David Ince Institute of Land & Food Resources John Italiano Box Hill Inštitut TAFE. Ray Mason-Woods Central Gippsland Institute of TAFE Rob McAllister Box Hill Institute of TAFE.
Individual Interviews – February–March 2000
Trends in Apprenticeships and
Traineeships in Victoria, 1995–1999
Overall Trends 1995–1999
This growth in initiations resulted in the total training rate growing to an all-time high in 1999. Strong growth in the start of trainees in 1996 and 1998 recorded the strongest growth in numbers in training in these years.
Apprentices and Trainees 1995–1999
In 1998, the total in training passed the previous record level seen in 1989, when the system was dominated by apprenticeships, and the number continued to rise in 1999. Figures for the numbers in training clearly show the different nature of the apprentice and trainee systems over this period.
Prior to 1998, existing employees were not separately identified, but their numbers are believed to be small. Given the economic growth and employment levels during this period, this represents a relative decline in the importance of apprenticeships in the Victorian economy.
This occupation experienced 200% growth between 1995 and 1999 and has maintained its position as one of the leading apprenticeship and trainee occupations. The number of starts in this occupation fell by 14% between 1995 and 1999, making it the only significant category to see a drop in the number of starts over the period.
The fastest growth in total introductions between 1995 and 1999 was in the Barwon region, where introductions increased by 356%. The main difference between metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions is that apprenticeship growth was strongest in Melbourne, while the highest rates of apprenticeship growth were recorded outside of Melbourne.
Age of Apprentices and Trainees
Between 1995 and 1999, the number of starters grew for all age groups, and the numerical growth in the number of starters was greater for those under 25 than for those over 25. The second point is that there is now a large group of trainees in the older part of the workforce.
Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF) Level
There are two features of this rise in the average age of apprentices and trainees that are relevant to the overall profile and purpose of the system. The overall pattern of apprenticeships and apprenticeship starts reflects a combination of the expansion of apprenticeships and their shift to AQF 3.
The percentage of existing employees is lowest in traditional apprenticeship occupations, with a few exceptions. In all metropolitan regions except Inner Melbourne, existing employees accounted for a lower than average proportion of starts.
High-volume Apprenticeships and Traineeships
For both apprenticeships and traineeships, the top ten courses account for more than half of all starts. Despite the growing number of professions for which internships apply, the top eight accounted for more than 50% of starters.
Participation by Equity Groups
- Apprentice and Trainee Commencements, Victoria, 1975–76 to 1998–99
- Apprenticeship and Traineeship Commencements by Occupation
- Apprenticeship Commencements by PETE Planning Regions, Victoria,
- Apprenticeship Commencements by Age, Victoria, 1995–1999
- Apprenticeship Commencements by Australian Qualifications
- Existing Employees as Percentage of Total Apprenticeship and Traineeship
- Total Apprenticeship and Traineeship Commencements by Gender,
APPENDIX 7 Existing employees as a percentage of total apprenticeships and traineeships Existing employees as a percentage of the total number of apprenticeships and traineeships commenced, Victoria, 1999, by apprenticeship/practice. Existing employees as a percentage of total apprenticeships and traineeships commenced, Victoria, 1999, by Australian Qualification Framework (AQF) level.
A very high proportion of employers and apprentices/students were satisfied with the assessment process in general. A significant proportion of employers believe that the training lacked an element of personal development for apprentices and trainees.
There were some differences in the reactions of students and trainees to two of the issues. The general views of apprentices and trainees on the results were very similar to those of the employers.
RE-INTRODUCTION IF NECESSARY] We are conducting research on behalf of the Victorian Government into the quality of training in Victoria's Apprenticeship and Apprenticeship system. To let you know that part of this interview may be listened to by my supervisor as part of my training.
INFORMATION (HIGH PRIORITY)
APPROPRIATENESS OF ENROLLMENT (HIGH PRIORITY)
RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHER BODIES (MEDIUM PRIORITY)
TRAINING PLAN (MEDIUM PRIORITY)
BASIC COMPLIANCE DELIVERY (HIGH PRIORITY)
I'm going to read you some of the statements other apprentices/trainees have made about the results of the programs they've been involved with. Depending on your involvement, please tell me whether you agree or disagree with each of the statements you read.
