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Annual Report on the Aerial Use of 1080

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The total DoC area under sustainable management is approximately 1.8 million hectares.3 In 2011, approximately 451,000 hectares (25 percent) of this area were covered by animal pest control using ground and aerial methods (see Table 1).4 The Department reported that of the total treated area in 2011, approximately 127,000 acres (28 percent) were treated using aerial 1080—approximately 35,000 acres less than in 2010. 5 A significant portion of the pest control area was controlled for possums, rodents, and woodchucks. In some areas - called rabbit-prone lands - the rabbit population is not limited by natural influences.

The number of aerial 1080 operations in each region and the sectors using 1080 vary depending on the purpose of the operation, topography and land coverage (see Table 3). In Otago, most of the aerial 1080 operations were conducted for rabbit control and covered relatively small areas. The size of the operation may depend on the purpose and location of the operation.

The purpose of the notice is to notify affected parties of the time and location of 1080 operations and other relevant details.

Table 1: Department of Conservation animal pest control treatment area
Table 1: Department of Conservation animal pest control treatment area

Monitoring

Business changes as a result of the consultation Business changes as a result of the consultation are considered as an indicator of whether the consultation was effective. Managers, agencies, or members of the public raised notification concerns with EPA for three of the 49 aerial 1080 operations conducted in 2011. Before issuing a permit for an aerial 1080 operation, public health units (PHUs) evaluate the consultation against the Communication Guidelines for Aerial Operations 1080.21 The Department of Health shall report the results of these evaluations to EPA.

All the applications met the requirements of the guideline and no consent was refused due to insufficient consultation. No deficiencies were found in the pre-operative communication process as a result of subsequent investigations. However, two samples taken as part of environmental monitoring within a treatment area tested positive for 1080 detected at levels (0.1 and 0.3 micrograms of 1080 per liter of water) well below the permissible exposure limit.

Monitoring of plant and animal species is carried out to determine the need for pest control and their effectiveness. Pre-operational pest species monitoring was carried out in 29 (75 percent) of 1080 flight operations conducted in 2011. Post-operational pest species monitoring was carried out in 27 (55 percent) of 1080 flight operations in 2011.

For all but one (96 percent) of audited operations, operators reported achieving their stated target pest control results.22. Monitoring of non-target species was carried out on seven operations to determine the effects of 1080 on them. This monitoring is often done as part of research into the use of 1080 and is further summarized in the research section of this report.

Incidents and public concerns

Investigation by the operator revealed that the vehicle had been parked under the canopy of trees in the treatment area during the operation, although the operator had been advised of the operation. A fighter group claimed that the consultations conducted by the operator did not meet the requirements of the communications guidelines for 1080 flights from the air. Civilians have removed warning signs from the area of ​​operations and placed them in another area.

A local PHU enforcer checked the operation and found that several of the signs that were supposed to be posted had not been posted. The misapplication has not been reported to all required authorities within the legal time frame. An enforcer from the local PHU investigated and found that the area's remoteness meant no public health risk had been created by the overflight.

A citizen alleged that the airline had violated civil aviation rules by applying 1080. A civilian claimed that helicopters had flown over a camp that had been excluded from the area of ​​operations. The misapplication has not been reported to all required parties within the legal time frame.

A member of the public contacted the operator and alleged that their dog had been poisoned with 1080. Information was passed on to the police in relation to potential locations of baits from members of the public. A member of the public contacted the media and claimed his dog had been poisoned by 1080.

Figure 2: Source of advice of Incidents   and public concerns reported to the EPA
Figure 2: Source of advice of Incidents and public concerns reported to the EPA

Alternatives to the use of 1080

New' or 'Update', indicating whether the project started in the period covered by this report or in the previous one. To determine the degradation of toxins in baits containing diphacinone (RatAbate Paste) and coumatetralyl (Racumin Paste) and to assess potential risks to non-target species. The research is now complete; The results were published in the Proceedings of the European Conference on Vertebrate Pest Management in 2011, and the article was accepted for publication in the New Zealand Journal of Ecology.

Residue analysis is completed; the results were published in the Proceedings of the European Vertebrate Pest Management Conference in 2011 and a paper has been accepted for publication in the New Zealand Journal of Ecology. Registration documents have been submitted to the New Zealand Food Safety Authority and the product was approved for use in early 2012. To demonstrate safe and effective use of zinc phosphide paste in the hands of New Zealand pest controllers.

