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JOURNAL

OF THE ROYAL VICTORIAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS Vol. )(XXVIII. Melbourne, August-September, 1940 No. 4

CONTENTS

STONES OF ATHENS ... ... FRONTISPIECE

AIR RAID PRECAUTIONS 79

NOTES OF GENERAL INTEREST ... 81

R.V.I.A. VICTORIAN STREET ARCHITECTURE MEDAL 82 HEIDELBERG TOWN HALL AND MUNICIPAL OFFICES 83 THE I.E.S. AWARD FOR LIGHT IN ARCHITECTURE, 1940 84

DESIGN AWARDED FIRST PRIZE ... 85

DESIGN AWARDED SECOND PRIZE 86

DESIGN AWARDED THIRD PRIZE 87

CONTEMPORARY RESIDENTIAL SHOP DESIGN ... 88

NEW BUILDING FOR THE ROYAL INSURANCE COMPANY LIMITED 90

LOUDON SAINTHILL ... 92

PUBLISHED MONTHLY FOR

THE ROYAL VICTORIAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS

REGISTERED OFFÍCE: 53-55 COLLINS PLACE, MELBOURNE, C.1

journal Committee

HORACE J. TRIBE (Chairman) ALAN L. FILDES LESLIE M. PERROTT D. C. WARD ROY K. STEVENSON W. R. GODFREY

Managing Editor— JOHN B. ISLIP This Journal is set up and printed by G. W. GREEN & SONS PTY. LTD.

458 Lonsdale Street, Melbourne Subscription Rates, £1/1/- per year

COPYRIGHT

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xvi.

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JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL VICTORIAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS + AUGUST-SEPTEMBER, 1940

~~oraei otAhevm

(5)

JOURNAL

OF THE ROYAL VICTORIAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS

Vol. XX XVIII. Melbourne, August-September, 1940 No. 4

AIR RAID PRECAUTIONS

THE PROVISION OF AIR RAID SHELTERS IN VICTORIA T the request

offence

the State Emergency J Council A or Civil De, the A.R.P. oint Com- mittee of the Royal Victorian Institute of Architects and of the Institution of Engineers, Australia, Melbourne Division, has prepared a report regarding the provision of Air Raid Shelters in Victoria.

The report deals in a comprehensive manner with the question of obtaining shelter protection in Greater Melbourne and the urban centres of the State and examines the relative costs. The document is of such length that it is not possible to publish it here in full: a summary of the con- clusions and recommendations contained in the report, however, is set out hereunder.

The recommendations are based upon the as- sumption that in the event of Victoria being raided from, the air complete evacuation of the popula- tion is not a practicable policy, owing to the vital need in wartime to maintain war production and civil organisation. This problem, together with a number of other difficulties inherent in any whole- sale evacuation scheme, has led the Committee to adopt a plan which provides for the evacuation of all non-essential persons from congested areas and the provision of shelter accommodation for all those remaining in populous or dangerous areas. The Committee points out that the report does not deal with the question of the billeting of evacuees nor the provision of buildings for such a purpose.

CONCLUSIONS

In summarising its conclusions, the Committee states that "consideration of the type of shelter accommodation to be provided for the unevacu- ated population has entailed examination of the relative merits of bomb-proof shelters and blast and splinter resisting shelters.

"After detailed examination of the data avail- able, blast and splinter resisting shelters have been considered to be preferable to the bomb-proof

shelter, and have been adopted as the basic type for all areas except specially vulnerable areas of limited extent, for three main reasons, viz.:—

(a) Small bomb-proof shelters are so excessively costly as to be impracticable.

(b) Large bomb-proof shelters in which the cost per head can be reduced to practicable limits are unsuitable for use in this country, where the density of population is -relatively low.

(c) In the event of larger bombs being used than those provided against, the efficiency of large bomb-proof shelters is doubtful.

"Since it has been found unduly costly to pro- vide by structural means lateral protection above ground equivalent to that provided by solid earth, the trench type of shelter wholly sunk into the ground has been recommended for use, wherever practicable.

"The recommendations for the structural design of covered trënch shelters have been based upon the factors of efficiency and cost. The 9 in. re- inforced concrete wall adopted as a basis provides high efficiency in relation to cost. The detailed costs given in Appendix B show that the efficiency of heavier construction increases at a lower rate than the costs of such construction.

