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BRYANT ECOLOGICAL

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Within the Tasman district portion of the ecological district, these areas make up 4.2% of the remaining forests and woodlands. This was the impetus for the development of the Tasman District Council Native Habitats Tasman (NHT) programme.

ECOLOGICAL DISTRICT DESCRIPTION

ORIGINAL INDIGENOUS ECOSYSTEMS

Valley floors were dominated by podocarp broadleaf beech forests of matai, lowland totara, black beech and locally silver beech, titoki and tarata, and in the south red beech. Poorly drained areas of forested melange supported largely in the highlands by kaikawaka, pink pine and toatoa with mountain totara and mountain beech present in better drained sites.

MINERAL BELT – LOW STATURE VEGETATION Low-growing ultramafic vegetation stretched in a

ALPINE (NON-MINERAL BELT)

WETLANDS AND TARNS

ESTUARY

BOULDERFIELD

FAUNA

  • PRESENT DAY ECOSYSTEMS

LOWLAND FOREST AND TREELAND

UPLAND FOREST

MINERAL BELT VEGETATION

SUB-ALPINE AND ALPINE VEGETATION This vegetation still occupies all its original area, but

FRESHWATER WETLANDS

RIPARIAN VEGETATION

HABITAT FOR INDIGENOUS FAUNA

EXTENT OF ECOSYSTEM DEPLETION

The forest canopy area has also been significantly altered in lowland areas, with extensive logging of accessible matai, rimu and lowland totar, resulting in the dominance of beech or deciduous species. There are no preserved valley floor freshwater wetlands in their original form in the county.

SALTMARSH

The exception is parts of the Wairoa catchment, where fires are the likely cause of the near absence of beech species in the middle to lower reaches of the Wairoa, Lee and Roding Rivers, which are currently dominated by broadleaf or podocarp on the lower slopes. The lowland mineral belt wetlands are notable for the steep slopes below Dun Mountain in the Maitai Basin and one small gently sloping wetland at 500 m above sea level in the Lee Basin.

MONTANE

Walls and Simpson (2004) estimated native ecosystem loss for each of the ecological districts within the Tasman District. Boland (>600m above sea level) beech forest has lost an estimated 10% of its original extent (author's estimate).

MINERAL BELT

Best estimate based on existing area using TopoftheSouth Maps area calculation facility plus area (c740ha) of struggling pine forestry on likely former serpentine scrub/shrub. Assuming 10% of vegetation and habitat has been destroyed by rail construction, weeds, infrastructure 8.

Table 2: Ecosystem Depletion and Protection (Entire Ecological District)
Table 2: Ecosystem Depletion and Protection (Entire Ecological District)
  • EXTENT, SIZE AND GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EXISTING

See section 4.7: includes scenic reserves, wildlife reserves, local purpose and recreational reserves, Tasman Accord forests, QEII and DOC covenants.

SCENIC RESERVES

QEII AND DOC COVENANTS

OTHER RESERVES WITH LOWER LEVELS OF PROTECTION

  • Tasman District Council administered A number of small Esplanade, Recreation and Local
  • Nelson City Council administered
  • Department of Conservation administered The portion of the Mount Richmond Forest Park within
  • Council covenants
    • LAND ENVIRONMENTS PRESENT WITHIN ED (AND THREAT STATUS)
  • ECOLOGICAL DISTRICT DESCRIPTION – 23
  • ECOLOGICAL DISTRICT DESCRIPTION – 25
  • SIGNIFICANT NATIVE HABITATS (SNHs)
    • LANDOWNER AND SURVEY DETAILS OF SNHs
    • VEGETATION

Seven of the 20 LENZ Level 1 environments found nationwide are present in the Bryant Ecological District (Figure 4). Neighborhood E-Central Mountains make up about ¾ of the district, and Neighborhood E-Central Dry Foothills make up much of the rest. Flats and foothills near Nelson City make up much of the 'Acutely Threatened'.

At Risk environments (20 - 30% coverage remaining), are on the slope of many of the 'Acutely Threatened' environments and extend further into the valleys.

Figure 4: Bryant Ecological District – LENZ Environments Level I
Figure 4: Bryant Ecological District – LENZ Environments Level I

Hillslope forest (61 sites, at least in part) Black beech forest and black beech-mixed

Red beech occurs in more inland areas, with the broadleaf species usually limited to mahoe, makomaka and kamahi. In the lower reaches of the Wairoa, Lee and Roding rivers just above where each of these converge. All large areas in the south are affected by feral ungulates, while browsing is almost absent in the remaining areas.

At the highest altitudes examined (700 – 800 m.a.s.l.), young red beech is common in the forest canopy.

Alluvial forest (25 sites include at least some alluvial forest)

Groundcover species typically contain plenty of gundog fern, with Pellaea rotundifolia and lowland shield fern both ubiquitous. Groundcovers range from sparse to dense, consisting of beds of crown fern, beds of the spider orchid Corybas macranthus, Urtica incisa, Blechnum fluviatile, Uncinia uncinata, Australina pusilla, bush rice grass and Nertera villosa. The ground cover is densely covered with Lastreopsis glabella, hen and chicken fern, with more small shiny spleenwort and locally dense Microsorum scandens.

