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Exploring the terminology, definitions, and forms of Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) in landscape architecture

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The research objectives are to (1) explore key similarities and differences in how POE is defined by different scholars and practitioners and how these similarities and differences are shaped by the disciplinary context, (2) explore how the concept has evolved throughout history evolved and how it is shaped by the growth of the discipline and industry, and (3) characterizes the main existing models (i.e., the focus of an evaluation and how an evaluation is conducted) of POE practices. The research objectives are to (1) explore key similarities and differences in how POE is defined by different scholars and practitioners and how these similarities and differences are shaped by the disciplinary context, (2) explore how the concept has evolved throughout history evolved. and how it is shaped by the growth of the discipline and industry, and (3) characterize the main existing models (i.e., the focus of an evaluation and how an evaluation is conducted) of POE practices. As suggested by the phrase POE itself, these definitions indicate that a pre-requisite for calling a practice a POE is that the object to be evaluated (i.e. the project or development) must be occupied.

As suggested by the phrase POE itself, these definitions indicate that a prerequisite for a practice to be called a POE is that the object (i.e. the project or development) to be evaluated must be occupied. Ozdil [9], for example, suggests that POE be defined as "the assessment of the performance of physical design elements in a given, in-use facility."

The Workflow Stages of the Evaluation Object

Hadjri and Crozier [16], for example, suggest that management is also part of the objective of a POE—“POE is a process that takes a rigorous approach to the assessment of both the technological and anthropological elements of a building in use. Hadjri and Crozier [16], for example, suggest that management is also part of the objective of a POE—“POE is a process that takes a rigorous approach to the assessment of both the technological and anthropological elements of a building in use. By correlating the workflow stage of the evaluation object with the time when the definitions were proposed, this research found that the scope of the POE object has gradually broadened in the past few decades, as shown in Figure 8.

Model for Evaluation

Evaluation Model—Satisfaction

As shown in Figure 10, three-quarters of these definitions indicate that the emphasis should be placed on users, and the nature of an NP is to measure how satisfied users are with the project. Second only to the satisfaction model, the performance model is indicated by 17 definitions, accounting for 44% of the 39 definitions containing model-relevant information. This type of evaluation model tends to be more holistic or general than the satisfaction model (this is explained in detail in section 3.2.2.4).

Aside from the satisfaction model and the performance model, there is also a small portion of definitions that state that a POE should evaluate a project against its goals or certain standards. Of the thirty-nine definitions, five (13%) indicate that a POE should consider both the objectives of a project and the satisfaction of a particular group of stakeholders. One definition suggests that both standards and a project's goals should be considered when conducting a POE and that ideally, a project's goals should be integrated with certain standards.

As shown in Figure 10, three quarters of these definitions indicate that the emphasis should be placed on the users and the nature of a POE is to measure how satisfied users are with the project. 50], for example, is a user satisfaction-oriented definition - "POE is an assessment of the extent to which a designed environment satisfies and supports explicit and implicit human needs and values ​​of those for whom a building is designed." In addition, 10% of the satisfaction-oriented definitions consider not only users' satisfaction, but also the design commissioners' satisfaction.

Additionally, 10% of satisfaction-oriented definitions consider not only user satisfaction, but also design client satisfaction.

Evaluation Model—Goals

49], for example, is a user satisfaction-oriented definition - "POE is an assessment of the degree to which a designed setting satisfies and supports explicit and implicit human needs and values ​​of those for whom a building is designed." . In addition to users and owners, the operators of a project are also taken into account in an evaluation from the National Research Council [3]—“. A POE necessarily takes into account the needs, perceptions and expectations of owners, operators and residents."

Evaluation Model—Norms

Therefore, the performance model adopted by the POE definitions can probably be considered the rudiment of the concept of 'performance evaluation' before it grew out of the concept of POE. As explained in the previous section, according to some publications on LPE and BPE, the performance model always takes into account elements such as satisfaction, goals and certain norms. As shown in Table 2, in the 1970s, POE's sole focus was user satisfaction.

