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Digital Library Digital Library

Experimental Summaries - Plant Research Agriculture

1985

Manganese deficiency - plant nutrition.

Manganese deficiency - plant nutrition.

J. W. Gartrell T. C. Johnston M. M. Riley

Follow this and additional works at: https://researchlibrary.agric.wa.gov.au/rqmsplant Part of the Agronomy and Crop Sciences Commons, and the Soil Science Commons

Recommended Citation Recommended Citation

Gartrell, J W, Johnston, T C, and Riley, M M. (1985), Manganese deficiency - plant nutrition.. Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia, Perth. Report.

This report is brought to you for free and open access by the Agriculture at Digital Library. It has been accepted for inclusion in Experimental Summaries - Plant Research by an authorized administrator of Digital Library. For more information, please contact [email protected].

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Experimental Summary 1985/86

J.W. Gartre11(l), T.C. Johnston< 2> and Riley, M.M. <3>

(1) Pian_t Nutrition Branch, South Perth (2) Regional Organisation - Northam

(3) Plant Nutrition Branch, South Perth

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Summary of Conclusions from Results

As reported last year, in 1984, 5 substantial field experiments in the Dale area were planted, sampled either twice or three times during the growing period, ear samples taken, and then harvested for grain yield. Grain yield results were reported. Unfortunately the analyses of the twelve hundred plant tissue samples submitted to the Government Chemical Laboratories were not received until late January and early February this year, delaying the

analysis and interpretation of results, and the compilation of this report and submission.

In the 1985 season a total of ten field experiments were planted and sampled, eight in the Dale area and two south of Newdegate. Eight of these were new experiments and two were recropped 1984 experiments.

We now report on conclusions derived from the chemical analyses on samples from the first year experiments and the grain yield results obtained in 1985.

Chemical analyses of material from the 1985 programme are not yet to hand.

l. Effectiveness of Different Fertilizers for Correcting M~nganese Deficiency in Wheat.

On the pallid zone and gravelly soils of the Great Southern and

South-East wheatbelt that produce manganese deficient wheat crops it had previously been (i)' shown that 3.8 kg Mn ha-l as manganese sulphate mixed dry with superphosphate and drilled with the seed is often, but not always, sufficient to fully correct the deficiency. (ii) shown that ammonium sulphate mixed dry with superphosphate and drilled with the seed markedly increases the availability of native manganese present in the soils, alleviating and sometimes fully correcting Mn deficiency without additional Mn fertiliser. Combinations of ammonium sulphate and Mn fertiliser were fully effective in the only two experiments in which they were tried. (iii) observed in farmers' paddocks that Agras

appeared to markedly relieve the severity of Mn deficiency but had not been experimentally compared with ammonium sulphate. (iv) shown that urea topdressed after seeding was clearly inferior to ammonium sulphate in the correction of Mn deficiency in two experiments. (v) shown in experiments in the early 1950s that in dry mixes manganese sulphate was technically superior in correcting Mn deficiency compared with the finely ground manganous oxides then tested, while man9anic oxides had very low effectiveness. Adelaide-Wallaroo fertilisers in the 1970s began producing a form of manganous oxide which compared favourably in price to manganese sulphate, and which when incorporated into moist superphosphate before granulation, satisfactorily corrected manganese deficiency in cereals under South Australian conditions.

Little objective data is available on the comparative efficiency of the various combinations of Mn form, nitrogen fertiliser form, and method of

incorporation into mixtures with superphosphate in increasing Mn uptake by wheat. A major thrust of this project is to ascertain the relative technical effectiveness of various combinations of these on W.A. soils as a basis for the development of new fertilisers with superior

cost-effectiveness in the correction of manganese deficiency in wheat.

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Results available to date from the first e~ghteen months of this project on these aspects are summarised:

(i) Form of Manganese in Fertiliser

(a) Effects on Mn concentration in wheat tissues

In the absence of ammonium sulphate the manganous oxide was inferior to manganese sulphate in raising Mn concentration in wheat tissues. However, with ammonium sulphate both forms were equally effective. Incorporation of the oxide into the

superphosphate pellet had little effect without ammonium sulphate, whereas incorporation appeared to increase the

effectiveness of the oxide with ammonium sulphate. For manganese sulphate, incorporation appeared to increase effectiveness

slightly both without and with ammonium sulphate. (Tables 1, 2, 4, 10, 11).

