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Digital Library Digital Library

All other publications Miscellaneous works

1981

Field techniques manual Field techniques manual

Department of Agriculture, Western Australia

Follow this and additional works at: https://researchlibrary.agric.wa.gov.au/pubns

Part of the Agricultural Science Commons, Agronomy and Crop Sciences Commons, and the Horticulture Commons

Recommended Citation Recommended Citation

Department of Agriculture, Western Australia. (1981), Field techniques manual. Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia, Perth. Book.

This book is brought to you for free and open access by the Miscellaneous works at Digital Library. It has been accepted for inclusion in All other publications by an authorized administrator of Digital Library. For more

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F I E L D T E C H N I Q U E S MANUAL

V o l u m e 1

CROP AND P A S T U R E RESEARCH

(1981)

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INTRODUCTION

T h e W e s t e r n A u s t r a l i a n D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e h a s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s in t h e f i e l d s o f r e g u l a t i o n o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s , e x t e n s i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n a n d i n a g r i c u l t u r a l research.

R e s e a r c h i s o n e o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s m o s t i m p o r t a n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . It h a s many a s p e c t s , r a n g i n g f r o m e c o n o m i c r e s e a r c h , t h r o u g h t h e p l a n t and a n i m a l i n d u s t r i e s t o t h e p r o c e s s i n g a n d m a r k e t i n g o f agricultural

p r o d u c t s . B u t a l l a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y of W e s t e r n A u s t r a l i a ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l industries.

T h e f i e l d o f c r o p a n d p a s t u r e r e s e a r c h c o v e r s t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n a n d testing o f new c r o p a n d p a s t u r e v a r i e t i e s , c r o p a g r o n o m y , t i l l a g e m e t h o d s , crop r o t a t i o n s , t e s t i n g p a s t u r e s p e c i e s u n d e r g r a z i n g , p l a n t n u t r i t i o n , weed c o n t r o l a n d p l a n t diseases.

T e c h n i c a l s t a f f p l a y a v i t a l r o l e i n a l l o f t h e s e r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m m e s . By p r o v i d i n g a g u i d e t o t h e t e c h n i q u e s a n d e q u i p m e n t u s e d i n r e s e a r c h we hope t o i m p r o v e b o t h t h e t r a i n i n g a n d j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t e c h n i c a l s t a f f and t h e o v e r a l l e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s r e s e a r c h programmes.

T h e o r i g i n a l a i m s s e t f o r t h e m a n u a l w e r e t o -

1 . P r o v i d e t h e p r i n c i p l e s b e h i n d t h e t e c h n i q u e s adopted.

2 . S e t d o w n c o m m o n l y u s e d p r a c t i c e s w h i c h e x p e r i e n c e h a s s h o w n t o be satisfactory.

3 . P r o v i d e a s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r reference.

4 . P r o v i d e r e f e r e n c e , w h e r e a p p l i c a b l e , t o s o u r c e s o f m o r e detailed information.

N o t a l l o f t h e s e a i m s h a v e n e c e s s a r i l y b e e n a c h i e v e d i n t h i s e d i t i o n of t h e c r o p a n d p a s t u r e r e s e a r c h m a n u a l , b u t we h o p e t h a t t h e m a n u a l will a s s i s t a l l s t a f f c o n c e r n e d w i t h f i e l d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n a n d p r o v i d e a basis f o r i m p r o v e m e n t i n t h e future.

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FIELD TECHNIQUES MANUAL VOLUME 1

CROP AND PASTURE RESEARCH

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. THE

A.

B.

C.

Topic Page

SCHEDULE Introduction

M a k i n g Up a Schedule H a n d l i n g Schedules

1.1 1.1 1.1 1.3

2. S I T E SELECTION AND PREPARATION 2.1

A. S e l e c t i n g Sites 2.1

B. M a r k i n g O u t a n Experiment 2.3

3. FENCING 3.1

A. P r i n c i p l e s o f F e n c e Construction 3.1

B. F e n c i n g f o r T r i a l Sites 3.4

C. P r a c t i c a l H i n t s o n F e n c e Erection 3.8

D. E l e c t r i c F e n c i n g a n d i t s Advantages 3.9

E. F e n c e Construction 3.10

F. P r i n c i p l e s o f E l e c t r i c Fencing 3.11

G. F e n c e Design 3.13

H. E x p e r i m e n t a l S i t e Layout 3.14

4. SEED SUPPLIES FOR CROP AND PASTURE TRIALS 4.1

A. S e e d Cleaning 4.1

B. I n s e c t C o n t r o l i n S t o r e d Grain 4.4

C. S e e d Storage 4.6

D. O r d e r i n g a n d D e s p a t c h o f S e e d Supplies 4.8

E. I n o c u l a t i o n o f L e g u m e Seeds 4.10

5. PEDIGREE SEED PRODUCTION 5.1

A. P a d d o c k S e l e c t i o n a n d Management 5.1

B. Cultivation 5.2

C. Seeding 5.3

D. Spraying 5.3

E. Roguing 5.3

F. Pre-harvest 5.3

G. Harvest 5.3

H. S e e d Cleaning 5.4

I. Pickling 5.4

J. Sampling 5.4

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6. PREPARING A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

F.

G.

Topic Page

F E R T I L I S E R S F O R F I E L D EXPERIMENTS Introduction

H a n d l i n g B u l k Fertilisers F e r t i l i s e r Mixing

P r o p e r t i e s o f C o m m o n Fertiliser H a n d Topdressing

T i m e o f Application A p p l i c a t i o n Problems

6.1 6.1 6.2 6.2 6.8 6.8 6.10 6.11

7. S E E D I N G E X P E R I M E N T A L TRIALS 7.1

A. D i s c D r i l l s a n d Combines 7.1

B. W o r k i n g w i t h C o n e Seeders 7.4

8. P R I N C I P L E S O F WEED CONTROL 8.1

A. Introduction 8.1

B. Formulations 8.1

C. M o d e o f Entry 8.2

D. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d A c t i v i t y o f Herbicides 8.4

E. M o d e o f Action 8.7

F. R e a s o n s f o r Selectivity 8.7

G. F a t e o f Herbicides 8.9

H. R e s i d u a l A c t i o n a n d Breakdown 8.10

I. P e r s i s t a n c e o f Herbicides 8.11

J. T o x i c i t y o f Herbicides 8.11

K. H a n d l i n g E x p e r i m e n t a l Chemicals 8.13

L. H a z a r d s t o N o n - t a r g e t Plants 8.14

9. C A L I B R A T I O N AND U S E O F S P R A Y I N G EQUIPMENT 9.1

A. E x p e r i m e n t a l M i n i Boom 9.1

B. O t h e r B o o m Equipment 9.5

C. T e r r a Nozzle 9.6

D. H a n d L e a d Spraying 9.6

E. Misters 9.7

F. P r a c t i c a l P o i n t s i n Spraying 9.7

G. C h e c k L i s t f o r S p r a y i n g a Trial 9.9

H. E s s e n t i a l Equipment 9.10

I. M e t r i c Conversions 9.10

10. A P P L I C A T I O N O F INSECTICIDES 10.1

A. G r o u n d Application 10.1

B. A e r i a l Application 10.1

il. O B S E R V A T I O N , V I S U A L A S S E S S M E N T AND NOTE-TAKING 11.1

A. Introduction 11.1

B. W h a t t o Record 11.1

C. R a t i n g Plots 11.4

D. T a k i n g Notes 11.4

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12. SOIL

Topic P a g e

12.1 SAMPLING

A. Introduction 12.1

B. S a m p l i n g Method 12.1

C. S a m p l e Handling 12.2

D. S a m p l i n g Equipment 12.4

E. F u r t h e r Reading 12.4

13. P A S T U R E HERBAGE SAMPLING 13.1

A. Introduction 13.1

B. H e r b a g e Yield 13.1

C. B o t a n i c a l Composition 13.5

D. C h e m i c a l C o m p o s i t i o n a n d Quality 13.6

E. S a m p l i n g Consideration 13.7

F. G e n e r a l Procedures 13.8

14. P A S T U R E S E E D SAMPLING 14.1

A. Introduction 14.1

B. C o l l e c t i o n o f S a m p l e s i n t h e Field 14.1

C. T r e a t m e n t o f S a m p l e s i n t h e Laboratory 14.2

15. HARVESTING 15.1

A. C o m m e r c i a l E q u i p m e n t - Introduction 15.1

B. H a r v e s t i n g Procedures 15.1

C. W o r k i n g w i t h E x p e r i m e n t a l Harvesters 15.3

16. U S E O F COMPUTERS I N F I E L D EXPERIMENTS 16.1

17. WORK SAFETY 17.1

A. D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e W o r k S a f e t y Policy 17.1

B. S a f e t y w i t h Machinery 17.2

C. S a f e t y w i t h A g r i c u l t u r a l Chemicals 17.5

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A.