However, since the 1980s, "capacity" has become one of the most commonly accepted models in POE definitions, alongside nine other models. By correlating the adoption of valuation models with the discipline of the authors of the definition, this research found that there are significant differences between landscape architecture and architecture in the adoption of valuation models. Table 3 shows the distribution pattern of the model adopted in the definitions of landscape architects and architects.

As shown in Table 3, the evaluation model that has been most often used by landscape architects is also the 'user satisfaction' model. Half of the definitions given by landscape architects suggest that the nature of a POE is a form of user-oriented evaluation that focuses mainly on how satisfied the users are with a project. In contrast, the model most frequently used by architectural definitions is the performance model, accounting for 29% of the total use.

The difference in model adoption between landscape architecture and architecture may reveal that landscape architecture is lagging behind architecture in the evolution from the mono-focus user satisfaction model to the comprehensive performance model.

Discussion

We argue that scholars and practitioners need to be aware of the wide range of possibilities covered by the concept and explicitly specify the POE object(s) and model(s) they intend to use in their communications. The representative set of definitions we have collected demonstrates that scholars and practitioners may often be unaware of the full terrain of the concept or its definition may not be presented in a complete form. Although some scholars and practitioners [16–19] are aware of the issue of terminology and definition, without a systematic investigation such as this study, none of the previous studies have shown an awareness of the "whole picture" of the concept.

Being aware of the "full picture" that was "painted" by this study can, on the one hand, help future evaluators to avoid missing any key aspect of the project and make their evaluations more comprehensive. Moreover, as shown in Figure 8 and Table 2, the conceptual breadth gradually expands over time and compared to the discourse in the earlier history of the conceptual. As explained in Sections 3.2.1.1 and 3.2.2.10 respectively, scholars and practitioners in the landscape architecture discipline use the concept differently compared to the architectural discipline in terms of objects and valuation models.

For example, of the collected POE definitions, more than half of the landscape architecture definitions indicate that a project must be "busy" in order to conduct such evaluations. Yet, unlike architectural projects (i.e. buildings in most cases), a significant proportion of landscape projects (some natural areas, for example) are not designed to be inhabited by human 'users'. This incongruity in concept adaptation highlights the need to question the nature of the concept.

Today's nature of POE has already moved away from use permit practices, and the "busy" prerequisite has been "used up" from the nature of the concept and should be changed to better fit a wider scope of practice and application.

Conclusions

Post-occupancy appraisal is the process of systematically and rigorously evaluating buildings after they have been constructed and occupied for a period of time. Post-occupancy evaluation (POE) is a diagnostic tool and system that allows facility managers to identify and evaluate critical aspects of building performance. Post-occupancy evaluation is the process of systematically comparing the actual performance of the building, i.e. the performance measures, with explicitly defined performance criteria.

Post-occupancy evaluation (POE) is generally defined as the process of systematically evaluating the extent to which occupied buildings meet occupier needs and organizational objectives. Post-occupancy evaluation (POE) is a process of systematically evaluating the performance of buildings after they have been built and used for some time. Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE), is the generic term for a variety of general programs and procedures, as well as specific techniques for the evaluation of existing buildings and facilities.

Post-occupancy evaluation (POE), seen as a sub-process of BPE, can be defined as the systematic and rigorous evaluation of buildings after they have been built and in use for some time. Post-occupancy evaluation (POE) is the assessment of how an existing building meets its design intent. Post-occupancy evaluation (POE) is a process of assessing a building's performance to its occupants and intended function during its occupation.

Post-occupancy evaluation (POE) is the process of understanding how well a building meets the needs of customers and building users. Post-occupancy evaluation is an established method of studying building occupants for feedback and/or through measurements of building performance. Performance assessment of buildings via post-occupancy evaluation: A case study of the building of the architecture and software engineering departments of Salahaddin University-Erbil, Iraq.Front.

Lackney, J.A.The State of Post-Occupancy Evaluation in the Practice of Educational Design; ERIC: Washington, DC, VSA, 2001. The Spaces between the Rooms: A Post-Ooccupancy Evaluation of Informal Social Spaces in the HEDCO Education Building.

References

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