"In areas of low density of population, with relatively few shelters, the probability of bombing and the risk of near hits on a number of shelters are less than in congested areas and these factors have been considered to justify some reduction in the strength of construction used in shelters in such areas.

"The nature of the earth into which the shel- ters are sunk also affects their efficiency. Various strengths of structure have, therefore, been recom- mended for use according to density of population and the nature of the ground.

"Where suitable buildings are available, shelters in buildings may be used. The construction of such shelters is intended to be such that they give ap-

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proximately the same amount of protection as the covered trench shelter.

In view of the relatively low cost of gas-proof- ing measures in shelters and in view of the pos- sible use of gas, it has been considered desirable that all shelters should be completely gas-proof.

It should be noted, however, that the provision of gas-proof shelters will not render the use of in- dividual gas masks unnecessary. Gas masks will be essential for all persons to ensure that they can enter and leave a shelter in the presence of gas.

"For reasons of economy and efficiency, it is recommended that all external shelters should be mechanically ventilated, and, where possible, should be capable of accommodating not less than 25 persons.

The maximum capacity of any one external shelter has been fixed at 100 persons, since a smaller shelter (of say 50 persons as adopted in England) adds considerably to the cost. Internal shelters accommodating more than 100 persons should be sub-divided with blast and splinter re- sisting partitions, so that no section will contain more than 100 persons. In all other details, the recommendations made in regard to shelter design are, in principle, the same as those adopted in England.

"English recommendations for surface area per person and air volume per person have been used in this report to determine the capacity of shelters.

These figures may require modification owing to the difference between English and Victorian climatic conditions. Any such modification will not, however, affect the general recommendations in this report.

"It is essential, before any final shelter designs are made, that a specimen shelter should be built and tested under a variety of weather conditions to determine the surface area and air volume re- quired per person in this climate.

"The size and type of shelter adopted control to a large extent the method of carrying out the con- struction programme and the question of location.

"Since the basic type of external shelter recom- mended is the covered trench type and accom- modates 25 or more persons, shelters must gen- erally be sited in open ground or in streets, and must be available to the public.

"While it is realised that the siting of shelters in any given area will depend upon a variety of special local conditions, it is recommended in general principle that shelters should be located

S tones o[_/dtheni

Mr. Max Collard (A.), a winner of the Robert and Ada Haddon Travelling Scholar- ship of the R.V.I.A., has captured an unusual angle of the Parthenon in the camera study which forms the frontispiece of this issue of the Journal. The photograph was taken by Mr. Collard during his recent tour overseas.

in public gardens, open spaces and in streets, par- ticularly secondary streets. This will allow shel- ters to be properly distributed according to the distribution of population with a minimum travel- time for the occupants of each shelter.

"It is clear that the construction of such shel- ters, the majority of which will be located on public property and roads, can be efficiently under- taken only by some Government Authority with adequate powers to control the matters of design, location and construction of shelters.

"While the shelter-construction scheme outlined in this report is not comparable in scale or in total cost with any of the main social services such as railways, sanitation or power supply, it is nevertheless a very large programme. It could not be efficiently nor economically carried out under emergency conditions. It is essential, therefore, that all necessary preparations should be made and the work carried out before an emergency arises."

RECOMMENDATIONS

"It is recommended that—

"1. The scheme of protection most suitable for Melbourne and the rural centres of Victoria is a combination of evacuation and the provision of shelter accommodation.

"2. All children and non-essential persons should be evacuated from all areas which are densely populated or adjoin specific targets.

"3. Where the population density, in any par- ticular area, after evacuation, equals or exceeds say five (5) persons to the acre, shelter accom- modation should be provided in order to give, as far as possible, an equal degree of immunity for all persons.

"Except in the case of areas adjoining specific targets, shelter provision is not considered essen- tial where the population density, after evacuation, is small [say less than five (5) persons to the acre].

[Continued on page 94 80

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Mr. Arnold E. Bridge

NOTES OF GENERAL INTEREST

4

Mr. Arnold Ernest Bridge has been ad- mitted to Associate- ship of the Institute after having com- pleted a qualifying examination. M r.