(b) Effects on Mn uptake into whole tops, second sampling (Tables 5 and 6)

The variability in dry matter yields was large relative to the differences in effects on uptake of the different manganese form

treatments, obscuring any small differences. Without ammonium sulphate, manganese sulphate increased Mn uptake by 47%, and the oxide by 38%. With ammonium sulphate, manganese sulphate

increased Mn uptake by 80%, and the oxide by 69%.

It is interesting to note that correcting manganese deficiency by applying manganese fertilisers increased nitrogen uptake into the tops at the time of the second sampling (Table 8) by about 7%

without ammonium sulphate and about 15% with ammonium sulphate.

(c) Effects on grain yield (Table 12) , and profitability (Table 13).

Without ammonium sulphate, manganese sulphate increased grain yield by 0.34 t/ha-1 (30%) and the oxide by 0.29 t/ha-l ,

(26%). With ammonium sulphate manganese sulphate increased grain yield by 0.21 t/ha-l (18%), and the oxide by 0.09 t/ha-1 (8%).

If wheat is valued at $120 t-1 , without ammonium sulphate, manganese sulphate increased net returns by $29.40 ha-1, and the oxide by $24.50 ha-1 • With ammonium sulphate, manganese sulphate increased net returns by $16.50 ha-1 and the oxide by

$4.30. Were wheat priced at $160 t-1 the figures are $42.80,

$36.90, $24.70 and $7.60 respectively.

(ii) Method of Incorporation of Mn Fertilisers into Mixtures

Generally the differences between methods of incorporation in correcting Mn deficiency were small and inconsistent. However the "wet" mixed Agras with manganese sulphate consistently increased Mn concentration and uptake more than the "dry" mix and usually more than any otJ.:ier treatment. e.g. Table 6 shows the "wet" mixing of Agras and manganese sulphate increased Mn uptake into tops at the second sampling by 86%

compared with the "dry" mix and 236% compared with the plain superphosphate treatment. It should be noted that the method of

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preparing the "wet" Agras-manganese sulphate mix differed from other

"wet" mixes in that a slurry of manganese sulphate was added to the Agras and tumbled in a concrete mixer giving a coating of manganese sulphate on the outside of the Agras granuales. All the other "wet"

mixed were made by incorporating the manganese material with or without anunonium sulphate into warm, moist fresh superphosphate and then

tumbling to form granules which more of less incorporated all the materials.

(iii) Form of Nitrogen Fertiliser

Ammonium sulphate and Agras No.l were drilled with the seed, whereas urea was topdressed immediately after seeding. For Agras and urea these are the methods of application normally used in common practice. If drilled with the seed, urea usually kills the germinating plant. Two earlier experiments showed that urea topdressed was much less effective in increasing manganese uptake than ammonium sulphate drilled. However the urea topdressed treatments were included because urea, by virtue of its lower price per unit of N, is a popular fertiliser and farmers want to see the comparison with the alternatives. An earlier experiment showed that ammonium sulphate topdressed was markedly inferior to drilled but superior to urea topdressed in correcting manganese

deficiency. Therefore there was no need to include ammonium sulphate topdressed treatments in these experiments.

(a) Effects on Mn concentration in wheat tissues (Tables 1,2,4, 10' 11)

In the absence of Mn application and in dry mixes with Mn

sulphate, ammonium sulphate and Agras produced similar increases in Mn concentration in wheat plant tissues. As noted earlier the

"wet" coating of Mn sulphate on Agras produced superior effects.

Urea topdressed also increased Mn concentration but effects were small and barely reflected in final grain Mn concentrations.

Compared with corresponding nil nitrogen treatments at the 2nd sampling ammonium sulphate and Agras alone both increased Mn concentration in whole tops by 30%, the increase with urea alone was 7%; in dry mixes with Mn sulphate the increase with ammonium sulphate and Agras was 37%, urea 8% and the "wet" Mn

sulphate-Agras was up 67% (Table 4) •

(b) Effects on Mn uptake into whole tops, 2nd sampling (Tables 5 and 6).

The nitrogen fertilisers increased plant growth by decreasing the degree of nitrogen deficiency (as well as the degree of Mn

deficiency in some treatments). As noted above, the increase in Mn uptake was relatively greater than the increase in dry matter yield as reflected by the higher Mn concentrations where nitrogen fertiliser was applied.

In the absence of Mn fertiliser, and in dry mixes with Mn

sulphate, ammonium sulphate increased dry matter yields more than Agras apparently due to a slightly superior nitrogen supply (Mn concentrations were almost identical) (Tables 3 and 9), although the possibility remains that it was due to alleviation of Mn deficiency.