NOTICE: ON THEIR SITE OR EVERYTHING THEY ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR IF MORE THAN ONE SITE]. Our records show that [SHOW ZIP CODE FROM SAMPLE] is your company's postal code, is this correct.
INFORMATION (HIGH PRIORITY)
ASK ALL EXCEPT CODE 7 IN Q.1] What type of provider do you mainly use to train (most of these apprentices/this apprentice). Are apprentices/learners recognised, i.e. credited, for the skills and competencies they have before training delivery begins.
TRAINING PLAN (MEDIUM PRIORITY)
Which of the following bodies, if any, did you deal with when organizing your apprenticeships/practice placements. Which of the following methods, if any, does the training provider use to deliver the training.
Working Paper 2
Additional analysis of survey of apprentices and trainees 1
81% of apprentice respondents indicated that their training was conducted both on and off the job, while 54% of apprentice respondents indicated their training was "entirely on the job". 32% of apprentice and trainee respondents who claimed their education was "entirely on the job" also claimed to have attended college/classes.
Adequacy of information
It is difficult to draw too many conclusions from this difference, as there appears to be some confusion between "on-the-job" and "on-site delivery". 29% of apprentice and trainee respondents who said their training was "fully on the job" also said that a TAFE institute was their main training provider, and 20% of apprentice and trainee respondents who said that ' A TAFE institute is their main provider, also said their training was "fully operational".
Appropriateness of enrolment
There were no significant differences between trainee and trainee satisfaction levels with training methods, although 8% expressed dissatisfaction and 20% were neither satisfied nor dissatisfied. If there was one focus for improvement, only 74% felt they received sufficient information about their progress.
Outcomes of training
92% of all respondents who said a TAFE institution was their main training provider believed that their apprenticeship/traineeship had helped them achieve the main reason they had for entering this type of training/work. Only 85% of those who said their main training provider was in-house thought it had helped them achieve their main goal.
Working Paper 3
Additional analysis of survey of employers 2
PRACTICES - LEARNING - PRACTICES - LEARNING - PRACTICE - LEARNING - LEARNING - LEARNING - LEARNING - LEARNING ICESHIPS - TRAINEESHIPS - LEARNING - TRAINEESHIPS - LEARNING PADS - TRAINEESHIPS - LEARNING - TRAINEESHIPS - APPRENTICESHIP - PRACTICE - APPRENTICESHIP - PRACTICE - APPRENTICESHIP - PRACTICE - LEARNING - PRACTICE - LEARNING - PRACTICE - LEARNING - PRACTICE POSSIBLY - LEARNING ICESHIPS - TRAINEESHIPS - LEARNING ICESHIPS - TRAINEESHIPS - APPRENTICESHIPS - TRAINEESHIPS - APPRENTICESHIPS - PRACTICES - LEARNING - PRACTICES - LEARNING - PRACTICE - LEARNING - LEARNING - LEARNING - LEARNING - LEARNING ICESHIPS - TRAINEESHIPS - LEARNING - TRAINEESHIPS - TEACHERS - TRAINEESHIPS - TEACHERS - TRAINEESHIPS - APPRENTICESHIP - PRACTICE - APPRENTICESHIP - PRACTICE - APPRENTICESHIP - PRACTICE - LEARNING - PRACTICE - LEARNING - PRACTICE - LEARNING - PRACTICE POSSIBLE - TEACHERS - TRAINEESHIPS - TEACHERS - TRAINEESHIPS - APPRENTICESHIPS - TRAINEESHIPS - APPRENTICESHIPS - PRACTICES - LEARNING - PRACTICES - LEARNING - PRACTICE - LEARNING - LEARNING - LEARNING - LEARNING - LEARNING ICESHIPS - TRAINEESHIPS - LEARNING - TRAINEESHIPS - LEARNING PAPERS - TRAINEESHIPS - LEARNING - TRAINEESHIPS - APPRENTICE - PRACTICE - APPRENTICE - PRACTICE - APPRENTICE - PRACTICE - LEARNING - PRACTICE - LEARNING - PRACTICE - LEARNING - PRACTICE POSSIBLY - LEARNING ICESHIPS - TRAINEESSHIPS - LEARNING ICESHIPS - TRAINEESHIPS - LEARNING PLACES - TRAINEESHIPS - APPRENTICESHIPS - PRACTICES - LEARNING - PRACTICES - LEARNING - PRACTICE - LEARNING - LEARNING - LEARNING - LEARNING - LEARNING ICESHIPS - TRAINEESHIPS - APPRENTICESHIPS - TRAINEESHIPS - LEARNING PACKAGES - TRAINEESHIPS - TEACHERS - TRAINEESHIPS - APPRENTICESHIP - PRACTICE ACTIVITIES - APPRENTICESHIP - PRACTICE - APPRENTICESHIP - PRACTICE - APPRENTICESHIP - PRACTICE - LEARNING - PRACTICE - LEARNING - PRACTICE - LEARNING - PRACTICE.