Bridge attended the Williamstown High School for the pur- pose of secondary education and then completed articles of pupilage in the

office of Mr. H. V. Gillespie, architect. He studied architecture at the Swinburne and Melbourne Technical Colleges and later at the University of Melbourne Architectural Atelier. Mr. Bridge is a member of the architectural staff of the State Sav- ings Bank of Victoria.

Mr. John F. D. Scarborough (A.) has been appointed Chairman of the Board of Architectural Education of the R.V.I.A. for the ensuing year.

Mr. Geo. R. King, an Honorary Fellow of the Institute, has been appointed a Vice-President of the Council of Public Education.

At the annual meeting of the Town Planning Association of Victoria held in the reception room of the Melbourne Town Hall on the 4th Septem- ber Mr. Leslie M. Perrott (F.) delivered an ad- dress entitled "Some Observations from the recent Town Planning Conference at Stockholm."

Messrs. Percy Everett (F.) and Geo. R. King (Hon. F.) were re-elected Vice-Presidents of the Association for the ensuing year and Mr. Frank Heath (A.) was re-appointed Honorary Secretary.

Other members of the Institute who were ap- pointed to the Council of the Association were Messrs. S. C. Brittingham, Kingsley A. Hender- son, Arthur Peck, Leslie M. Perrott, F. C. Purnell

(Fellows), Harold Bartlett, E. Keith Mackay, E. J.

Walker, Donald C. Ward and Ronald J. Wilson (Associates) .

Cr. John S. Gawler (F.) has been elected Mayor of the City of Box Hill. Cr. Gawler has been a member of the Box Hill Council for several years and has given active service in the development of the municipality.

In appreciation of his services in arranging the construction of the King Edward VII. statue at Geelong, Mr. Percy Everett (F.) has been pre- sented with a framed and inscribed photograph of the unveiling ceremony. The presentation was made by Cr. L. Hirst who was Chairman of the Parks and Gardens Committee when the statue was presented to Geelong.

At a recent meeting of the Housewives' Associ- ation Mrs. P. D. Phillips (A.) gave an address describing community housing work overseas.

Mr. John D. Fisher (A.) has been admitted as an associate of the firm of Messrs. Stephenson &

Turner, architects, of Melbourne and Sydney.

After obtaining the Diploma of Architectural Design of the Melbourne University and winning the Robert and Ada Haddon Travelling Scholar- ship of the R.V.I.A., Mr. Fisher returned last year from an extensive trip abroad during which he studied hospital architecture and modern indus- trial and housing work. Mr. Fisher has been a member of the staff of Messrs. Stephenson & Tur- ner for the past six years and has been entrusted with the carrying out of important building works both locally and in New Zealand. Recently he was appointed by his firm to take charge of the Gov- ernment Military Hospital project at Yaralla, New South Wales.

The Institute Council has approved a proposal of the R.V.I.A. Students' Society to establish a class of "Associate membership" to embrace students who are interested in the study of archi- tecture but who are not necessarily attending re- cognised courses. The Council has expressed the opinion that the extension of the activities of the Students' Society in this manner will perform a valuable service in widening public interest in the work of the profession.

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621/_9-2 VICTORIAN STREET

ARCHITECTURE MEDAL

O

N the recommendation of the Victorian Street Architecture Medal Jury of the R.V.I.A., the Council of the Institute has awarded the Medal for the year 1939 to Messrs. Peck & Kemter and A. C. Leith & Bartlett, in recognition of the exceptional merit of the Heidelberg Town Hall and Municipal Offices, Upper Heidelberg Road, Ivanhoe, the architects named, in conjunction, hav- ing been responsible for the design and construc- tion of the selected building.

The award of the Street Architecture Medal is offered annually by the R.V.I.A. for the design of a building of outstanding merit completed in Vic- toria during the previous three years, its purposes being to encourage excellence of design in street architecture and to increase public interest in the work of the architectural profession.

The personnel of the Jury which examined the merits of the buildings nominated for this year's award was as follows:—

The President of the Institute (Mr. W. O. McCutcheon) ;

The Chief Architect of the Department of Public Works (Mr. Percy Everett The Director of the National Gallery (Mr. J. S. MacDonald) ;

The Art Inspector of the Education Department (Mr. W. R. Dean) ; Seven Architects appointed by the Institute Council, viz.:—

Messrs. Edward F. Billson, John R. Freeman, Geo. R. King, E. Keith Mackay, Marcus W. Martin, P. H. Meldrum and Roy K. Stevenson.