Complete a review article for a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all major areas of chemistry, toxicology, ecotoxicology, environmental toxicology and fate, non-target impact and efficacy and welfare of zinc phosphide relevant to use in New Zealand. Accepted for publication in 2013) "A review of the toxicology and ecotoxicology of zinc phosphide in relation to its use as a pest control agent in New Zealand". This project has been completed and the files on these studies will be used to facilitate registration.

To clarify New Zealand-based non-target research and testing requirements for new product registrations of vertebrate toxic agents for possums and TB vectors. The first cage trials and several small-scale field trials have been completed; further cage and field trials are planned in 2012/13. New: Primary poisoning risk for non-target species and the fate of sodium nitrite in possum control baits.

Improvements in the use of 1080

However, after 1080 air poisoning with only 0.25 kilograms per hectare, no possums were detected in any block. Effects of Deer Repellent Use Update: Deer Repellent and 'Spot' Sowing Effects on Non-Target Species During 1080 Air Poisoning. In the period from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012, the assessment of the risk to kea from aerial 1080 baits has significantly improved.

Measures of benefits to nest survival due to aerial 1080 predator control were also undertaken. An experiment in Westland provided very strong support for the idea that kea nest survival was boosted by aerial 1080 predator control in those forests, but the boost was not sufficient after one year to compensate for the bycatch that occurred there not. Alternatively, achieving shoot control with aerial 1080 in upland beech forest requires more attention to timing in relation to forest seed biology.

The project has been extended for one more year to measure the residual effect of air 1080 predator control in Westland, and to increase sample sizes in upland beech forests. Contracted by: Department of Conservation Carried out by: Department of Conservation To monitor bird population dynamics at three sites where predators are controlled by aerial application 1080. A few native forest bird species are significantly more abundant in those parts of the Paringa study area that have been regularly treated with aerial 1080 than in those that have never been treated.

Contracted by: Department of Conservation Performed by: Department of Conservation DoC staff have developed protocols and priorities for quantifying bird mortality during a 1080 operation. Effects of possum control on trees Update: Tree canopy meta-analysis DoC ref: 3811 To determine the rate at which trees die under a regime of possum control using antenna 1080 compared to no control, by re-measuring tagged trees at Haast , Coromandel and Northern Urewera and analyze tree survival rates in blocks that have and have not received possum control.

Other research

A review of the basis for current practice in airborne 1080 baits for rabbits in New Zealand Wildlife Research 39:89-103. After modification of the originally published protocols, the microsomal binding assay has been fully established and dose-response curves based on inhibition of vitamin K have been generated for six anticoagulants. A thermogenic compound with the potential to significantly reduce the welfare consequences of 1080 poisoning has been identified in trials of captive possums.

Concentrations of compound in pellet baits acceptable to possums were not well tolerated by rats. While lowering the concentration of the compound in the bait improved acceptance, this was not to the extent that palatability was comparable to standard food. In finding a pellet bait that is reasonably acceptable to rats and possums, the next step is research into encapsulating the compound to mask its bitter taste.

If so, the percentage reductions will provide a direct estimate of the surveillance sensitivity provided by the operation, which in turn can be used in models to calculate the probability of TB freedom in the surveyed population. Modeling the likely concentrations of 1080 in the environment after 1080 drops from the air Update: OECD test 307: Aerobic transformation of 1080 in soil. Degradation products of 1080 and their rate of formation were similar in the three soil types.

Implemented by: Landcare and Animal Welfare Science and Bioethics Centre, Massey University This project used a recently developed Australian assessment framework to produce a ranking of the relative welfare impacts of lethal control methods – including 1080 – used to control vertebrates in New York . Zealand. The main utility of the framework is to enable ranking of welfare effects using a combination of available (in some cases very limited) scientific and operational information and expert panel judgement. The welfare impact of 1080 was assessed as intermediate for all species considered (possums, rodents, voles, rabbits).

Figure

Table 1: Department of Conservation animal pest control treatment area
Table 2: Animal pest control treatment area (000 ha)
Table 3: Aerial 1080 operations in each region (2008 – 2011)
Figure 1: Total area of aerial application   in each region – 2011 (000 ha)
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References

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