesive response Question 21 — Option C – Egypt: Ramesses II (25 marks) Answer part (a) of the question in a writing booklet.

(a) Describe the importance of royal women during the reign of Ramesses II. 10 Answer part (b) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(b) To what extent have the interpretations and images of Ramesses II changed over 15 time?

Question 22 — Option D – The Near East: Sennacherib (25 marks) Answer part (a) of the question in a writing booklet.

(a) Describe Sennacherib’s treatment of Babylon and its consequences. 10 Answer part (b) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(b) To what extent have the interpretations and images of Sennacherib changed over 15 time?

Question 23 — Option E – The Near East: Xerxes (25 marks) Answer part (a) of the question in a writing booklet.

(a) Describe how Xerxes dealt with revolts in the Persian empire. 10 Answer part (b) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(b) To what extent have the interpretations and images of Xerxes changed over 15 time?

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Question 24 — Option F – The Near East: Hannibal (25 marks) Answer part (a) of the question in a writing booklet.

(a) Describe Hannibal’s career after the Battle of Cannae. 10

Answer part (b) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(b) To what extent have the interpretations and images of Hannibal changed over 15 time?

Question 25 — Option G – Greece: Pericles (25 marks) Answer part (a) of the question in a writing booklet.

(a) Describe Pericles’ contribution to the ‘Golden Age’ of Athens. 10 Answer part (b) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(b) To what extent have the interpretations and images of Pericles changed over 15 time?

Question 26 — Option H – Greece: Alexander the Great (25 marks) Answer part (a) of the question in a writing booklet.

(a) Describe Alexander’s military strategies against Darius III. 10

Answer part (b) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(b) To what extent have the interpretations and images of Alexander the Great 15 changed over time?

Question 27 — Option I – Greece: Cleopatra VII (25 marks) Answer part (a) of the question in a writing booklet.

(a) Describe the difficulties Cleopatra VII faced in maintaining her power. 10 Answer part (b) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(b) To what extent have the interpretations and images of Cleopatra VII changed 15 over time?

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In your answers you will be assessed on how well you:

demonstrate historical knowledge and understanding relevant to the question

use relevant sources to support your response

communicate ideas and information using historical terms and concepts appropriately

present a sustained, logical and cohesive response

Question 28 — Option J – Rome: Tiberius Gracchus (25 marks) Answer part (a) of the question in a writing booklet.

(a) Describe the factors which contributed to the death of Tiberius Gracchus. 10 Answer part (b) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(b) To what extent have the interpretations and images of Tiberius Gracchus 15 changed over time?

Question 29 — Option K – Rome: Julius Caesar (25 marks) Answer part (a) of the question in a writing booklet.

(a) Describe the factors which contributed to the death of Julius Caesar. 10 Answer part (b) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(b) To what extent have the interpretations and images of Julius Caesar changed 15 over time?

Question 30 — Option L – Rome: Agrippina the Younger (25 marks) Answer part (a) of the question in a writing booklet.

(a) Describe Agrippina’s relationship with Nero. 10

Answer part (b) of the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet.

(b) To what extent have the interpretations and images of Agrippina the Younger 15 changed over time?

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Section IV — Historical Periods

25 marks

Attempt ONE question from Questions 31–46 Allow about 45 minutes for this section

Answer the question in a SEPARATE writing booklet. Extra writing booklets are available.

In your answer you will be assessed on how well you:

demonstrate historical knowledge and understanding relevant to the question

use relevant sources to support your response

communicate ideas and information using historical terms and concepts appropriately

present a sustained, logical and cohesive response

Question 31 — Option A – Egypt: From Unification to the First Intermediate Period (25 marks)

(a) Awaiting copyright 25

Pyramid Text 245 With reference to the quotation, how did the development of royal burial complexes reflect religious changes?

OR

(b) Assess the nature and impact of the dynastic problems faced by Old Kingdom 25 rulers.

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In your answer you will be assessed on how well you:

demonstrate historical knowledge and understanding relevant to the question

use relevant sources to support your response

communicate ideas and information using historical terms and concepts appropriately

present a sustained, logical and cohesive response

Question 32 — Option B – Egypt: New Kingdom Egypt to the death of Thutmose IV (25 marks)

(a) Awaiting copyright 25

Inscription from the tomb of Ahmose, son of Abana With reference to the quotation, assess the role of the Egyptian army in this period.

OR

(b) To what extent were royal women influential in this period?

Question 33 — Option C – Egypt: New Kingdom Egypt from Amenhotep III to the death of Ramesses II (25 marks)

(a) Awaiting copyright 25

Battle of Kadesh inscription of Ramesses II With reference to the quotation, what tactics were used at the Battle of Kadesh and what were the consequences of the battle for the Near East?