In recommending the award the Examining Jury reported as follows:—

"The building possesses good architectural massing, complete unity of design and a digni- fied expression of purpose.

"The planning is expressed clearly in the main elevation, the principal mass of the Hall being effectively related to the Municipal Offices wing by the placing of the Clock Tower.

"Judicious restraint is evidenced in the detail consideration of the elevations, the chief interest being centred around the triple metal-grilled open- ings of the Hall block.

"The use of brickwork throughout the eleva- tions is commendable, and besides producing a

unity of design in colour and texture, has provided an excellent example of the monumental results which can be achieved by the intelligent use of broad masses of good brickwork.

"The design generally is of strong character and represents a fine type of modern architecture, and in setting a high standard of design for muni- cipal buildings of the future, it should be fur- ther distinguished by an award of architectural merit."

It is intended that the Medal together with a Diploma signed by the Examining Jury should be presented to the successful architects at a General Meeting of the Institute and that a bronze plaque recording the award should be affixed to the selected building.

82

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THE HEIDELBERG TOWN HALL AND MUNICIPAL OFFICES

FOR WHICH THE VICTORIAN STREET ARCHITECTURE MEDAL, 1939, HAS BEEN AWARDED

deoociaied._ rch.itecti:

PECK & KEMTER and A. C. LEITH & BARTLETT

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Jhe I.E.S. AWARD /or

LIGHT IN ARCHITECTURE, 1940

HE inating Engineering Society of Austr

Ill alia

um

(Victoria) has presented the 1940 Award for Light in Architecture to Messrs.

A. S. & R. A. Eggleston, Architects, of 360 Col- lins Street, Melbourne.

Inaugurated this year, the award is to be offered annually to members of the R.V.I.A., architects registered under the provisions of the Architects Acts of Victoria and students attending schools of architecture in this State. Its objects are "the ad- vancement of the arts and sciences of Architecture and Illumination and the development of the use of light as a component element in architectural design."

The award is based on an architectural com- petition the subject of which for 1940 was the design of two-storey premises in Collins Street East for the display and sale of exclusive millinery and frocks. Competitors were to assume that the site had a frontage of 25 feet to Collins Street and a depth of 80 feet to an open space and service access at the rear.

The conditions asked that emphasis be made of the exterior treatment, including the main display window, having regard to the publicity value of the facade both by day and by night. The interior was to be suitably arranged as a retail shop, fully equipped with all the essential facilities of an up-to-date salon specialising in high-class millin- ery and frocks. Provision was also to be made for mannequin parades which would take place on the floor space normally employed for sales activities.

Premiums of 50 guineas, 20 guineas and 10 guineas were offered for award to the authors of the designs placed first, second and third.

Second and third prizes were awarded respec- tively to Mr. John P. Mockridge, of 279 Domain Road, South Yarra, and Mr. John Barry, of 237 Buckley St., Essendon, both of whom are students of the Melbourne University Architectural Atelier.

The three premiated drawings are published on the following pages.

ASSESSORS' REPORT

The assessors of the competition were Messrs.

Charles E. Serpell (F.) (Chairman), L. D.

Wright, C. S. Demaine, P. Magnus (representing

the Illuminating Engineering Society) , and Alan J. Ralton (A.) and Horace J. Tribe (A.) (repre- senting the R.V.I.A.) .

In their report the assessors state that "the first I.E.S. Award for Light in Architecture attracted fifteen entrants. While it was expected that the field would be more competitive—there being seventy-five names on the preliminary register—

the average standard was of high quality, and showed evidence of intensive research into modern practices in illumination. It is significant that prac- tising firms of architects in submitting designs showed a consciousness of the need for research into this new element of architecture and the Award Committee's expectations have been fully realized in this connection. It had been hoped however that a greater number of University students would compete, the period of the com- petition having been arranged especially to co- incide with their winter vacation.

"The bulk of the entries showed a keen appre- ciation of the purpose of the competition, and in both interior and exterior treatments many novel and practical lighting ideas were propounded.