B.

INTRODUCTION

MAKING

1 . THE SCHEDULE

1.1

1.1 UP A SCHEDULE

1. E x p e r i m e n t n u m b e r a n d f i l e number 1.1

2. E x p e r i m e n t title 1.1

3. Officers 1.1

4. Locality/property 1.1

5. Object 1.1

6. S o i l s , v e g e t a t i o n a n d p r e v i o u s history 1.1

7. Treatments 1.2

8. Responsibilities 1.2

9. Supplies 1.2

10. E x p e r i m e n t a l detail 1.2

11. T h e plan 1.2

C. HANDLING SCHEDULES 1.3

1. R e a d i n g t h e schedule 1.3

2. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f schedules 1.3

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1 . THE SCHEDULE

A . INTRODUCTION

S c h e d u l e s p r o v i a e t h e l i n k b e t w e e n r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r s r e s p o n s i b l e for e x p e r i m e n t s a n d t h e p e r s o n n e l w h o w i l l h a v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r executing t h e e x p e r i m e n t s i n t h e field.

A g o o d s c h e a u l e i s t h e r e f o r e o n e w h i c h s t a t e s c l e a r l y t h e a i m s o f the e x p e r i m e n t , d e f i n e s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f p e r s o n n e l i n v o l v e d a n d gives a n u n a m b i g u o u s d e s c r i p t i o n o f e x p e r i m e n t l a y o u t , t h e w a y t r e a t m e n t s should b e a p p l i e d a n d t h e w a y i n w h i c h r e s u l t s w i l l b e recorded.

B . MAKING UP A SCHEDULE

F i g u r e 1 . 1 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e f e a t u r e s o f a w e l l d e s i g n e d schedule.

PROJECT SHEET

1 . E x p e r i m e n t n u m b e r a n d f i l e n u m b e r

E x p e r i m e n t n u m b e r s a r e a l l o c a t e d t o e v e r y e x p e r i m e n t , d e s c r i b i n g t h e year, l o c a t i o n ( D i s t r i c t O f f i c e o r R e s e a r c h S t a t i o n ) a n d t h e n u m b e r o f the e x p e r i m e n t a t t h a t l o c a t i o n . L o c a t i o n c o d e s u s e d b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t are l i s t e d i n T a b l e 1 . 1 a n d a y e a r l y r e g i s t e r o f a l l e x p e r i m e n t s i s k e p t by t h e D i v i s i o n o f P l a n t R e s e a r c h . I t i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f e v e r y officer m a k i n g u p a s c h e d u l e t o e n s u r e t h a t a n e x p e r i m e n t n u m b e r i s a l l o c a t e d and t h e e x p e r i m e n t i s e n t e r e d i n t o t h e register.

T h e f i l e n u m b e r i s t h e r e f e r e n c e t o t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l f i l e c o n c e r n e d with t h e experiment.

2 . E x p e r i m e n t t i t l e

T h e t i t l e s h o u l d b e e x p l a n a t o r y . F o r e x a m p l e , ' N i t r o g e n r a t e s x T i m e s of a p p l i c a t i o n o n w h e a t ' i s b e t t e r t h a n ' N i t r o g e n o n cereals'.

3 . O f f i c e r s

L i s t t h e o f f i c e r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a n d t h e i r telephone n u m b e r s a n d e x t e n s i o n n u m b e r s . S h o u l d a q u e r y a r i s e , i t i s imperative

t h a t f i e l a s t a f f know who t o c o n t a c t a n d w h e r e t h e y a r e l o c a t e d . T h e name a n d e x t e n s i o n n u m b e r o f t h e r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r ' s t e c h n i c i a n s h o u l d a l s o be

incluaed.

4 . L o c a l i t y / p r o p e r t y

T h i s may h a v e t o b e f i l l e d i n l a t e r w h e n a s i t e h a s b e e n selected.

5 . O b j e c t

T h e r e s h o u l d b e a f u l l , b u t c o n c i s e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e a i m o f the e x p e r i m e n t , e x p a n d i n g o n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l title.

6 . S o i l s , v e g e t a t i o n a n d p r e v i o u s h i s t o r y

I t a s i t e h a s n o t b e e n s e l e c t e d , t h i s s e c t i o n s h o u l d b e f i l l e d i n b y field s t a f f w h e n t h e s i t e h a s b e e n decided.

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7 . Treatments

D e s c r i b e t h e t r e a t m e n t s ; i n c l u d e a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l design b e i n g used.

DETAIL SHEET

T h e d e t a i l s h e e t s h o u l d i n c l u d e t h e following:- 8 . R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s

Show c l e a r l y w h o i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d o i n g w h a t - a f t e r c h e c k i n g t h a t the p e r s o n c o n c e r n e d i s a b l e t o c a r r y o u t t h e work.

9 . S u p p l i e s

W h a t m a t e r i a l s a r e r e q u i r e d a n d w h e r e t h e y w i l l come from.

1 0 . E x p e r i m e n t a l d e t a i l

How t h e e x p e r i m e n t i s t o b e c a r r i e d o u t . T h i s s e c t i o n may i n c l u d e details o n l a n d p r e p a r a t i o n , w e e d c o n t r o l , s e e d i n g , f e r t i l i s e r , h o w a n d w h e n to

a p p l y t r e a t m e n t s , o b s e r v a t i o n s t o b e m a d e , s a m p l i n g , h a r v e s t d e t a i l s , etc.

U s e t h e m a r g i n o f t h e s h e e t t o r e c o r d d e t a i l s o f t h e t r e a t m e n t s as

a c t u a l l y a p p l i e d a n d a n y c h a n g e s t o t h e s c h e d u l e a n d t h e r a n d o m i s a t i o n of t h e plots.

1 1 . T h e plan

A s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d e x p e r i m e n t may o n l y r e q u i r e a l i s t i n g I N PLOT ORDER of p l o t n u m b e r , t r e a t m e n t n u m b e r a n d t h e t r e a t m e n t t o b e a p p l i e d . More c o m p l e x e x p e r i m e n t s i n v o l v i n g s e v e r a l f a c t o r s s h o u l d g e n e r a l l y h a v e a d e t a i l e d p l a n d r a w n u p s h o w i n g t h e p l o t d i m e n s i o n s , m a i n p l o t a n d sub-plot t r e a t m e n t s , e t c . How d e t a i l e d t h e p l a n s h o u l d b e w i l l d e p e n d u p o n how m u c h w o r k w i l l b e d o n e o n t h e t r i a l a n d how m a n y s t a f f w i l l n e e d t o locate

t h e t r e a t m e n t s correctly.

I n o r d e r t o s t a n d a r d i s e t h e d e s i g n o f e x p e r i m e n t s i t i s r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t -

• T h e f i r s t p l o t a l w a y s o c c u r s o n t h e b o t t o m l e f t h a n d c o r n e r o f the page.

• P l o t s b e n u m b e r e d u s i n g t h e p l a n t b r e e d e r s y s t e m w h i c h i n c l u d e s the r e p l i c a t e n u m b e r i n t h e p l o t n u m b e r . T h u s , i n a t r i a l w i t h 3 r e p l i c a t i o n s a n d 1 2 t r e a t m e n t s , t h e p l o t s i n t h e f i r s t replicate

w o u l d b e n u m b e r e d 1 0 0 1 t o 1 0 1 2 , t h e s e c o n d r e p l i c a t e 2 0 0 1 t o 2 0 1 2 and t h e t h i r d r e p l i c a t e 3 0 0 1 t o 3012.

• L i s t t h e t r e a t m e n t n u m b e r , a n d a d d a s h o r t h a n d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n f o r the treatment.

• B u f f e r p l o t s s h o u l d b e c l e a r l y indicated.

1.2

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C . HANDLING SCHEDULES

1 . R e a d t h e s c h e d u l e - b u t u s e y o u r i n i t i a t i v e

A l l t o o f r e q u e n t l y e x p e r i m e n t s a r e l o s t b e c a u s e s o m e o n e d i d n o t r e a d the s c h e d u l e . E i t h e r t r e a t m e n t s a r e m i s s e d , a p p l i e d t o t h e w r o n g p l o t s o r put o n t o o l a t e . R e a d t h e s c h e d u l e a n d p l a n ahead.