A REPORT ON FINDINGS OF FOCUS GROUPS
Quality of training
When a regression analysis of the focus group survey results was conducted1, it was found that the quality of on-the-job training was also a statistical predictor of student satisfaction with the apprenticeship/traineeship. Business Administration Internship (N=5) Health/Nursing Internship (N=3) Blue Collar Internship (N=4) On-the-job training received by apprentices/trainees.
VOCED COVER SHEET
I would like to thank everyone who contributed to the Review and to the preparation of this report. This review was a team effort and my special thanks go to the project team who helped in many ways and whose professionalism and support was never less than exemplary.
A Quality System?
Some of these weaknesses are the result of the way Victoria has managed its apprenticeship and traineeship system. Other weaknesses in the system arise from the national framework of the EUD system and the relationship between the Commonwealth and state.
Quality Training and Learning?
The reluctance of a minority of employers to work with Registered Training Organizations or to release apprentices or trainees for off-the-job training in either the workplace or outside the workplace demonstrates a lack of commitment to quality training, contradicting claims that growth in the numbers of New Apprenticeships is evidence of the emergence of a stronger training culture and undermines the training efforts of the majority of good employers involved in and contributing to the system. Most disappointing of all is the fact that some apprentices and many apprentices are not.
A Better Balance
User choice has had both positive and negative effects on the quality of training in Victoria. There are significant inefficiencies in the ways in which PETE manages various aspects of the apprenticeship and traineeship system, particularly in relation to information management.
While an assessment of its full effect on the quality of training can only be achieved over a longer period, this Review believes that it has promoted greater flexibility, responsiveness and innovation in training delivery. The effectiveness, efficiency and accountability and therefore the quality of the apprenticeship and traineeship system will be improved by clarifying five matters relating to the legislation covering the apprenticeship and traineeship system in Victoria.
List of Recommendations
- Recommendation 1
- Recommendation 2
- Recommendation 3
- Recommendation 4
- Recommendation 5
- Recommendation 6
- Recommendation 7
- Recommendation 8
- Recommendation 9
- Recommendation 10
- Recommendation 11
- Recommendation 12
- Recommendation 13
- Recommendation 14
- Recommendation 15
- Recommendation 16
- Recommendation 18
- Recommendation 19
- Recommendation 20
- Recommendation 21
- Recommendation 22
- Recommendation 23
- Continuity and change
- The challenges to quality
- Fitness for purpose
- Ethical practice and fair dealing
Ÿ evidence of abuse of the internship and internship system by unethical and, in a small number of cases, fraudulent organizations. This chapter addresses the systemic performance of the apprenticeship and apprenticeship system in Victoria and the extent to which it supports quality training outcomes.
Ÿ The standards confuse the quality of training management with the quality of training delivery. While the ARF training delivery standards consistently refer to requirements of the training packages, there are insufficient.