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Compared with corresponding nil nitrogen treatments at· the 2nd sampling, ammonium sulphate increased Mn uptake by 112%, 125% and 164% with nil Mn sulphate, Mn sulphate mixed dry and Mn sulphate mixed "wet" respectively. For Agras the increases were 81%, 110%

and 182% respectively, and for urea topdressed 48%, 64% and 53%

(Table 6).

Nitrogen concentrations in whole tops at the 2nd sampling show a strong Piper-Steinjberg effect in that the higher the dry matter yield (Table 3) the lower the N concentration (Table 8) even where the yield response appeared to be solely due to the

alleviation of nitrogen stress. Mn fertiliser application also tended to increase N uptake.

(c) Effects on grain yield (Table 12) and profitability (Table 13)

Without Mn fertiliser, ammonium sulphate increased grain yield by

a.so

t/ha-1 (44%), Agras No. 1 by 0.37 t/ha-1 (33%) and urea by 0.30 t/ha-1 (27%). With dry mixes of Mn sulphate the grain yield increases were 0.44 t/ha-1 (38%), 0.25 t/ha-1 (21%) and 0.24 t/ha-1 (21%) respectively.

With wheat valued at $120 t-1, without Mn fertiliser the net return to ammonium sulphate was $24.60, to Agras $12.40 and to urea $8.90. With Mn sulphate the extra net return to ammonium sulphate above Mn sulphate alone, was $11.70 but was slightly negative for Agras No. 1 or urea.

With wheat valued at $160 t-1, without Mn fertiliser the net return to ammonium sulphate was $44.60 to Agras $27.20 and to urea $20.90. With Mn sulphate, the extra net return to ammonium sulphate above Mn sulphate alone was $26.50, to Agras $8.30 and to urea $3.50.

Thus the value of the alternative fertilisers is highly sensitive to cost price ratios. Despite the marked improvements in Mn and N uptakes and grain yields, where nitrogen fertilisers were applied, at current cost price ratios the only treatments where the application of nitrogen fertiliser in addition to Mn sulphate was profitable was where ammonium sulphate was applied.

Combinations of Agras or urea with Mn sulphate were not profitable. However were wheat $160 t-1 (and at current N

fertiliser prices or proportional decrease in cost price ratio) a wet slurried Agras manganese mix would be highly attractive

particularly as it can be applied at a lower rate than comparable ammonium sulphate mixes (eg 195 vs 315 kg/ha-1) • The return varied markedly between experiments. On the more severely nitrogen deficient site (84N04, which unlike 84NOS was not accidentally grazed bare early by sheep) that had good yield potential very worthwhile returns were obtained to ammonium sulphate or Agras even with Mn sulphate.

As a direct result of the interest stimulated by these

experiments CSBP have produced a formulation of Agras and Mn and have prepared 1.5 million dollars worth for application to about 33,000 ha this year. This may produce an extra 9,000 t of wheat which may earn W.A. an extra $1.5 m export revenue, but no

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increase in net profit to farmers if they applied it across the range of Mn deficient situations in the same proportion as encountered in our experiments.

Thus with current cost price ratios the farmer must choose his fertilisers very carefully in relation to the paddock to be cropped taking into account the nitrogen status and pattern of distribution of Mn deficiency in each paddock to be cropped.

As a guide:

(i) N status moderate or higher, Mn deficiency in small patches which cannot be conveniently drilled separately to Mn adequate areas - use phosphate only and apply two Mn sprays three weeks apart to larger Mn deficient patches.

(ii) N status moderate or higher, Mn deficiency in patches that can be conveniently drilled separately - use Mn superphosphate on Mn deficient areas and phosphate-only on remainder.

(iii) N status low, Mn deficiency in patches which cannot be conveniently drilled separately - use Agras No. 1 over whole paddock. If necessary spray any Mn deficient patches as in (i).

(iv) N status low, Mn deficiency in patches that can be conveniently drilled separately - use Agras manganese on deficient patches. and Agras No. 1 on remainder.