A t t h e s a m e t i m e , a s c h e d u l e s h o u l d n o t b e f o l l o w e d b l i n d l y i f i t becomes c l e a r t h a t t o d o s o w i l l n e g a t e t h e a i m s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . F o r example, i f t h e r e i s a s u s p i c i o n t h a t a s i t e i s d e f i c i e n t i n a t r a c e e l e m e n t , then t o p d r e s s i n g t h e s i t e w i t h p l a i n s u p e r p h o s p h a t e a s s p e c i f i e d i n the

s c h e d u l e w i l l b e a w a s t e o f t i m e . C h e c k b a c k i f p o s s i b l e w i t h t h e officer c o n c e r n e d a n d i f t h i s i s n o t p o s s i b l e , c o n s i d e r t h e a i m s o f t h e experiment a n d d e c i d e o n t h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e c o u r s e o f action.

2 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f s c h e d u l e s R e s e a r c h S t a t i o n Trials

F o r e a c h t r i a l c o n d u c t e d o n a R e s e a r c h S t a t i o n , f o u r w h i t e , o n e p i n k and t h r e e g r e e n c o p i e s o f t h e s c h e d u l e s h o u l d b e p r e p a r e d . T h e s e are

d i s t r i b u t e d a s follows:

4 W h i t e - 2 f o r t h e R e s e a r c h S t a t i o n ( o n e f i e l d a n d 1 o f f i c e copy) 1 f o r D i v i s i o n o f P l a n t P r o d u c t i o n records

1 f o r I n f o r m a t i o n Branch

1 P i n k - s e n t t o t h e R e s e a r c h S t a t i o n a n d p a s s e d o n t o t h e local D i s t r i c t Office,

3 G r e e n - 1 f o r t h e R e s e a r c h S t a t i o n t o b e r e t u r n e d t o t h e Research O f f i c e r w i t h d e t a i l s o f t r e a t m e n t s , e t c . w r i t t e n in

2 f o r t h e p e r s o n a l u s e o f t h e R e s e a r c h O f f i c e r a n d Technician.

T h e o r i g i n a l c o p y s h o u l d b e p l a c e d o n t h e r e l e v a n t H e a d O f f i c e file.

D i s t r i c t O f f i c e Trials

D i s t r i c t O f f i c e b a s e d t r i a l s r e q u i r e f i v e w h i t e a n d t h r e e g r e e n copies.

5 W h i t e -

3 G r e e n -

2 f o r t h e D i s t r i c t O f f i c e ( f i e l d a n d f i l e copies) 1 f o r t h e farmer

1 f o r R e g i o n a l S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n records 1 f o r I n f o r m a t i o n Branch

1 f o r t h e D i s t r i c t O f f i c e t o b e r e t u r n e d t o t h e Research O f f i c e r w h e n a l l t r e a t m e n t s a r e completed

2 f o r t h e p e r s o n a l u s e o f t h e R e s e a r c h O f f i c e r a n d Technician T h e o r i g i n a l c o p y s h o u l d a g a i n b e p l a c e d o n t h e file.

I t i s m o s t i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e g r e e n c o p y o f t h e s c h e d u l e i n t e n d e d for r e t u r n t o t h e r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r h a v e a l l d e t a i l s o f a c t u a l treatments

( d a t e s , r a t e s o f s e e d a n d f e r t i l i s e r , s e e d i n g e r r o r s , e t c . ) r e c o r d e d o n it a n d t h a t i t b e r e t u r n e d p r o m p t l y t o t h e o f f i c e r concerned.

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T a b l e 1 . 1

E x p e r i m e n t a l C o d e s f o r R e s e a r c h S t a t i o n s a n d D i s t r i c t Offices

R e s e a r c h S t a t i o n s

A n i m a l B r e e d i n g R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e ABI

A v o n d a l e A

B a d g i n g a r r a BA

Bramley Chapman Denmark

E s p e r a n c e Downs Gascoyne

K i m b e r l e y KI

M e d i n a V e g e t a b l e MD

M e d i n a P i g MDP

Merredin

M t . B a r k e r MT

M a n j i m u p MN

Newdegate

N o r t h a m NR

O r d R e g e n e r a t i o n ORS

P o u l t r y PL

P o u l t r y B r o i l e r s PB

S a l m o n G u m s SG

Stoneville

S w a n SR

W o n g a n h i l l s WH

Wokalup

D i s t r i c t O f f i c e s

A l b a n y AL

B r i d g e t o w n BR

B u n b u r y BY

B u s s e l t o n BU

C a r n a r v o n CA

1.4

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E s p e r a n c e ES

G e r a l d t o n GE

H a r v e y HA

J e r r a m u n g u p JE

K a t a n n i n g KA

K e l m s c o t t KE

K u n u n u r r a KU

L a k e G r a c e LG

M e r r e d i n ME

M i d l a n d SW

M o o r a MO

M a n j i m u p MA

N a r r o g i n NO

T h r e e S p r i n g s TS

O t h e r

G l a s s h o u s e (SP) P e r t h Plots

GL PE

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WESTERN AUSTRALIAN DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE A D 78.

F I E L D El--,-L:LEJE)1:Li-L-');0JECT SHEET

EXPT. No.:

FILE No.:

81WH4 3720 EX

EXPT. TITLE: R A T E S O F C Y C O C E L G R O W T H R E G U L A N T X R A T E S O F N I T R O G E N ON WHEAT

OFFICERS: M . P e r r y ( H . O . 3 6 7 0 1 1 1 , e x t . 289) J . A l l e n ( M o o r a D . O . 0 9 5 4 1 1 302) Locality/Property W o n g a n H i l l s R e s e a r c h Station

Postal Address: W o n g a n Hills

OBJECT:

T o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t s o f C y c o c e l 7 5 0 A g r o w t h r e g u l a n t o n wheat y i e l d s a t t w o r a t e s o f nitrogen.

Soils, Vegetation and Previous History of Site.

W o n g a n l o a m y sand

Treatments : 1 0 Replications : 4 Plots : 40

TREATMENTS:

Design:

Treatments:

Area W Plot

Area/Treatment (Ares actually treated) Area W Expt. Block

Width (m) x Length (m)

2.5 x 40 = 0.010

x =

110 x 40 =0.44

ha.

ha.

ha.

R a n d o m i s e d b l o c k

- 5 r a t e s o f C y c o c e l x 2 r a t e s o f nitrogen x 4 r e p s = 4 0 plots

R A T E . O F C Y C O C E L 1/ha

0 0 . 2 5 0 . 5 0 1 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 + 0.25*

R a t e o f A g r a n 34:0 kg/ha

100

1 6

T r e a t m e n t N u m b e r s

2 3 4 5

7 8 9 10

* S p l i t application

Measurements: P l a n t h e i g h t , g r a i n y i e l d , g r a i n protein, g r a i n s / h e a d , g r a i n weight

Location and Orientation of Experiment (Detail Plan Reverse Side.)

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P L _ 3N EXPT No

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WESTERN AUSTRALIAN DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

FIELD EXPERIMENTS - DETAIL SHEET

EXPT. TITLE:

NITROGEN ON WHEAT

RATES OF CYCOCEL X RATES OF

A.D. 78a EXPT. No.: 81WH4 FILE No.: 3720EX

Specification of requirements for duration of trial in regard to supplies, treatments, land preparation, seeding, fertiliser application, grazing, sampling, note-taking, etc.

Notes on actual rates, dates, types of machinery and alterations to be entered in margin.

1. RESPONSIBILITIES

R e s e a r c h Stn : S e e d i n g , s p r a y i n g , harvesting P.R.D. - H e i g h t m e a s u r e m e n t , h e a d samples

( 5 0 0 / p l o t ) p r i o r t o harvest 2. SUPPLIES

Seed : 1 x 5 0 k g b a g M i l i n g w h e a t e x PRD F e r t i l i s e r -

Super : R e s e a r c h S t a t i o n t o supply A g r a n 34 : 1 x 5 0 k g e x PRD

Cycocel : 5 l i t r e s e x PRD B r o m i n i l M : 1 l i t r e e x PRD

Hoegrass : 1 l i t r e e x PRD

3 . EXPERIMENTAL DETAIL

a ) S e e d i n g

S e l e c t a s i t e f r e e o f g r a s s w e e d p r o b l e m s a n d w o r k up

a c c o r d i n g t o s t a n d a r d s t a t i o n p r a c t i c e . T o p d r e s s A g r a n 34:0 o n t o t r e a t m e n t s 6 - 1 0 i m m e d i a t e l y p r i o r t o s e e d i n g . Seed w i t h M i l i n g w h e a t a t 5 0 k g / h a w i t h 1 5 0 k g / h a p l a i n super- p h o s p h a t e d r i l l e d . S e e d i n g d e p t h n o d e e p e r t h a n 5 cm and u s e h a r r o w s b e h i n d t h e drill.

b ) I n - c r o p h u s b a n d i n g

i . S p r a y w h o l e t r i a l w i t h a B r o m i n i l M / H o e g r a s s ( 1 . 4 1 / h a + 1 . 0 1 / h a ) a t t h e 4 l e a f s t a g e f o r b r o a d l e a f and

r y e g r a s s control.

