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Lincoln University Digital Dissertation 


Academic year: 2023

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However, New Zealand conservation, especially the work of the Department of Conservation, needs tourism. However, New Zealand conservation, especially the work of the Department of Conservation, needs tourism. Much of the literature regarding tourism's contribution to conservation comes from the field of ecotourism.

Figure 1 – Weavers Ecotourism Ideal Model
Figure 1 – Weavers Ecotourism Ideal Model

Participant Selection

To minimize this potential bias, the researcher used semi-structured interviews and participant observation techniques to triangulate the findings (Marshall and Rossman, 1999). To this end, intensive, semi-structured interview techniques and participant observation techniques were selected as the most appropriate data collection methods.

Semi-structured, In-depth Interviews

This was noted during the interview and a copy of this information was requested at the end of the meeting. Notes were taken during the interview and a "notes on notes" summary of the interview was also made shortly after the interview (Lofland and Lofland, 1995).

Participant Observation

During the tour it was often possible to informally discuss the operator's conservation work with their staff and obtain information on the staff's thoughts, knowledge and attitudes towards this work. From their feedback and insights, it was relatively easy to assess whether the operator's conservation actions were shared or whether they were simply a reflection of the operator's own beliefs.

Analysis of Policies and Corporate Material

Pilot Study

The results of the pilot study are included as one of seven case studies. Although not explicitly requested, further analysis of the interview transcript revealed that the operator had clearly stated his motives for participating in conservation.

Data Analysis

As such, the researcher will be known to the participants as a staff member of the agency. The dual nature of this study and the researcher's employment status present the potential for bias in either obtaining or interpreting the results.

Growing Environmental Awareness

Society's values ​​regarding environmental awareness and appreciation of the natural environment are changing (Weaver, 2001; Kirk et al. 2004). Holden (2000) suggests that issues that emerged in the 1980s such as climate change, the destruction of rainforests and a depleted ozone layer have had a profound effect, making people think about their activities, behaviors their buying behavior and the impact of these decisions on the natural environment. Increasingly environmentally conscious consumers realized that they could shape products and services through their demand, for example in the 1988 Green Consumer Guide.

Some companies pay a high price for ignoring growing consumer concerns about the impact of their activities. For example, when Shell, the world's largest oil company, proposed sinking a retired oil rig at the bottom of the North Sea, subsequent three-month boycotts of the company's service stations in Germany resulted in 30 percent more little income. Other companies such as the Body Shop were quick to capitalize on this new market of environmentally conscious consumers whose purchasing decisions were driven in part by environmental and ethical considerations.

Environmental Awareness and Its Impact on Ecotourism in New Zealand Zealand

Using Stanley Plog's psychographic profile of tourists, this meant that the ecotourism product is frequently visited by 'allocentric' travellers. Now the New Zealand tourism product is more mainstream, appealing to a wider market segment of 'near allocentric' and even 'midcentric' visitors. In the old promo material dolphins were barely mentioned, they weren't that big in the 80's.

Nobody knew much about them, and there wasn't much interest anyway. We know that New Zealand's tourism depends primarily on its landscape and its natural beauty.

The Environmental Values of New Zealand’s Ecotourists

Although people talk about it on the tour, how part of the ticket goes to conservation work. Of the seven operators interviewed in this study, six indicated that their customers were generally environmentally conscious. This study found that the conservation measures of seven concessionaires were not used as a form of greenwashing.

The research found that the importance of conservation actions to the business and the product they provide varies. Some of the operators in this study felt that these schemes distracted them from running their business. The quote from one of the operators in this study represents the central role that guidance and interpretation can play in the visitor experience.

Conservation actions can therefore improve the quality of the visitor experience, benefiting both the operator and conservation, by contributing to conservation advocacy outcomes. The results of this study revealed that six of the seven operators thought that they. The conservation actions of the concessionaires involved in this study reflect the values ​​they uphold.

The values ​​of the operator and his staff are also reflected in the company's values.

Table 2: Two Opposing Paradigms Relating to Environmental Values  ecocentric/biocentric
Table 2: Two Opposing Paradigms Relating to Environmental Values ecocentric/biocentric

Protecting Conservation Values

Sharing Their Passion for Conservation

They focus on the conservation challenges, not just the values ​​and by presenting management issues such as weed and pest control and discussing conservation threats, protecting conservation agencies, driving visitor support for conservation and ensuring they understand its impact minimalize. After taking five tours and talking to the operators and guides, it was clear that these operators were also expanding the role of interpretation and using it as a conservation advocacy tool. All those things that he did with Calypso and the underwater reef, nobody knew about it until he started filming down there.