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,9

Table 1 Manganese concentration in whole tops. 1st sampling Mn (µg g-l,

P & N Fertiliser

Super 150 (13.7 P)

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) Agras 180 (= P & N)

Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N)

Super 150 (13.7 P)

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) Agras 180 (= p & N)

Super 150 + Urea ( 31. 5 N)

Super 150 (13. 7 P)

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) Agras 180 (= p & N)

Super 150 + Urea (31. 5 N)

Mn rates in MnS04 equivalent kg ha-1

Nil MnS04 15 MnO

=

15

Dry Wet Dry Wet

84N03 7.8.84 16.0 21.0 24.0 18.7 27.3 34.0 18.7 27.7 34~3 16.0 23.2 26.3

84N04 31.7.84 12.7 38 32

32 54 41

21 40 69

23 38 56

84N05 (Not Done)

18.7

30.3 22.3

34.7

25 25

48 54

Table 2 Manganese concentrations in Youngest Expanded Blades, 1st sampling

Mn rates in MnS04 equivalent kg ha-1

P & N Fertiliser Nil MnS04 15 MnO = 15

Dry Wet Dry Wet

84N03 7.8.84

Super 150 (13. 7 P) 11.6 15.7 17.0 14.0 14.3

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) 16.3 20.7 22.0 21. 3 24.3 Agras 180 (= p & N) 16.3 19.0 19.6

Super 150 + Urea ( 31. 5 N) 13. 7 17.0 19.0 84N04 31. 7. 84

Super 150 (13.7 P) 12.3 26.3 32.0 20.0 18.7

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) 25.3 48.3 53.3 44.7 52.7 Agras 180 (= p & N) 23.3 44.0 68.3

Super 150 + Urea ( 31. 5 N) 18.7 35.0 36.7 84N05 15.8.84

Super 150 (13. 7 P) 7.4 13. 9 16.7 10.9 14. 0

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) 16.7 27.3 32.7 31. 7 34.3 Agras 180 (= p & N) 16.7 22.3 41.3

Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N) 12.0 .18. 0 21.0

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Table 3 Whole tops, dry matter (t ha-1) at 2nd sampling

P & N Fertiliser

Super 150 (13. 7 P)

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) Agras 180 (= p & N)

Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N)

Super 150 (13.7 P)

Super 150 + S/A (31. 5 N) Agras 180 (= p & N)

Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N)

Super 150 (13.7 P)

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) Agras 180 (= P & N)

Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N)

Mn rates in MnS04 equivalent kg ha-1

Nil MnS04 15 MnO

=

Dry Wet Dry

84N03 18.9.84

2.23 2.69 2.31 2.46

2.89 3.00 2.74 3.12

2.44 2.53 3.10 2.48 3.08 2.86 84N04 19.9.84

0.94 1. 03 1.13 1.37

1.56 1. 70 2.04 1. 77

1.43 1.66 1. 74 1.32 1.64 1.32 84N05 21. 9. 84

0.53 0.64 0.70 0.74

1.05 1.06 1.13 1.15

0.88 0.99 1.04

o.

71 1.15 0.87

-8-

15 Wet

2.37 2.74

1.06 1.60

o.

6'0

1.03

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Table 4 Manganese concentration in whole tops, 2nd sampling

Mn rates in MnS04 equivalent kg ha-1 P & N Fertiliser Nil MnS04 15 MnO

=

15

Dry Wet Dry Wet

Super 150 (13.7 -P)

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) Agras 180 (= P & N)

Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N)

Super 150 (13.7 P)

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) Agras 180 (= P & N)

Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N)

Super 150 (13.7 P)

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) Agras 180 (= P & N)

Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N)

Super 150

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) Agras 180 (

=

P & N)

Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N)

84N03 18.9.84 6.4 7.5 8.0 7.7 8.9 10.3 7.9 8.7 12.3 6.3 7.6 9.5 84N04 19.9.84 10.0 7.6

10.7 8.0

12.3 9.6 13.3 8.4

10.6 12.1 15.3 9.3 84N05 21.9.84 6.1 7.3 7.6 8.4 10.2 12.3 7.4 9.6 11.9 7.3 7.6 9.4 Mean of 3 experiments

6.7 8.7 8.7 7.2

10.5 8.1 10.5 7.9

11.6 8.7 13.2 9.4

7.0 9.3

11.3 9.3

7.4 10.4

10.3 7.9

Mean of 3 experiments as % of Nil Mn - Nil N Super 150

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) Agras 180 ( = P & N) Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N)

100 130 130 107

157 121 118 157

130 173 197 140

154 118

8.2 7.3

12.7 9.3

7.1 11.0

10.6 7.9

118 158

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Table 5 Manganese uptakes (g ha- 1 ) in whole tops, 2nd sampling