C y c o c e l a p p l i c a t i o n . A p p l y C y c o c e l b y b o o m s p r a y in 1 0 0 1 / h a o f w a t e r p l u s 0 . 1 0 / n o n - i o n i c w e t t i n g agent

( 1 0 0 m l p e r 1 0 0 l i t r e s o f mix).

S p r a y a t t h e 5 - 6 l e a f s t a g e o f t h e c r o p . T r e a t m e n t s 5 a n d 10 t o r e c e i v e a s e c o n d s p r a y o f 0 . 2 5 1 / h a a t e a r l y s t e m extension

( 1 n o d e d e t e c t a b l e a t t h e b a s e o f t h e s t e m ) . R u n o v e r a l l p l o t s a t t h e t i m e o f t h e s e c o n d spraying.

TIMING I S IMPORTANT w i t h C y c o c e l a p p l i c a t i o n . T h i s will

n e c e s s i t a t e r e g u l a r c h e c k i n g o f t h e t r i a l f o r g r o w t h s t a g e so t h a t s p r a y i n g c a n b e c a r r i e d o u t o n t i m e . On t h e d a y of

s p r a y i n g , c h e c k a t l e a s t 2 0 p l a n t s f r o m e a c h r e p o f t h e trial a n d r e c o r d t h e a c t u a l g r o w t h s t a g e o n t h e schedule.

c ) H a r v e s t

1 . PRD t o s a m p l e p l o t s f o r 5 0 0 h e a d s p r i o r t o harvest.

S a m p l e s t o b e t h r e s h e d a n d g r a i n n u m b e r a n d grain w e i g h t t o b e determined.

i i . R e s e a r c h S t a t i o n t o h a r v e s t a l l p l o t s (including b u f f e r s ) a n d r e c o r d g r a i n yields.

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A. SELECTING

2 . S I T E SELECTION AND PREPARATION

SITES 2.1

1. Introduction 2.1

2. T h e r i g h t s i t e f o r t h e r i g h t experiment 2.1

3. Uniformity 2.1

4. When t o s e l e c t a site 2.1

5. Checklist 2.2

B. MARKING OUT AN EXPERIMENT 2.3

1. M a r k i n g o u t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l block 2.3

2. P e g g i n g t h e plots 2.3

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2 . 0 S I T E SELECTION AND PREPARATION A . SELECTING S I T E S

1 . Introduction

T h e r e a r e t w o m a i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n s e l e c t i n g a n e x p e r i m e n t a l site:

• T h e s i t e m u s t r e p r e s e n t t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r w h i c h t h e e x p e r i m e n t was designed.

• T h e s i t e m u s t b e a s u n i f o r m a s p o s s i b l e i n a l l respects.

O n c e s i t e s f u l f i l l t h e s e c r i t e r i a , o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are:

- a c c e s s i b i l i t y , e s p e c i a l l y i n winter - p o s s i b i l i t y o f v e r m i n o r s t o c k damage

- p r o x i m i t y t o a m a i n r o a d f o r e x t e n s i o n purposes - f a r m e r co-operation

2 . T h e r i g h t s i t e f o r t h e r i g h t e x p e r i m e n t

A g o o d e x p e r i m e n t b e g i n s w i t h a g o o d s i t e a n d a l l o f f i c e r s s h o u l d always b e o n t h e l o o k o u t f o r p o t e n t i a l e x p e r i m e n t a l sites.

B e c a u s e a n e x p e r i m e n t i s p l a n n e d t o a n s w e r a q u e s t i o n , t h e s i t e m u s t be s u i t a b l e t o t h a t e n d a p a r t f r o m i t s g e n e r a l s u i t a b i l i t y a s a n experimental s i t e . Some e x a m p l e s are:

• E x p e r i m e n t s t o t e s t f e r t i l i s e r s o u r c e s o f p h o s p h o r u s o r nitrogen

s h o u l d o n l y b e d o n e o n p h o s p h o r u s o r n i t r o g e n r e s p o n s i v e s i t e s . An u n r e s p o n s i v e s i t e w i l l o n l y m a s k t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e treatments.

• H e r b i c i d e e x p e r i m e n t s r e q u i r e r e l a t i v e l y u n i f o r m w e e d cover.

• E x p e r i m e n t s o n c l o v e r r e g e n e r a t i o n may r e q u i r e a c e r t a i n p r o p o r t i o n of c l o v e r i n a p a s t u r e . T o o l o w o r t o o h i g h a c l o v e r c o n t e n t may obviate t h e a i m s o f t h e experiment.

• F o r many e x p e r i m e n t s , s i t e r e q u i r e m e n t s may b e q u i t e s p e c i f i c , e.g.

c e r t a i n s o i l t y p e s o r c e r t a i n r o t a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s s u c h a s 'second c r o p o n l i g h t land'.

3 . U n i f o r m i t y

T h e s i t e m u s t b e a s u n i f o r m a s p o s s i b l e i n a l l r e s p e c t s . A s s u m i n g there w i l l b e some s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s , t h o s e w h i c h w i l l a f f e c t t h e g r o w t h o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l p l a n t s a r e t h e o n e s m o s t t o b e a v o i d e d . A b a d k i n d of

v a r i a t i o n i s t h a t w h i c h a f f e c t s t h e g r o w t h o f a p a r t i c u l a r t r e a t m e n t . For i n s t a n c e , i f y o u know c o p p e r d e f i c i e n c y i s a f f e c t e d b y a m o u n t o f g r a v e l in t h e s u r f a c e , c o p p e r e x p e r i m e n t s s h o u l d n o t b e p u t o n s i t e s w h e r e surface g r a v e l varies.

2.1

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I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o l i s t a l l t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h may c a u s e v a r i a b i l i t y i n a s i t e . Some o f t h e m a i n o n e s a r e : c h a n g e s i n s o i l t y p e , c h a n g e s i n depth t o c l a y o r g r a v e l , s h e e p c a m p s , f e n c e l i n e s w h i c h may h a v e b e e n ploughed f o r f i r e b r e a k s , c o r n e r s w h i c h w i l l h a v e b e e n d o u b l e s o w n , w e t a r e a s , and n e a r n e s s t o t r e e s ( w h i c h c a n h a v e a n e f f e c t e i t h e r b y s h a d i n g or

c o m p e t i t i o n f o r m o i s t u r e ) , e t c . A n o t h e r t y p e o f v a r i a b i l i t y i s that a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n c e s i n e x i s t i n g p l a n t c o v e r . T h i s i s very

i m p o r t a n t f o r e x p e r i m e n t s o n p a s t u r e s , e . g . w h e r e t h e r e i s a n u n e v e n cover o f clover.

A t y p e o f v a r i a b i l i t y w h i c h c a n o c c u r o n r e s e a r c h s t a t i o n s , particularly, c o n c e r n s p a s t h i s t o r y . T h e h i s t o r y o f p r e v i o u s t r e a t m e n t s o n t h e area s h o u l d b e k n o w n . I f t h e s i t e h a s u n e v e n t r e a t m e n t o f f e r t i l i s e r s which h a v e a r e s i d u a l e f f e c t , s u c h a s s u p e r p h o s p h a t e , o r c l o v e r treatments c a u s i n g d i f f e r e n t s o i l n i t r o g e n , i t s h o u l d b e t o t a l l y a v o i d e d for

e x p e r i m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e s a m e f a c t o r s . I n s o m e c a s e s t h e s i t e may be s a t i s f a c t o r y a f t e r a n u m b e r o f y e a r s f o r t r e a t m e n t o f a d i f f e r e n t type.

F o r i n s t a n c e i t may s o m e t i m e s b e s a f e t o d o n i t r o g e n t r i a l s o n old p h o s p h a t e e x p e r i m e n t s i f p h o s p h a t e c a n b e s u p p l i e d a t a non-limiting l e v e l . E v e n t h e n i t i s s a f e r t o c r o s s t h e plots.

4 . When t o s e l e c t a site

A l w a y s b e l o o k i n g f o r s u i t a b l e s i t e s . P a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h pasture

e x p e r i m e n t s t h e s i t e s h o u l d b e i n s p e c t e d t h e y e a r b e f o r e t h e experiment b e g i n s . By d o i n g t h i s , t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r h a s a g o o d i d e a o f pasture c o m p o s i t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y uniformity.