Fittings and lighting designs were not only prac- tical and economical from a lighting point of view but effectively combined the technical require- ments of illumination with sound architectural treatment.

"There was no wide variety in the individual facade designs but this may be attributed to cer- tain limitations implied if not intended by the set conditions. The shop fronts usually included a silhouette type sign mostly of free standing letters, but in several cases having luminous tubing con- cealed behind the lettering. In the show cases lighting methods varied between the latest pre- war forms of Continental luminous ceiling designs and the strong spot light type of contrast so much in evidence in American shop window work.

"The use of fluorescent luminous tubes was very general in the interior, thus marking a very decided architectural trend towards this newly established type of lighting. In most designs however this lighting was used in coves or coffers as basic light- ing, supplemented by downlights and other forms

84 [Continued on page 94

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DESIGN AWARDED THIRD PRIZE Sudmlttec Gy JOHN BARRY

(14)

CONTEMPORARY RESIDENTIAL-SHOP DESIGN

"BOOKCRAFT,"

AT 66 TOORAK ROAD. A FEATURE OF THIS BOOK- SHOP, LIBRARY AND DRESS- MAKING ESTABLISHMENT IS THE DISPLAY WINDOW, WHICH IS ONE OF THE LARGEST OF ITS TYPE IN THE SUBURBS OF MELBOURNE.

THE PINK COLOUR OF THE TAPESTRY BRICKS BLENDS HARMONIOUSLY WITH THE WHITE TERRA COTTA TRIM OF THE GROUND FLOOR AND WINDOW SHUTTERS OF THE RESIDENTIAL SEC- TION ABOVE.

~rchitec1i:

J. F. W. BALLANTYNE and ROY WILSON

88

(15)

a

THIS AND THE OPPOSITE PAGE ARE PICTURED TWO INTERESTING EXAMPLES OF CONTEMPORARY RESIDENTIAL

—SHOP DESIGN, BOTH BEING SITUATE AT SOUTH YARRA.

U ==E Nfill

"THE STITCH IN TIME,"

A FROCK SALON AT 54 TOORAK ROAD. THE USE OF COLOUR IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTORS IN THE DESIGN OF THESE PREMISES, WHICH ARE SITUATE IN RATHER DRAB SURROUNDINGS. AN IVORY WASH OVER THE RAKED BRICKWORK GIVES ADDED INTEREST TO THE SIMPLE CHARACTER OF THE ELEVATION. THE DOORS AND WINDOW FRAMES ARE IN TURQUOISE AND THE BITUMINOUS ALUMINIUM PAINT ON THE RENDERED TRIM TO THE SHOP FRONT, BESIDES GIVING PROTECTION TO THE CEMENTWORK, IS IN PLEASING HARMONY WITH THE BLUE JOINERY. THE STREET NUMBER DISC IS IN PILLAR BOX RED.

_Archilecle :

GODFREY & SPOWERS

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ENTRANCE TO THE BUILDING, SHOWING THE BRONZE SHEATHED DOORS AND CANOPY. THE GRILLES ARE CAST BRONZE AND THE LETTERING IS IN ROYAL RED

ENAMEL.

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J'flasÉraEiori.e Gy coecrieV o~

BROOKS ROBINSON PTY. LTD.

THE DOORS TO THE INSURANCE CHAMBER ARE IN HARMONY WITH

THE MAIN ENTRANCE.

90

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N `°N ge

\ICCOMPANY LIMITED 41COLLINS STREET

A SECTION OF THE INSURANCE CHAMBER. THE QUEENSLAND MAPLE WOODWORK IS IN NATURAL COLOURS, THE COAT-OF-ARMS IS SAND-BLASTED AND ETCHED, AND THE BALUSTRADE IS OF EXTRUDED BRONZE FRAMING AND PLATE

GLASS.

PORTION OF A MURAL IN OILS BY NAPIER WALLER AT THE NORTHERN END OF THE INSURANCE CHAMBER. FROM EARLY PIONEERING TO MODERN DAYS THE PANEL RECORDS THE PATH OF

AUSTRALIA'S PROGRESS IN HER PASTORAL, AGRICULTURAL AND MINING INDUSTRIES.