OR

(b) To what extent were royal women influential in this period? 25

25

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Question 34 — Option D – The Near East: Assyria from Tiglath-Pileser III to the fall of Assyria 609 BC (25 marks)

(a) Awaiting copyright 25

Annals of Ashurbanipal With reference to the quotation, to what extent was Ashurbanipal an effective ruler?

OR

(b) How effectively did the Assyrian army wage war?

Question 35 — Option E – The Near East: Israel and Judah from Solomon to the fall of Jerusalem (25 marks)

(a) Awaiting copyright 25

The Holy Bible, 1 Kings 14.25–26 With reference to the quotation, to what extent was Rehoboam an effective ruler?

OR

(b) To what extent were royal women influential in this period?

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25 25

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In your answer you will be assessed on how well you:

demonstrate historical knowledge and understanding relevant to the question

use relevant sources to support your response

communicate ideas and information using historical terms and concepts appropriately

present a sustained, logical and cohesive response

Question 36 — Option F – The Near East: Persia from Cyrus II to the death of Darius III (25 marks)

(a)

Herodotus, The Histories III.1

25 Awaiting copyright

With reference to the quotation, to what extent was Cambyses an effective ruler?

OR

(b) How effectively did the Persian army wage war?

Question 37 — Option G – Greece: The development of the Greek world 800–500 BC (25 marks)

(a) Awaiting copyright 25

[Aristotle], Athenian Constitution 12.4 With reference to the quotation, to what extent were Solon’s reforms successful?

OR

(b) To what extent did Sparta dominate Greek affairs in this period? 25 25

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Question 38 — Option H – Greece: The Greek world 500–440 BC(25 marks) (a) In courage and strength the Persians and the Greeks were evenly matched, but

the Persians wore no armour; besides, they did not have the skill and expertise of their opponents.

Herodotus, The HistoriesIX.62 With reference to the quotation, to what extent were the Persians responsible for their own defeat in the Persian Wars?

OR

(b) Account for the democratic reforms of Athens during this period. 25

Acknowledgement: Extracts from the Herodotus, The Histories IX.62, Herodotus, The Histories, translated by Robin A.H. Waterfield with an Introduction Notes by Carolyn Dewald, Oxford University Press, 1998, page 567. Reproduced by permission of Oxford University Press.

Question 39 — Option I – Greece: The Greek world 446–399 BC(25 marks)

(a) After this Lysander sailed into Piraeus, the exiles returned, and the walls were 25 pulled down among scenes of great enthusiasm and to the music of flute girls. It

was thought that this day was the beginning of freedom for Greece.

Xenophon, A History of My TimesII.2.23 With reference to the quotation, to what extent were the Athenians responsible for their own defeat in the Peloponnesian War?

OR

(b) To what extent did the Peace of Nicias achieve its aims? 25 25

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Acknowledgement: A History of My Times (Hellenica II.2.23) by Xenophon,Translated by Rex Warner, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1966, page 65. Reproduced by permission of Penguin Books Ltd.

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In your answer you will be assessed on how well you:

demonstrate historical knowledge and understanding relevant to the question

use relevant sources to support your response

communicate ideas and information using historical terms and concepts appropriately

present a sustained, logical and cohesive response

Question 40 — Option J – Greece: Fourth-century Greece to the death of Philip II of Macedon (25 marks)

(a) Awaiting copyright 25

Arrian, The Campaigns of Alexander VII.9 With reference to the quotation, how did Macedon come to dominate Greek affairs in this period?

OR

(b) What was the nature of the relationship between Athens and Sparta in this period?

Question 41 — Option K – Rome: 264–133 BC (25 marks)

(a) Awaiting copyright 25

Polybius I.3 With reference to the quotation, discuss the reasons for Rome’s imperial expansion after the Second Punic War.

OR

(b) What factors enabled the Romans to defeat the Carthaginians in the Punic Wars? 25 25

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Question 42 — Option L – Rome: Political revolution in Rome 133–78 BC (25 marks)

(a) Sulla was a man to whom, up to the conclusion of his career of victory, sufficient 25 praise can hardly be given, and for whom, after his victory, no condemnation

can be adequate.

Velleius Paterculus II.17.1 With reference to the quotation, discuss the significance of Sulla’s career for Rome.

OR

(b) Assess the impact of the Jugurthine and Mithridatic Wars on Rome. 25

(a) Awaiting copyright 25

Cicero, Against Catiline, I.10.

With reference to the quotation, assess the role that Cicero played in the politics of this period.

OR

(b) Why did the Second Triumvirate fail?