A s e c o n d t i m e w h i c h h a s s p e c i a l a d v a n t a g e i s w h e n a p a d d o c k i s first r i p p e d u p . S o i l v a r i a t i o n i s much e a s i e r t o s e e w h e n t h e s u r f a c e is f r e s h l y b r o k e n up.

5 . A c h e c k l i s t When s e l e c t i n g a site:

1 . C o n s i d e r t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e trial.

2 . D e c i d e o n p o s s i b l e s i t e s - p a d d o c k o r farm.

C h e c k t h e s e s i t e s f o r e v e n n e s s o f g r o u n d c o v e r - c r o p , p a s t u r e , weeds o r w h a t e v e r i s n e e d e d f o r t h e trial.

S o i l s a m p l e t h e s i t e w i t h a n a u g e r t o i n s p e c t t h e p r o f i l e - d e p t h to g r a v e l , c l a y , e t c . T h e n u m b e r o f a u g e r h o l e s w i l l d e p e n d o n t h e size o f t h e t r i a l a r e a a n d s h o u l d b e e n o u g h t o c h e c k v a r i a t i o n i n all directions.

I n some c a s e s , i n t e n s i v e a n d s y s t e m a t i c s a m p l i n g may b e r e q u i r e d (if s p e c i f i e d ) f o r c h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s p r i o r t o t h e c o m m e n c e m e n t o f the t r i a l t o d e t e r m i n e t h e n u t r i e n t s t a t u s o f t h e s i t e ( e . g . nutrient t r i a l - d e t e r m i n e K l e v e l s b e f o r e P o t a s h Trial).

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5 . S h i f t t h e s i t e a l o n g u n t i l t h e e v e n n e s s o v e r t h e t r i a l a r e a is a c c e p t a b l e . I f t h e r e i s a n y t e n d e n c y f o r a u n i f o r m c h a n g e i n one d i r e c t i o n , t h e p l o t s s h o u l d b e p l a c e d a l o n g t h e d i r e c t i o n o f this c h a n g e . I f t h e r e i s a s l o p e a n d n o o t h e r o b v i o u s v a r i a t i o n t h e plots s h o u l d r u n down t h e h i l l - t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r c h a n c e t h a t any

v a r i a t i o n w i l l b e u p a n d down t h e slope.

6 . T h e s i t e s h o u l d t h e n b e a d e q u a t e l y p e g g e d . T h i s may o n l y require r e f e r e n c e p e g s o n a n e a r b y f e n c e . H o w e v e r , i f t h e t r i a l i s t o b e a c o n t i n u i n g o n e i t s h o u l d b e p e r m a n e n t l y p e g g e d s o t h a t t h e s i t e c a n be a c c u r a t e l y l o c a t e d f r o m y e a r t o year.

B . MARKING OUT AN EXPERIMENT

1 . M a r k i n g o u t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l b l o c k

a . M a r k o u t a n d p e g t h e e n d s o f t h e b a s e l i n e f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t . Make s u r e t h a t i t i s l o n g e n o u g h t o a c c o m m o d a t e a l l p l o t s a n d b u f f e r s for t h e e x p e r i m e n t a n d a d d 0 . 5 m.

b . M a r k t h e r i g h t a n g l e s f o r t h e s i d e s o f t h e b l o c k u s i n g e i t h e r an

o p t i c a l s q u a r e o r a 3 : 4 : 5 t r i a n g l e m e a s u r e d w i t h t h e t a p e . P r o c e e d in t h i s m a n n e r u n t i l a l l f o u r c o r n e r s o f t h e b l o c k a r e p e g g e d . C h e c k the d i a g o n a l s t o e n s u r e t h e b l o c k i s t r u l y rectangular.

2 . P e g g i n g t h e p l o t s

T w e l v e - r o w d r i l l s a n d c o m b i n e s h a v e a w h e e l - t o - w h e e l w i d t h o f 2 . 5 0 m and p l o t s a r e p e g g e d o n 2 . 5 m c e n t r e s . S i n c e t h e t r u e s o w n w i d t h i s 1 2 x 17.8 cm = 2 . 1 4 m, p l o t s a r e s e p a r a t e d b y 0 . 4 6 m buffers.

E a c h e n d o f t h e p l o t s s h o u l d b e p e g g e d o n 2 . 5 in c e n t r e s . T h e recommended m e t h o d i s t o r u n o u t t h e t a p e a n d t h e n d r a w i t b a c k u n t i l t h e 1 . 0 m mark o n t h e t a p e i s n e x t t o t h e c o r n e r p o s t ( F i g u r e 2 . 1 ) . T h e f i r s t p e g is t h e n p l a c e d o n t h e 2 . 5 in m a r k a n d d r i v e n i n . T h i s p e g i s t h u s l o c a t e d 1.5 in ( h a l f a p l o t p l u s 0 . 2 5 m) f r o m t h e c o r n e r . T h e e x t r a 0 . 2 5 in i s t o allow

t h e d r i l l t o b e r u n down t h e p l o t w i t h o u t k n o c k i n g o v e r t h e c o r n e r pegs.

S u b s e q u e n t p e g s a r e d r i v e n o n t h e 5 . 0 , 7 . 5 , 1 0 . 0 m a r k s o n thetape.

FIGURE 2.1

4 1 . 5 m 2 . 5 m

C o r n e r P e g / 7 7 „ - - P l o t c e n t r e p e g s /7

2.5m

a = ( N u m b e r o f p l o t s ( i n c l u d i n g buffers)x2.5m)+0.5m b = P l o t length

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3 . 0 FENCING

A . P R I N C I P L E S OF FENCE CONSTRUCTION 1 . S t r a i n e r assemblies

2 . P o s t s a n d droppers 3 . F e n c i n g wire

B . FENCING FOR TRIAL SITES

1 . How p e r m a n e n t m u s t t h e f e n c e be?

2 . W h a t j o b i s t h e f e n c e i n t e n d e d t o do?

3 . W h a t m a t e r i a l s a r e available?

C . PRACTICAL HINTS ON FENCE ERECTION

D . ELECTRIC FENCING AND I T S ADVANTAGES

E . FENCE CONSTRUCTION

1 . T h e f e n c e line

2 . S t r a i n e r o r e n d assembly 3 . F e n c e posts

4 . L e n g t h o f strain

F . PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRIC FENCING

1 . E l e c t r i c f e n c e circuits 2 . Energisers

3 . Earthing 4 . Insulation

5 . W i r e f o r e l e c t r i c fences

G . FENCE DESIGN

1 . T h e o f f - s e t wire 2 . D r y c o u n t r y layout

3.1 3.1 3.2 3.3

3.4 3.4 3.4 3.5

3.8

3.9

3.10 3.10 3.10 3.10 3.11

3.11 3.11 3.11 3.12 3.12 3.13

3.13 3.13 3.13

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3 . FENCING

A . PRINCIPLES OF FENCE CONSTRUCTION

M o d e r n s u s p e n s i o n f e n c i n g - c h a r a c t e r i s e d b y w i d e p o s t s p r i n g s , l o n g wire s t r a i n s a n d h i g h t e n s i l e w i r e - h a s l a r g e l y r e p l a c e d t h e traditional

f e n c e , w h i c h r e l i e d o n c l o s e l y s p a c e d p o s t s t o p r o v i d e s u p p o r t f o r the f e n c e . M o d e r n f e n c e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s b a s e d o n e n g i n e e r i n g p r i n c i p l e s and a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s e w i l l p r o v i d e a s o u n d b a c k g r o u n d w h e t h e r the f e n c e c o n s t r u c t e d i s t o b e o f a p e r m a n e n t , s e m i - p e r m a n e n t o r temporary nature.

T h e r e a r e t h r e e b a s i c c o m p o n e n t s t o a fence:

• S t r a i n e r assemblies

• P o s t s a n d droppers

• Wire

1 . S t r a i n e r a s s e m b l i e s

S t r a i n e r a s s e m b l i e s a r e t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t s t r u c t u r e i n a n y f e n c e . They a r e t h e f o u n d a t i o n a n d s h o u l d t h e y f a i l , t h e w h o l e f e n c e f a i l s . I t is t h e r e f o r e e s s e n t i a l t o e n s u r e t h a t a s s e m b l i e s a r e e r e c t e d c o r r e c t l y and a r e s t r o n g e n o u g h t o d o t h e job.