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(18)

LOUDON SAINTHILL

BY H. TATLOCK MILLER

oUDON SAINTHILL is a young Australian artist who has accomplished more in the past two years than many members of his profession achieve in a lifetime. During the span of twenty- four months he has held six exhibitions of his paintings and designs for ballet in Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide and London. But for the advent of the war he would now be holding an exhibi- tion at Monte Carlo and executing a commission to decorate the walls of a villa at Cannes belong- ing to Anton Dolin, well-known ballet dancer.

Sainthill was born in Tasmania twenty-two years ago. Except for a short period of elementary study in an art class of the Melbourne Technical College his artistry is quite "self taught."

MICHEL PANAIEFF — Les Sylphides

His first exhibition was held privately at Alcas- ton House, Melbourne, and following its success a larger display of his paintings of ballet was held at the Hotel Australia. His exhibits—which created wide interest—displayed sureness in char- acter and obviously were the product of an artist with an unusually individual appreciation of form and colour, even though at that stage the hand of the draughtsman lacked somewhat in experience.

If his knowledge of tendons, biceps and leg and arm muscles was slight, his sense of decoration and design and colour combination was immensely acute.

It was at this stage, on the occasion of the 1938 Australian ballet season, that Anton Dolin, David Lichine and Irina Baronova and her husband, M.

Sevastianov, first saw Sainthill's work. The mem- bers of the ballet were enthusiastic about his talents and advised him to go abroad for further study and experience. It was then arranged that he should travel to London as a member of the ballet company; thus, at the age of twenty-one, he undertook a venturesome trip overseas armed with a collection of his pictures and possessing only a very small amount of money. During the voyage he worked at high pressure in an improvised studio on the ship and the dancers were able to sit and pose for him.

In less than two months after his arrival in London, Jan Gordon, writing in "The Observer,"

had stated that Sainthill "painted his subject much as Gauguin painted Tahiti," Eric Newton in "The Sunday Times" had ascribed his work as "a rare example of art breeding art," whilst "The Sphere"

critic had stated that "his combinations of colour • were comparable to those of Bakst"!

His London exhibition was held at the Redfern Gallery, following an important French Impres- sionist display. It was opened by the Lady Juliet Duff, who, like her mother, the late Marchioness of Ripon, is acknowledged as a patron of the arts, especially ballet. In two weeks the sales had created a record for the entire London season in the private galleries. Portraits of Dolin, Baronova, 92

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Roussova, Lichine and Petroff were hung in the grand red and gilt foyer of the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden during the ballet season and caused much comment.

His work won the applause of such English art authorities as Sir Kenneth Clark, Director of the National Gallery of London, Sir Edward Marsh, of the Contemporary Art Society of England, Mr.

James Laver, of the Victoria and Albert Museum, Savily Sorine, the Russian portrait painter, and Lord de la Warr. The Duchess of Kent paid a visit to the exhibition as did many other well- known people including the Marchioness of Cam- bridge, Irene and Violet Vanbrugh, Sir Seymour Hicks, Lady Eleanor Smith, Beatrice Lillie, Lady Stonehaven and the Dowager Lady Swaythling.

Sainthill returned to Australia to exhibit during the recent season of Colonel de Basil's Covent Garden Ballet and conducted displays in three leading capital cities. Pictures of two interesting figures—Michel Panaieff (Les Sylphides) and Yura Lazovsky (Petrouchka)—are reproduced with this article.

He makes innumerable notes and never begins a new picture until it is in his mind's eye in its complete form. Perhaps this explains his ability to work extraordinarily quickly. When working in the wings at a theatre or in an audience he takes notes in a form of artist's shorthand which he has invented for himself.

Earlier this year Sainthill had a "one man"

section in the Art for Theatre and Ballet Exhibition which was sent out to Australia by the British Council, London. The exhibition was

YURA LAZOVSKY as Petrouchka

shown in Melbourne and Sydney, and, although displayed beside the work of such painters and designers as Oliver Messel, Christopher Wood, Duncan Grant, Lord Berners, Doris Zinkeisen, Cecil Beaton and many others, Sainthill's exhibits were outstanding for their unusual technique and general sense of artistry.