Common ground cover species include Uncinia scabra, Uncinia uncinata, Pellaea rotundifolia, lowland shield fern, bamboo rice grass in the country, and barberry seedlings.

BIODIVERSITY VALUES OF SNHs

The high canopy (which makes up the canopy in the beech gaps) includes mahoe, putaputaweta, makomaka and kaikomaka. Low woody understory typically includes regeneration of makomako, matai and upland totara, roundleaf coprosma and bushy coprosma, and occasional regeneration of kahikatea. The lower part is dominated by kawakawa, with moderate lowland regeneration of totara and matai and moderate to slight regeneration of pigeonwood, kaikomako, titoki and black mair.

A number of very well-drained terraces supporting lowland totaramatai forest have recently been withdrawn from grazing.

Riparian Non-forest Vegetation Floodzone scrub, shrublands and turfs

Freshwater Wetlands (2 sites)

Mineral Belt vegetation (1 site)

FLORA .1 Overview

NATIONALLY ‘THREATENED’

NATIONALLY ‘AT RISK’

The little-known attractive tree Raukaua edgerleyi was seen only once and is extremely rare in the district. At risk, naturally uncommon' species present within surveyed sites are angry lancewood (2 sites), coral mistletoe Korthalsella clavata (1 reported), limestone kowhai (indeterminate number due to apparent extensive hybridization in the middle of the Wairoa River catchment), and the mineral belt species Carex devia, Carex traversii, Chionochloa defracta and Gentianella stellata, all recorded on the one site surveyed over this geology. Horned lancelet is known only in the ecological region of the two surveyed Wairoa Gorge sites.

DATA DEFICIENT

REGIONALLY RARE (ECOLOGICAL REGION) Regionally rare species present within SNHs are

RARE OR HIGHLY LOCALISED IN THE ECOLOGICAL DISTRICT

LARGE TREES

SOUTHERN AND INLAND DISTRIBUTION LIMITS

  • FAUNA
    • Indigenous bird and other animal species present within SNHs
    • Faunal Habitat within SNHs
  • OTHER ECOLOGICAL VALUES .1 Connectivity and Buffering
    • Ecosystem Services
  • BIODIVERSITY VALUES OF SNHs – 37
    • PLANT PESTS
  • THREATS TO SNHs
    • ANIMAL PESTS
    • OTHER THREATS

Surveys in 2009 near the proposed Lee Dam have detected no presence of bats. In the Wairoa River basin, it occurs alongside the river up to 6 km upstream from the main Wairoa forks. It is rare south of Richmond with its known southern limit in the Ecological District at the southern end of the Mt Heslington 'range' and in Pig Valley.

The Tasman-Nelson Regional Pest Management Strategy for Tasman District Council, 2012) does not list any animal pests that occur in the Tasman district part of the ecological district.

GRAZING AND STOCK FENCING

Browsing becomes visible in the viewing area at higher elevations and in native forest areas continuous with the forest park. Possum numbers in the survey area are not controlled by either TBFree or DOC, with limited control limited to a few private titles. Common wasps are known to devastate invertebrate populations, but their impact on the ecoregion or SNH is not specifically known.

In the ecological district, all woodland and wetland bird species where present are likely to be affected.

EDGE EFFECTS

In the lower Wairoa Valley, a landowner is allowing wild goats to run unchecked and these are beginning to spill over into adjacent native forest SNHs. Possum signs were generally rare, with presence and possum being flushed on several occasions, but this level of detection certainly underestimates their actual abundance. There is considerable evidence of the impact of such pest species on New Zealand's native avifauna and on larger invertebrates.

SNHs are vulnerable to a number of other potential threats with some directly affected by human activities.

DROUGHT AND DISEASE

FIRE

PINE FELLING

SPECIES EXTINCTION

SEA LEVEL RISE AND CLIMATE CHANGE The greatest threat to SNHs in the medium to long

DAMMING

THREATS TO SNHs

  • MANAGEMENT ISSUES

PEST PLANTS AND ANIMALS

A number of plant species are rare or absent from the study area, either due to the current rarity of suitable habitats or because they are naturally uncommon in the Ecological District. A number of nationally 'threatened' or 'at risk' plant species are missing from the ecological district or are in such small numbers that without propagation some will probably be lost. Several of the larger mistletoe species could be established in the ecological district where suitable host trees are present, in areas where possums are managed.

Shovelmint, fierce lancewood and native Germander can be propagated from local seed and planted in suitable locations.