T h e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s g o v e r n i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f a s t r a i n e r a s s e m b l y are:

a ) D e p t h o f set

T h e d e e p e r t h e v e r t i c a l m e m b e r s o f t h e a s s e m b l y a r e s e t i n t h e ground t h e s t r o n g e r t h e a s s e m b l y . T a b l e 1 s h o w s t h a t i n c r e a s i n g t h e depth f r o m 0 . 7 5 t o 0 . 9 m m o r e t h a n d o u b l e s t h e l o a d t h e a s s e m b l y c a n carry.

I n c o n t r a s t t h e s i z e ( d i a m e t e r ) o f t h e s t r a i n e r i s o f m i n o r importance.

T a b l e 3 . 1 - E f f e c t o f d e p t h o f s e t o n s t r a i n e r performance

0 . 7 5 m d e e p 0 . 9 m deep

T o t a l load

H o r i z o n t a l movement*

V e r t i c a l movement*

2 0 kN 4 cm 1 . 5 cm

5 0 kN 2 . 5 cm 1 cm

* A t 1 3 kN = 3 , 0 0 0 lb b ) D r i v e n posts

P o s t s d r i v e n i n t o u n d i s t u r b e d s o i l w i l l c a r r y n e a r l y t w i c e t h e l o a d of p o s t s p l a c e d i n h o l e s a n d backfilled.

3.1

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c ) A s s e m b l y design

A h o r i z o n t a l b o x s t a y a s s e m b l y ( F i g u r e 3 . 1 ) i s m o r e e f f e c t i v e t h a n a d i a g o n a l s t a y a s s e m b l y b u t i s a l s o m o r e c o s t l y a n d h a r d e r t o erect.

FIGURE 3 . 1 Strainer

3 m S t r u t --

1.25

2 5 0 mm Crown

1.25m

0 . 4 in

3 3 0 mm Butt

1 0 mm Rod 1 0 mm Hole

S t r u t Post

6 0 0 mm 1 5 0 mm x 5 0 mm

P r e f a b r i c a t e d s t e e l a s s e m b l i e s w i t h a d i a g o n a l s t a y a r e a v a i l a b l e and a r e q u i c k l y a n d e a s i l y erected.

2 . P o s t s a n d d r o p p e r s

F e n c e p o s t s p e r f o r m t w o f u n c t i o n s - t o h o l d t h e w i r e s i n p o s i t i o n a n d to s u p p o r t t h e f e n c e . E i t h e r s t e e l o r t r e a t e d t i m b e r p o s t s a r e recommended.

P o s t f a i l u r e i s g e n e r a l l y d u e t o m o v e m e n t i n t h e s o i l r a t h e r t h a n to b e n d i n g a n d t h e s a m e p r i n c i p l e s o f d e p t h a n d d r i v i n g r a t h e r than b a c k f i l l i n g t h a t a p p l y t o s t r a i n e r s a l s o a p p l y t o f e n c e posts.

I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e w i r e a n d n o t t h e p o s t f o r m s the b a r r i e r a n d t h a t t h e i m p a c t l o a d o f a n a n i m a l h i t t i n g t h e f e n c e is

t r a n s f e r r e d b y t h e w i r e t o t h e s t r a i n e r a s s e m b l i e s . T h e c o n s e q u e n c e s of t h i s are:

P o s t s p a c i n g s s h o u l d b e w i d e a s p o s s i b l e ( w i t h d r o p p e r s i n b e t w e e n ) as t h i s r e d u c e s t h e l o a d o n t h e p o s t s a n d t h u s t h e c h a n c e o f p o s t failure.

W i r e s s h o u l d n e v e r b e t i e d t i g h t l y t o i n t e r m e d i a t e p o s t s a s t h i s stops t h e t r a n s f e r o f i m p a c t l o a d s t o t h e s t r a i n e r assemblies.

D r o p p e r s a c t a s s p a c e r s f o r t h e w i r e , d i s t r i b u t e a p p l i e d l o a d s b e t w e e n the w i r e s a n d a c t a s a v i s i b l e b a r r i e r . D r o p p e r s s h o u l d n o t t o u c h t h e ground a n d s h o u l d b e f i x e d t o a l t e r n a t e s i d e s o f t h e f e n c e . S p a c i n g s o f 3 t o 7 m e t r e s a r e g e n e r a l l y used.

3.2

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3 . F e n c i n g w i r e a ) P l a i n wire

Two t y p e s o f w i r e a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r f e n c i n g - s o f t a n d h i g h tensile.

T h e l a t t e r i s a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l l y u s e d a s i t i s t h i n n e r , stronger, m o r e e l a s t i c a n d c h e a p e r t h a n s o f t w i r e . I t i s , h o w e v e r , more d i f f i c u l t t o h a n d l e a n d r e q u i r e s m o r e c a r e f u l s t r a i n i n g . T a b l e 2

l i s t s t h e p r o p e r t i e s a n d u s e s o f t h e m a j o r f e n c i n g w i r e s a v a i l a b l e in Australia.

T a b l e 3 . 2 - P r o p e r t i e s o f f e n c i n g w i r e s a v a i l a b l e i n Australia

Wire R e c o m m e n d e d Min

Tension kN

Breaking Force

kN

Coil Length

(m)

Coil Weight

kg

Recommended Uses

S o f t Wire

4 . 0 0 mm 2.75 4.8 500 49 General

P u r p o s e fencing

3 . 5 5 mm 2.00 3.8 600 47 a s above

3 . 1 5 mm 1.50 3.0 750 46 a s above

H i g h Tensile

2 . 8 0 mm 3.00 8.0 1000 48 C a t t l e , top

w i r e o n all fences

2 . 5 0 mm Flexabel 1.50 8.7 1500 58 General

p u r p o s e fencing

2 . 5 0 mm Tyeasy 2.00 5.4 1500 58 a s above

2 . 0 0 mm 1.20 3.2 2000 50 Permanent

electric

1 . 8 0 mm 1.00 2.6 2000 42 a s above

1 . 5 7 mm 0.75 2.0 3000 48 Temporary

electric

b ) B a r b e d wire

B a r b e d w i r e i s d i f f i c u l t t o h a n d l e a n d i t s u s e s h o u l d b e a v o i d e d if possible.

c ) F a b r i c a t e d fencing

H i n g e d j o i n t a n d r i n g l o c k f a b r i c a t e d f e n c i n g i s a v a i l a b l e . I n the f o r m e r , v e r t i c a l p i c k e t w i r e s a r e a t t a c h e d t o e a c h l i n e w i r e w i t h a t w i s t , w h i l s t t h e r i n g l o c k p i c k e t w i r e i s o n e p i e c e , a t t a c h e d t o the l i n e w i r e s w i t h a ring.

3.3

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B e c a u s e o f i t s s e c u r i t y , e a s e o f h a n d l i n g a n d s p e e d o f erection,

f a b r i c a t e d f e n c i n g i s e s p e c i a l l y s u i t a b l e f o r f e n c i n g t r i a l s i t e s . A r a n g e o f s i z e s i s a v a i l a b l e a n d t h e s e a r e s p e c i f i e d b y t h e n u m b e r of h o r i z o n t a l l i n e w i r e s , t h e h e i g h t b e t w e e n t h e t o p a n d b o t t o m w i r e s and t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e v e r t i c a l p i c k e t w i r e s . F o r e x a m p l e , 7/90/30 h i n g e d j o i n t i s a s e v e n l i n e , n i n e t y c e n t i m e t r e h i g h f e n c e w i t h 30 c e n t i m e t r e s b e t w e e n u p r i g h t w i r e s . T a b l e 3 . 3 l i s t s t h e sizes

c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e a n d t h e i r s u g g e s t e d uses.

T a b l e 3..3 - H i n g e d J o i n t F a b r i c a t e d Fencing

S i z e Use

5 / 6 7 / 3 0 A d u l t M e r i n o sheep

6 / 7 0 / 3 0 S h e e p a n d lambs

6 / 9 0 / 3 0 S h e e p a n d c a t t l e , n o t l a m b proof

7 / 9 0 / 3 0 A l l stock

8 / 9 0 / 3 0 A l l s t o c k , m o r e s e c u r e t h a n 7/90/30 8 / 8 0 / 1 3 H i g h s e c u r i t y f e n c e , s u i t a b l e f o r pigs 8 / 1 1 5 / 3 0 A l l s t o c k , i n c l u d i n g goats

FENCING FOR TRIAL SITES

D e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g f e n c i n g f o r t r i a l s i t e s s h o u l d i n c l u d e - P e r m a n e n c y o f t h e fence.

W h a t t h e f e n c e i s i n t e n d e d t o do.

W h a t m a t e r i a l s a r e a v i l a b l e a n d how t h e f e n c e w i l l b e erected.