OFFICERS OF THE INSTITUTE FOR 1940-41

President ... W. O. McCutcheon Hon. Secretary .. P. H. Meldrum

Past-President ... Leslie M. Perrott Hon. Assistant Secretary E. Keith Mackay

Vice-President ... O. A. Yuncken Hon. Treasurer ... W. R. Godfrey

MEMBERS OF COUNCIL

A. J. Ainslie Robert S. Demaine Stanley T. Parkes Charles E. Serpell

Alec S. Eggleston Percy Everett John F. D. Scarborough Roy K. Stevenson Secretary of the Institute ... John B. Islip

Statements contained in correspondence and articles which are published in the Journal should be regarded as being the views of their authors and not as representative expressions of the Institute.

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AIR RAID PRECAUTIONS

— Continued

"4. All shelters should be capable of resisting gas, blast and splinters, and should be constructed either within buildings, or, wherever practicable, as underground concrete lined trenches.

"5. Shelters should be allowed in buildings only if the buildings are of the approved type as defined in Appendix E. Shelters in buildings should be sub-divided with blast and splinter resisting par- titions, so that no section shall contain more than 100 persons.

"6. All external shelters should be of the type described in Appendix F, and should conform with the dimensions given in that Appendix, and no external shelter should accommodate more than 100 persons. Where ground is costly to ex- cavate it may be necessary to construct the shelters partly above ground.

`7. All external shelters accommodating more than 25 persons should be mechanically ventilated, as discussed in Appendix A.

"8. Shelters should be located in streets, parks and open spaces, and should not be more than 600 yds. from the normal location of the occupants.

"9. To initiate the work of providing shelter accommodation, power should be vested in some new or existing Authority, which, in the case of

public shelters, would decide requirements and location, adopt certain standards, produce or

ap-

prove designs, and supervise construction. In the case of private or industrial shelters, the Authority should have power to initiate the work and ap- prove of both design and construction.

"10. Design data should be verified by the con- struction and testing of an experimental shelter.

"11. As the work involved will take a consider- able time to carry out, consideration should be given immediately to this report."

In detail the report gives extremely useful data dealing with the following questions:—

Types of Air Raid Shelters (under and above ground) : (a) Bomb-proof.

(b) Blast and Splinter Proof.

(c) Gas Resisting.

Degree of Protection and Related Costs.

Location of Shelters.

Construction and Equipment.

Arrangements have been made for the report to be published in full in the form of a booklet and copies will be made available upon application to the Secretary of the R.V.I.A.

THE I.E.S. AWARD FOR LIGHT IN ARCHITECTURE

— Continued of directional lighting. A feature of nearly all

designs was the wealth of ideas for built-in dis- plays, lighted mirrors and models; and fitting rooms designed for `seeing,' and the like. Most de- signers also succeeded in creating an interesting

general composition of light and highlight which suggested a charming atmosphere and showed the goods to advantage. The interior decoration was generally of high standard, but insufficient study of the planning requirements of an exclusive store of this type lost some of the competitors valuable points. The assessors were of the opinion that this aspect of the competition was of high importance in arriving at a satisfactory interior display, and most competitors would no doubt have benefited by a brief interview with an expert in merchan- dising, before finalizing their projects.

"Little provision was made for wrapping, a Customers' Powder Room or for a cashier, and generally speaking stock accommodation was too limited.

"Great difficulty was evidently experienced

in

visualizing exactly the resultant illumination of the shop front designs, and in several instances the renderings portrayed a wrong impression of the actual illumination which would be produced by the particular design.

"In conclusion it

is

considered that the objec- tive of the competition has been fully achieved, and that the excellent results not only justify the permanent establishment of the Award but indi- cate the possibility of far reaching developments in design trends over a period of years. A similar competition is already well established

in

America and in 1938 a competition was inaugurated under the auspices and control of the Royal Federation of Architects in Belgium. Both have attracted widespread interest and have resulted not only in a better understanding of lighting technique on the part of the Architect but in a sympathy for the Architect's viewpoint in the Illuminating Engineer."

94

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Library Digitised Collections

Author/s:

Royal Victorian Institute of Architects Title:

Journal of the Royal Victorian Institute of Architects: 1940 Date:

1940

Persistent Link:

http://hdl.handle.net/11343/108591

References

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