Audit and review
When asked whether they considered PETE's RTO audit program to be adequate in scope, depth and frequency, 47 of the 99 submissions explicitly addressed the question. When asked whether they considered PETE's RTO audit processes sufficient to ensure the quality of the apprenticeship/traineeship system, 46 submissions explicitly addressed the question.
Aspects of the training market
Under its terms of reference, the Review is required to consider whether price arrangements, User Choice and government subsidies and employer rebates provide value for money in terms of quality of outcomes and completion rates. This section examines the first three of these issues, while the issue of termination levels is examined in Chapter 3.
Unions also argued that the costs associated with the transition to on-the-job training and assessment are not factored into the PETE pricing model.21. Ÿ minimization of investments in the development of learning materials, teaching technologies, equipment and materials supplied and other teaching resources.
Several submissions pointed to the lack of skills as an indicator of the failure of the User Choice system. With the introduction of User Choice, combined with the introduction of the National Training Framework, many private providers and ACE providers were able to access government funding for practical and hands-on training.
Government employer subsidies and rebates
Reliance on legislation and regulations assumes that government wants to be in the business of quality management via those instruments. There is no way the government can manage the quality of the new, changing and expanding training environment in any physical sense.38.
Apprentice wage provisions
The apprentice wage provisions contained in the previous awards (expressed as a percentage of the tradesman's rate) were one of these. Advice from the Industrial Relations Unit in the Department of Treasury and Finance is that there is currently no mechanism available in terms of legislation to amend these documents.
Single or dual qualifications
The Victorian Government will need to decide whether to continue issuing Certificates of Completion, thus requiring legislative changes, or whether there should be a return to the original intention of having a certificate issued by the RTO. If the latter, this will require the resolution of issues related to the "signature" of the competence by the employer and the continuous monitoring by the ZRT during the "fourth year" of the internship.
Complaints and grievances
The investigative system worked as long as the parties to the training agreement recognized the tribunal's authority. The research part of the legislation now appears to be outdated and needs a major overhaul.
Participation in industrial action by apprentices and trainees
Administration and information systems
Ÿ administrative links between different parts of PETE with regard to the regulation and procurement of training;. Ÿ efficient administration at the interface between PETE and DETYA regarding the payment of Commonwealth contributions to employers; And.
Use of electronic systems
The management of the learning and apprenticeship system in Victoria, while having some strengths, is supported by a clumsy and inefficient set of business processes that unnecessarily increase costs.
The DELTA system
Ÿ AAB is aware of the inconvenience for stakeholders due to the lack of a DELTA number. Error rates in the initial basic information — such as the name of the internship, its level, the status of the apprentice/trainee (new or existing employee) — appear.
Duplication of data collection and entry
There are no financial incentives for TAFE institutions to record completions, although the Review notes that not all good data reporting relies on financial incentives. Until there are better ways to ensure quality data on completions, discussions about whether completion rates are high or low will be of limited value.
The AAB has advised the Review that follow-up procedures to determine termination or withdrawal have been subsequently established and that the procedures are consistent with AVETMISS guidelines for statistics. While sympathetic to their argument, the Review considered this a matter outside the Terms of Reference.
Advice to RTOs
Survey of apprentices and trainees
Age of respondents
The finding that 44% of trainees did not have enough information to choose a course is of considerable concern. Ÿ 66% of apprentices surveyed also believed they had enough information to choose a training provider, while only 40% of trainees surveyed believed so.
Ÿ While 74% of apprentices and trainees surveyed indicated that they received sufficient information about their terms of employment, there was a large difference in satisfaction with the information received about choosing the right course. The finding that 60% of trainees feel they do not have enough information about choosing a training provider raises important questions about how information is available in the training market.
Reasons for becoming involved
Existing and new employees
However, there was little difference in the response to the question whether training could have started at a higher level. 41% of existing employees and 40% of new employees indicate that their training could have started at a higher level.
Choice of training provider
It is therefore not surprising that only 75% of existing employees said they felt they were acquiring new skills, while 90% of new hires felt this was the case.
Training delivery and assessment