How p e r m a n e n t m u s t t h e f e n c e be?

F e n c i n g f o r t r i a l s i t e s i s g e n e r a l l y o f a t e m p o r a r y ( u p t o I y e a r ) or s e m i - p e r m a n e n t ( 1 t o 3 y e a r s ) n a t u r e . H o w e v e r , s e m i - p e r m a n e n t fencing s h o u l d b e c o n s t r u c t e d t o t h e h i g h e s t s t a n d a r d p o s s i b l e . N o t uncommonly, t r i a l s ( a n d t h e i r f e n c e s ) a r e r e q u i r e d t o e n d u r e w e l l b e y o n d t h e i r planned life.

2 . W h a t j o b i s t h e f e n c e i n t e n d e d t o do?

F e n c e s a r e e r e c t e d t o e i t h e r c o n f i n e s t o c k w i t h i n a n a r e a o r t o exclude s t o c k a n d v e r m i n f r o m t h e a r e a . A s h e e p g r a z i n g t r i a l may r e q u i r e a c a t t l e ( a n d s h e e p ) p r o o f f e n c e i f c a t t l e a r e l i k e l y t o b e g r a z e d around t h e a r e a . C o n v e r s e l y , a c a t t l e t r i a l may r e q u i r e t h e f e n c e t o b e sheep p r o o f a s w e l l . T h e l o n g e r a t r i a l i s t o l a s t t h e m o r e l i k e l y t h e fence w i l l h a v e t o w i t h s t a n d b o t h s h e e p a n d cattle.

Cattle

W h e r e c a t t l e a l o n e a r e i n v o l v e d , e l e c t r i c f e n c i n g i s p r e f e r r e d o n the g r o u n d s o f c o s t , e a s e o f e r e c t i o n a n d efficiency.

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b ) Sheep

P r e f a b r i c a t e d f e n c i n g i s p r e f e r r e d f o r s h e e p . Many f e n c e d e s i g n s are s a t i s f a c t o r y ; s i x o r s e v e n l i n e f a b r i c a t e d f e n c i n g s h o u l d b e u s e d if l a m b s a r e t o b e run.

c ) S h e e p a n d cattle

A g o o d g e n e r a l f e n c e f o r t r i a l u s e i s 7 / 9 0 / 3 0 o r 8 / 9 0 / 3 0 fabricated f e n c i n g w i t h a s i n g l e b a r b a n d o n e s t r a n d o f p l a i n w i r e a b o v e the mesh.

d ) Kangaroos

K a n g a r o o s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o e x c l u d e b u t a p l a i n w i r e s t r a i n e d 3 0 cm a b o v e t h e f e n c e i s r e a s o n a b l y e f f e c t i v e . E l e c t r i c f e n c i n g c a n a l s o be used.

e ) Rabbits

R a b b i t s a r e a f r e q u e n t c a u s e o f d a m a g e t o c r o p t r i a l s a d j a c e n t to u n c l e a r e d l a n d . R a b b i t n e t t i n g i s v e r y e f f e c t i v e b u t m u s t b e buried a t l e a s t 1 5 cm a n d t h e d i r t r e - p a c k e d a n d rammed a r o u n d t h e netting.

f ) Man

Human e r r o r i s a f r e q u e n t c a u s e o f t r i a l f a i l u r e a n d a s i n g l e strand f e n c e o r e v e n a l i n e o f p o s t s c a n o f t e n p r e v e n t d a m a g e b y f a r m e r s or s t a f f u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e t r i a l area.

3 . W h a t m a t e r i a l s a r e available?

a ) S t r a i n e r assemblies

H o r i z o n t a l b o x s t a y a s s e m b l i e s ( F i g u r e 3 . 1 ) a r e t h e m o s t satisfactory f o r l o n g t e r m t r i a l s . H o w e v e r , t h e y a r e t i m e c o n s u m i n g t o e r e c t and a r e r e l a t i v e l y expensive.

P r e f a b r i c a t e d s t e e l a s s e m b l i e s a r e q u i c k a n d e a s y t o e r e c t and d i s m a n t l e b u t a r e expensive.

V e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y l i g h t s t e e l a s s e m b l i e s c a n b e m a d e f r o m 5 0 mm water p i p e d r o p p e d o v e r t w o s t e e l p o s t s . T h e s e h a v e b e e n f o u n d t o be

s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r s t r a i n s o f u p t o 200 m. A f r e q u e n t p r o b l e m w i t h pipe a s s e m b l i e s i s a t e n d e n c y t o l i f t i f t h e f e n c e i s t i g h t l y strained.

T h i s c a n b e p r e v e n t e d b y a d d i n g a b a s e p l a t e t o t h e s t r u t a t the g r o u n d l e v e l o r d r i v i n g a n a n g l e d p e g t h r o u g h t h e b a c k p o s t . Figure 3 . 2 s h o w s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a p i p e s t r a i n e r assembly.

* T e m p o r a r y strainers

F o r s h o r t t e r m f e n c i n g n e e d s t h r e e t e m p o r a r y s t r a i n e r s a r e shown i n F i g u r e 3 . 3 . T h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n i s self-explanatory.

3.5

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b ) Posts

S t a r s t e e l p o s t s a r e i n v a r i a b l y u s e d f o r t r i a l f e n c i n g . F o r general p u r p o s e ( s h e e p a n d c a t t l e ) f e n c e s , 1 6 5 cm p o s t s s h o u l d b e u s e d , driven

t o 4 5 cm d e p t h . T h i s w i l l g i v e a f e n c e h e i g h t t o t h e t o p w i r e o f 120 cm.

B e c a u s e s t r a i n s w i l l n o t b e a s l o n g a s w i t h p e r m a n e n t f e n c i n g , post s p a c i n g s h o u l d b e r e d u c e d t o 6 t o 1 0 m.

C) Wire

F i g u r e 3 . 4 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a 7 / 9 0 / 3 0 f e n c e w i t h one b a r b a n d a p l a i n w i r e . T h i s f e n c e s h o u l d b e s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r b o u n d a r y f e n c i n g o f a l l s e m i - p e r m a n e n t t r i a l s . I n t e r n a l t r i a l f e n c i n g may be o f l i g h t e r c o n s t r u c t i o n i f o n l y s h e e p a r e t o b e r u n . F o r e x a m p l e , the p l a i n w i r e a n d b a r b w o u l d b e unnecessary.

FIGURE 3.2

o p e n e- n d o p e n end

2 5 mm pipe

5 0 mm pipe

2 3 3 cm approx.

2 5 mm pipe

2 1 3 cm 2 2 5 cm

1 0 6 cm *

i m p o r t a n t 6 c u t s f r o m one l e n g t h o f p i p e ( 6 . 4 m)

FIGURE 3 . 3 S h o r t p i p e s t r a i n e r a s s e m b l y : must b e b r a c e d w i t h h i g h t e n s i l e wire.

5 0 c m piping

2 5 c m piping

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FIGURE 3.3

FIGURE 3 . 4

7/90/30 HINGED JOINT SUSPENSION FENCE (cattle, sheep and lambs)

Q U A N T I T I E S P E R KILOMETRE O F W A R A T A H MATERIALS Material

116 cm Galv. Steel Droppers 165 cm Star Steel Posts

111111111•11 MINIM ---Ii'---

---UI'---

11=1•1111111111M 111=11111=1_ NuI

Quantity Tyeasy Fence Wire

High Tensile Barbed Wire 7 / 9 0 / 3 0 Hinged Joint

116 cm Galvanised Steel Droppers 165 cm Star Steel Posts

coil 2 reels 5 rolls 100 48 Cost pet k m of materials:

Weight o f all materials per km: $447.00

0 . 8 tonnes

Tyeasy High Tensile Barbed Wire

7/90/30 Hinged Joint

Strain

2 0 m Centres

it I AMMO=

II SWIM=

ININ=1111111 I 1•1111111011111111.

A

4 5 cm 400 m Strains

13 cm 10 cm

Crn

7 cm

" 7 " \ X ' " W I R E SPACING

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C . PRACTICAL HINTS ON FENCE ERECTION

1 . U s e a w i r e s p i n n e r t o p l a y o u t w i r e , t a k i n g c a r e t o a v o i d kinking.

K i n k s c a u s e d b y u n r a v e l l i n g o f t h e c o i l w i l l b e w e a k s p o t s i n t h e fence.

2 . T e n s i o n t h e w i r e t o t h e r e c o m m e n d e d t e n s i o n u s i n g s m o o t h - j a w e d wire s t r a i n e r s . O v e r o r , u n d e r t e n s i o n i n g w i l l r e s u l t i n a p o o r fence.