ECOSYSTEM FRAGMENTATION AND RIPARIAN PLANTING

PRIORITIES FOR MANAGEMENT OF SNHs

Restoring the most depleted ecosystems

  • Control of the most potentially damaging pest plants at the beginning of their infestation curve
  • Protect and manage the best SNH examples of the ecosystems in the ecological district
  • Manage nationally and regionally threatened species
    • EXISTING MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES
  • MANAGEMENT OF BIODIVERSITY VALUES OF SNHs – 43
    • FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES
  • MANAGEMENT OF BIODIVERSITY VALUES OF SNHs
    • EXISTING PROTECTION
    • PRIORITIES FOR PROTECTION
  • PROTECTION OF SNHs – 45
  • BIODIVERSITY MONITORING

The survey identified SNHs that are likely to be among the best examples of their kind in the ecological district. A number of projects are already underway in the Tasman District sector of the ecological district within SNHs. Annual weed control undertaken by the Nelson Botanical Society within the single most important alluvial forest remnant in the ecological district, mostly targeting old man's beard.

This should eventually lead to the conservation management of some forestry-owned SNHs in the Ecological District.

Table 5: SNH Area and Proportion of SNHs Protected
Table 5: SNH Area and Proportion of SNHs Protected

INDIGENOUS PLANTS i) Trees and Shrubs

  • SCIENTIFIC AND COMMON NAMES OF SPECIES IN TEXT
  • APPENDICES – 47
  • APPENDICES
  • APPENDICES – 49
  • APPENDICES – 51
  • APPENDICES – 53
  • APPENDICES – 55

COMMON NAME SPECIES NAME . mahoe, white tree Melicytus ramiflorus . makomako; grape Aristotelia serrata .. manuta; lowland wood Plagianthus regius .. mapou, red matipo Myrsine australis .. miro Prumnopitys ferruginea . mountain akeake; bush daisy Olearia avicenniifolia .. mountain beech Fuscospora cliffortioides . mountain toatoa Phyllocladus alpinus .. mountain grape Aristotelia fruticosa. narrow-leaved lacebark/ n-l houhere Hoheria angustifolia .. native or common diet Carmichaelia australis .. ongaonga, tree nettle Urtica ferox .. pepperwood/mountain horopito Pseudowintera colensoi . dovewood; porokaiwhiri Hedycarya arborea .. pukatea Laurelia novae-zelandiae . putaputaweta; marble leaf Carpodetus serratus .. raukawa Raukaua anomalus . red beech; tawhairaunui Fuscospora fusca .. rohutu; NZ myrtle Lophomyrtus obcordata. round-leaved coprosma Coprosma rotundifolia .. scrambling pohuehue Meuhlenbeckia complexa . scrub coprosma Coprosma rhamnoides .. shovel mint Scutellaria novae-zelandiae . silver beech; tawhai Lophozonia menziesii .. stinkwood Coprosma foetidissima . swamp mahoe Melicytus micranthus. Olearia serpentina Ozothamnus vauvilliensis Pittosporum rigidum Raukaua edgerleyi ii) Lianes .. limestone rata vine Metrosideros colensoi .. white rata vine Metrosideros diffusa . iii) Dicotyledonous herbs .. glasswort Sarcocornia quinquefolia . native nettle sp. Acaena juvenca Anaphalioides trinervia Celmisia incana Celmisia monroi Celmisia sessiliflora Celmisia spectabilis Craspedia minor Epilobium brunnescens Gentianella stellata Hydrocotyle heteromeria Hydrocotyle moschata Hydrocotyle novae-zelandiae Hydrocotyle s.

Asplenium appendiculatum Asplenium hookerianum Blechnum chambersii Blechnum fluviatile Lastreopsis glabella Leptolepia novae-zelandiae Leptopteris hymenophylloides Microsorum scandens Rumhora adiantiformis INHEEMSE VOGELS

INDIGENOUS MAMMALS

INDIGENOUS LIZARDS

INDIGENOUS FRESHWATER FISH

INTRODUCED PLANTS

INTRODUCED ANIMALS

2010) Conservation status of New Zealand freshwater fish Derivation of vegetation mapping units for an ecological survey of Tongariro National Park, North Island, New Zealand. Forest Stewardship Council (2013) National Standard for Plantation Forest Management Certification in New Zealand – Approved Version 5.7. 2011) TDC State of the Environment Report: The Health of Freshwater Fish Communities in Tasman District Conservation Status of New Zealand Indigenous Vascular Plants.

Geological Society of New Zealand Miscellaneous Publication 104. editor) (1987) Ecological Districts and Regions of New Zealand, Third Revised Edition.

  • FURTHER READING

New Zealand Threat Classification Series 19. 2006) Botanical values ​​of the Wairoa and Lee River valleys: assessment in relation to possible dam and reservoir sites. 2004) Tasman District Biodiversity Review – Overview of native ecosystems on private land and opportunities for protection. 1978) Inventory of tall forest stands of lowland plains and terraces in Nelson and Marlborough Land Districts, NZ.

Identification of outstanding natural features and landscapes and other landscape sensitive areas for Nelson City Council.

Figure

Figure 1: Bryant Ecological District
Figure 2: Bryant Ecological District – QMap geology
Figure 3: Bryant Ecological District – Rainfall
Table 1: Indigenous Ecosystems – Bryant Ecological District
+7

References

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