I see a clear parallel here: 100,000 people watch Hector's dolphins, and that helps create a much greater awareness. I strongly believe that it is not only about being sustainable, green and beautiful, but also about education and also about giving back. The operators in this study clearly believe that conservation is a worthy commitment to them and their business and that they also play an important role in advocating conservation.

Second, contributing to conservation makes the individual "feel good", to "give something back" and care for the resource.

Personal Association with the Conservation Values or the Area

Well, first of all we, as kids, went into that area and saw the herons, so we went for DOC and for everything we went fishing there. I think because he [Les Hutchins] really appreciated the beauty of the place, he wanted to share it with other people. He was heavily involved in the Lake Manapouri campaign [to protect the lake from flooding for hydro development].

The long personal association of these operators, or their business founders, with the conservation values ​​or areas reinforces the motivation of these operators to act as custodians of the resource.

A ‘Feel Good’ Factor for the Operator

Motive expressed by one or more of the operators in this survey For enjoyment, recreation (the opportunity to spend time in attractive outdoor settings) or personal interest in the environment Yes. The starting point for this is that the owner's values ​​had less influence on a larger company than on a small company. This study found no evidence that staff support for conservation initiatives was enough of a factor in initiating operators' conservation efforts.

Four of the seven operators involved in the study believed their relationship with the . Interestingly, all operators have had a positive working relationship with DOC at some point. DOC should be aware of the leading role it can play in promoting the tourism industry's involvement in conservation.

The third section of this chapter discusses how the findings of this study apply to Weaver's (2001) model of the 'Ecotourism Ideal'. This section concludes the first study aim by presenting a summary and typology of the conservation actions undertaken by the seven operators investigated in this research.

Figure 7 – Volunteer and Intrinsic Operator Motives for Involvement in Conservation
Figure 7 – Volunteer and Intrinsic Operator Motives for Involvement in Conservation

Typology of Conservation Actions

The New Zealand National Parks and Conservation Foundation provides a transparent mechanism for managers to contribute money to conservation, but it has some drawbacks. Operators can show their customers traps and discuss how they work, providing an opportunity to raise awareness of conservation issues in New Zealand. But with visitors looking for a more authentic product, tourism New Zealand's market orientation and the competitive nature of the tourism industry, it can also be argued that "unless you're in the green you're in the wrong market".

There are more operators contributing to conservation than have been selected for this study, but together these operations represent only a small segment of the New Zealand tourism industry. If New Zealand tourism continues with its current '100% Pure' campaign aimed at the interactive traveler and the natural environment is increasingly valued by society, visitors, operators and their staff, tourism and conservation will continue to thrive in the future. have a much closer relationship. Assisting New Zealand's conservation efforts, including conserving its declining biodiversity, is another outcome that tourism has proven in this study can contribute.

Tourist experiences at nature-based accommodation: A case study of Wilderness Lodge Arthur's Pass New Zealand. Ecotourism visitor experiences in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Challenging the environmental values ​​of visitors in pursuit of pro-environmental behaviour.

Figure 9 – The Interrelationships of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motives
Figure 9 – The Interrelationships of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motives

What conservation work do you do? Note there are pictures, proofs, reports, etc. from this work). What do you estimate the annual value of this work to be either in terms of $$ or labor hours. Do you advertise this contribution in your brochures, online or in any other way.

Is there anything DOC can do to help improve your interpretation skills or your conservation work? Is there anything else you would like to add - especially about your conservation work. The purpose of this study is to examine the direct contributions concessionaires make to conservation in New Zealand.

This project will lead to the completion of both a master's thesis at Lincoln University and a project for the Department of Conservation. I will be provided with a copy of the transcript of the interview or my completed case study if desired;


Figure 1 – Weavers Ecotourism Ideal Model
Figure 2 – Location of Case Studies
Table 1:  Kiwi Incubation and Rearing at Kiwi Encounter
Table 2: Two Opposing Paradigms Relating to Environmental Values  ecocentric/biocentric


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