3 . S t e e l p o s t s s h o u l d b e d r i v e n w i t h t h e h o l e s o u t w a r d a n d t h e w i r e run o n t h e o u t s i d e o f t h e post.

4 . N e v e r a t t a c h w i r e t i g h t l y t o a n i n t e r m e d i a t e p o s t a n d d o n ' t r u n the w i r e t h r o u g h t h e h o l e s . T h e p o s t i s t h e r e t o s p a c e a n d s u p p o r t t h e wire b u t i t s h o u l d b e a b l e t o move f r e e l y t o t r a n s f e r i t s l o a d t o the

s t r a i n e r . R u n n i n g w i r e t h r o u g h t h e p o s t h o l e s i s t i m e c o n s u m i n g and d a m a g e s t h e g a l v a n i s e d c o a t i n g o f t h e wire.

5 . K n o t s . L i k e k i n k s , k n o t s a r e w e a k p o i n t s i n w i r e . T h e f i g u r e of e i g h t k n o t i s t h e m o s t s a t i s f a c t o r y a n d s h o u l d b e u s e d . A h a i r p i n t i e is a l s o g o o d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e w i r e i s t o b e d i s c o n n e c t e d . W i r e s should b e t i e d a r o u n d s t r a i n e r p o s t s r a t h e r t h a n t h e p o s t b e i n g l a s s o e d . These k n o t s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e '3.5.

6 . G a t e s . L o c a t e g a t e s i n c o r n e r s f o r e a s y s t o c k h a n d l i n g a n d ensure t h a t t h e w i d t h i s s u f f i c i e n t f o r m a c h i n e r y a c c e s s . G a t e s s h o u l d n o t be l o c a t e d i n p o s i t i o n s l i k e l y t o waterlog.

7 . E n s u r e t h a t t h e b o t t o m w i r e o f a n y f e n c e i s 7 t o 1 0 cm o f f the g r o u n d . T h i s r e d u c e s c o r r o s i o n t h r o u g h s o i l c o v e r a g e , etc.

N . B . f u r t h e r r e a d i n g

L i t e r a t u r e p r o d u c e d b y A u s t r a l i a n W i r e I n d u s t r i e s P t y L t d . g i v e s a wide c o v e r a g e o f f e n c i n g t e c h n i q u e s a n d materials.

FIGURE 3.5

R e c o m m e n d e d k n o t s f o r j o i n i n g wire

F i g u r e o f 8

3.8

P i n a n d Loop

(30)

FIGURE 3.5

T y i n g w i r e t o a s t r a i n e r post

D. ELECTRIC FENCING AND I T S ADVANTAGES

T h e a i m o f a n y f e n c e i s t o k e e p a n i m a l s e i t h e r i n o r o u t o f a g i v e n site.

T h i s c a n b e a c h i e v e d now i n t w o w a y s . T h e t r a d i t i o n a l m a n n e r i s a m e c h a n i c a l b a r r i e r . T h e l a t e s t o p t i o n i n f e n c i n g i s t h e e l e c t r i c wire.

I n 1 9 6 2 a New Z e a l a n d e r , M r . D . S . M . P h i l l i p s , d e m o n s t r a t e d t w o new p r i n c i p l e s i n e l e c t r i c f e n c i n g . T h e n e w s y s t e m w a s c a p a b l e o f maintaining h i g h v o l t a g e d e s p i t e l a r g e l e a k a g e f r o m t h e f e n c e . Now e l e c t r i c a l pulses c a n b e t r a n s m i t t e d o v e r l o n g d i s t a n c e s , o v e r c o m i n g m a n y o f t h e old

t r a n s m i s s i o n problems.

T h e a d v a n t a g e s o f e l e c t r i c f e n c e s o v e r c o n v e n t i o n a l f e n c e s a r e numerous.

T h e e l e c t r i c f e n c e s t o p s a l l a n i m a l s f r o m p e n e t r a t i n g i t b y f e a r rather t h a n f o r c e . I n f a c t , t h e y g e t p u n i s h e d f o r trying.

1 . T h e m a i n a d v a n t a g e i s t h a t t h e f e n c e i s n o l o n g e r a p h y s i c a l barrier, a n d t h e a m o u n t o f m a t e r i a l s r e q u i r e d c a n b e g r e a t l y r e d u c e d . The m a t e r i a l s c a n a l s o b e l i g h t e r , w i r e s a n d p o s t s , etc.

2 . I f t h e r e a r e l e s s m a t e r i a l s i n t h e f e n c e i t f o l l o w s t h a t l e s s labour w i l l b e r e q u i r e d t o b u i l d i t . L a b o u r i s u s u a l l y 4 0 t o 5 0 p e r c e n t of t h e c o s t o f a n y fence.

3 . A s t h e f e n c e s a r e l i g h t a n d e a s i l y b u i l t a n d d i s a s s e m b l e d t h e y are t r a n s p o r t a b l e , a n d m a t e r i a l s c a n b e u s e d t i m e a f t e r t i m e - a most d e s i r a b l e f e a t u r e f o r t r i a l w o r k . T h e y c a n b e u s e d f o r s t r i p grazing, f o r p r o t e c t i n g s m a l l p l o t s w i t h i n t r e a t m e n t s , e q u i p m e n t , etc.

3.9

(31)

E . FENCE CONSTRUCTION

T h i s a s p e c t h a s b e e n c o v e r e d , b u t n o t i n t e r m s o f e l e c t r i c fencing.

E l e c t r i c f e n c e s , b e c a u s e o f t h e l i g h t e r c o n s t r u c t i o n , a r e t h e best e n g i n e e r e d f e n c e s . T h e y s u p p o r t t h e e n g i n e e r i n g p r i n c i p l e s f a r better.

1 . T h e F e n c e l i n e

T h e f e n c e l i n e s h o u l d b e c l e a r e d o f v e g e t a t i o n ( r e g r o w t h , r u s h e s , logs, e t c . ) a n d t h e g r o u n d s u r f a c e s h o u l d b e r e a s o n a b l y l e v e l . T h i s w i l l enable t h e f e n c e t o b e e a s i l y g n d q u i c k l y b u i l t , a n d t h e w i r e s c a n r u n parallel t o t h e g r o u n d s u r f a c e . T h e l a s t p o i n t i s t h e b e s t t e s t o f a w e l l built fence.

2 . S t r a i n e r o r e n d a s s e m b l y

T h e s t r a i n e r a s s e m b l y f o r a n e l e c t r i c f e n c e c a n b e e i t h e r t h e d o u b l e post t y p e o r t h e s i n g l e p o s t type.

F o r q u i c k c o n s t r u c t i o n o n a n e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t e t h e s i n g l e p o s t i s quite s a t i s f a c t o r y . T h e p o s t i s b r a c e d u s i n g t h e ' b e d l o g ' s y s t e m . T h e b e d log s h o u l d b e s a w n t i m b e r a n d a t l e a s t h a l f t h e l e n g t h o f t h e p o s t . The

s t r a i n e r p o s t s h o u l d l e a n b a c k s e v e r a l d e g r e e s , w i t h t h e b e d l o g p l a c e d in a c u t trench.

B e d - l o g system

Post

3 . F e n c e p o s t s

101-01 2 ° f r o m vertical

1Strain

A v

r , B e d - log

T h e s e l e c t i o n o f a f e n c e p o s t f o r a n e l e c t r i c e x p e r i m e n t a l f e n c e will d e p e n d u p o n i t s s i t e , t h e e x p e c t e d l i f e o f t h e t r i a l , a n d t h e availability o f materials.

F o r t r i a l s o f s h o r t d u r a t i o n , s t e e l p o s t s a r e s u i t a b l e , b u t t h e y m u s t be w e l l i n s u l a t e d . ( S e e S e c t i o n o n I n s u l a t i o n ) . H a n d - d r i v e n w o o d e n post s y s t e m s a r e n o t b e i n g m a r k e t e d , b u t w o o d e n p o s t s w i l l , i n g e n e r a l terms, b e s u i t a b l e f o r e l e c t r i c f e n c e s . F o r s h o r t l e n g t h s o f f e n c e s u c h as r e q u i r e d f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l p u r p o s e s , n o f u r t h e r i n s u l a t i o n w i l l b e needed.

Figure

TABLE  OF  CONTENTS
FIGURE  3 . 1   Strainer
FIGURE  7 . 2 a   S i n g l e   c o n e   seeder'
FIGURE  7 . 2   a)  S I D E   VIEW
+2

References

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Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4 Western Australia, Series 4 Volume 1 Number 12 December, 1960 Article