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Question 43 — Option M – Rome: The fall of the Republic 78–31 BC (25 marks)

25

Acknowledgement: Reprinted by permission of the Publishers and the Trustees of the Loeb Classical Library from VELLEIUS PATERCULUS: COMPENDIUM OF ROMAN

HISTORY, Loeb Classical Library Volume 152, translated by F.W. Shipley, 1924; page 83 Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1919. Loeb Classical Library (R) is the registered trademark of the President and Fellows of Harvard College.

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In your answer you will be assessed on how well you:

demonstrate historical knowledge and understanding relevant to the question

use relevant sources to support your response

communicate ideas and information using historical terms and concepts appropriately

present a sustained, logical and cohesive response

Question 44 — Option N – Rome: The Augustan Age 44 BC – AD 14 (25 marks) (a)

Augustus, Res Gestae, 13

25 Awaiting copyright

With reference to the quotation, to what extent did Augustus bring peace and prosperity to the Roman world?

OR

(b) What role did imperial women play in this period? 25

Question 45 — Option O – Rome: Rome in the time of the Julio-Claudians and the Roman Empire AD 14–69 (25 marks)

(a) Nearly the whole of his [Claudius’] childhood and youth was so troubled by various diseases that he grew dull-witted and had little physical strength; and on reaching the age at which he should have won a magistracy or chosen a private career, was considered by his family incapable of doing either.

25

Suetonius, Claudius, 2 With reference to the quotation, to what extent was Claudius an effective ruler?

OR

(b) To what extent was the army influential in this period? 25

Acknowledgement: Reprinted by permission of the United Agents on behalf of The Trustees of the Robert Grave Copyright Trust.

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Question 46 — Option P – Rome: The Roman Empire AD 69–235 (25 marks) (a) Hadrian was hated by the people, in spite of his generally excellent reign, on

account of the murders committed by him at the beginning and end of his reign, since they had been unjustly and impiously brought about.

Cassius Dio, Roman History LXIX.23.2 With reference to the quotation, to what extent was Hadrian an effective ruler?

25

OR

(b) What role did imperial women play in this period? 25

End of paper

– 29 –

Acknowledgement: Reprinted by permission of the Publishers and the Trustees of the Loeb Classical Library from DIO CASSIUS: VOLUME VIII, Loeb Classical Library Volume 176, translated by Earnest Cary, 1925; page 465, Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1919. Loeb Classical Library (R) is the registered trademark of the President and Fellows of Harvard College.

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BLANK PAGE

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2012

H I G H E R S C H O O L C E R T I F I C A T E E X A M I N A T I O N

Ancient History

Source Booklet

Instructions

Detach this source booklet

Source A Page 2 Source B Page 2 Source C Page 3 Source D Page 3 Source E Page 3 Source F Page 4 Source G Page 4 Source H Page 4

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Source A

Plaster casts of bodies in the Garden of the Fugitives at Pompeii Awaiting copyright

Source B

Skeletal remains from the seashore at Herculaneum Awaiting copyright

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Source C

Structures at Pompeii

Awaiting copyright

Source D

Structure at Pompeii

Awaiting copyright

Source E

Electoral notice from Pompeii

The millers ask for and desire Cn. Helvius Sabinus as aedile, together with his neighbours.

– 3 –

Source E: Extracts - Electoral notice from Pompeii, page 3 of the exam paper Acknowledgement: Extracts - Electoral Notice from Pompeii, Pompeii: A Sourcebook, A.E. Cooley & M.G.L. Cooley, Routledge, 2004, page 123, reproduced with permission.

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Source F

Receipt for rental payment from Pompeii

In the duumvirate of Lucius Albucius Iustus and Lucius Veranius Hypsaeus, I, Privatus, slave of the colony, have written that I have received from Lucius Caecilius Iucundus 1,652 sesterces, from the outstanding amount for the fullery before this day, 14 July.

Transacted at Pompeii, 14 August, in the consulship of A. Paconius Sabinus and A. Petronius.

Source G

Extract from Michele George, The World of Pompeii, 2007.

In the domestic context the slave members of the household, the familia, performed a wide range of jobs, both menial and administrative, and slaves are visible in the house through the items they used in their work …

Source H

Virtual reconstruction of a section of the Via dell’Abbondanza Awaiting copyright

Acknowledgement: Extracts - Receipt from rental payment, Pompeii, A Sourcebook, A.E. Cooley & M.G.Ll Cooley, Routledge, 2004, page 189, reproduced with permission.

Acknowledgement: Extracts from Michele George, The World of Pompeii, JJ Dobbins and PW Foss (eds), Routledge, 2007, pages 538-539, reproduced with permission.

References

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In your answer you will be assessed on how well you demonstrate: ■ capacity to understand general and specific aspects of a text by identifying, analysing and responding to