Mn rates in MnS04 equivalent kg ha-1

P & N Fertiliser Nil Mnso 4 15 MnO = 15

Dry Wet Dry Wet

84N03 18.9.84

Super 150 (13. 7 P) 15.3 21.3 18.8 16.8 17.6

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) 22.4 27.1 28.3 29.1 22.5 Agras 180 (= p & N) 19.5 22.4 38.2

Super 150 + Urea (31. 5 N) 15.6 23.2 28.0 .84N04 19.9.84

Super 150 (13.7 P) 7.1 9.9 12.3 12.8 9.5

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) 15.7 20.7 24.5 20.3 20.2 Agras 180 (= p & N) 15.4 22.3 27.2

Super 150 + Urea ( 31. 5 N) 10.6 13.7 13.4 84N05 21.9.84

Super 150 (13.7 P) 3.3 4.7 5.5 5.4 4.2

Super 150 + S/A ( 31. 5 N) 8.9 10.8 14.0 11.9 11.4 Agras 180 (= p & N) 6.6 9.5 12.4

Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N) 6.4 8.8 8.2

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Table 6 Manganese uptakes in whole tops, 2nd sampling expressed as percentage of the Superphosphate only treatment

Mn rates in MnS04 equivalent kg ha-1

P & N Fertiliser Nil MnS04 15 · MnO = 15

Dry Wet Dry Wet

84N03 18.9.84

Super 150 (13.7 P) 100 139 123 110 115

Super 150 + S/A ( 31. 5 N) 146 177 185 190 147 Agras 180 (= p & N) 127 146 250

Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N) 102 152 183 84N04 19.9.84

Super 150 (13.7 P) 100 139 173 180 134

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) 221 292 345 286 285 Agras 180 (= p & N) 217 314 383

Super 150 + Urea (31. 5 N) 149 193 189 84N05 21. 9. 84

Super 150 (13. 7 P) 100 142 167 164 127

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) 270 327 424 361 345 Agras 180 (= p & N) 200 289 376

Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N) 194 267 248 Mean of 3 experiments

Super 150 100 140 154 151 125

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) 212 265 318 279 259 Agras 180 = p & N) 181 250 336

Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N) 148 204 207

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Table 7 Nitrogen Uptakes (kg ha-1 ) in whole tops, 2nd sampling

Mn rates in MnS04 equivalent kg ha-1

P & N Fertiliser Nil MnS04 15 MnO = 15

Dry Wet Dry Wet

84N03 18.9.84

Super 150 (13.7 P) 46.7 54.9 43.5 49.0 47.7

Super 150 + S/A ( 31. 5 N) 51.6 60.4 48.1 60.0 49.7 -Agras 180 (= p & N) 48.8 51.9 62.5

Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N) 53.6 53.0 53.3 84N04 19.9.84

Super 150 (13.7 P) 22.4 22.7 23.1 28.8 24.4

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) 32.4 35.4 41.l 44.9 33.4 Agras 180 (= p & N) 31.6 34.0 33.4

Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N) 28.7 32.8 27.6 84N05 21.9. 84

Super 150 (13.7 P) 12.9 12.3 13. 4 14.3 12.2

Super 150 + S /A ( 31. 5 N) 19.2 18.4 20.4 20.8 18.7 Agras 180 (= p & N) - 17.1 18.9 19.4

Super 150 + Urea ( 31. 5 N) 15.6 21.7 18.3 Mean of 3 experiments

Super 150 27.3 30.0 26.7 30.7 28.1

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) 34.4 38.1 36.5 41.9 33.9 Agras 180 = p & N) 32.5 34.9 38.4

Super 150 + Urea ( 31. 5 N) 32.6 35.8 33.l

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Table 8 Nitrogen concentrations in whole tops, 2nd sampling (%N)

Mn (3.8 kg Mn ha-1)

P & N Fertilizer Nil MnS04 · Mn oxide

Dry Wet Dry Wet

84N03 18.9.84

Super 150 2.11 2.02 1.88 1.84 2.05

Super 150 + S/A 1.80 2.03 1. 76 1.93 1.82

Agras No. 1 180 2.01 2.04 2.02

Super 150 + Urea 2.23 1. 72 1.87

84N04 19.9.84

Super 150 2.38 2.23 2.09 2.12 2.28

Super 150 + S/A 2.09 2.10 2.01 1.99 2.11

Agras. No. 180 2.23 2.06 1.94

Super 150 + Urea 2.17 2.01 2.14

84N05 21.9.84

Super 150 2.52 1.94 1. 92 1.94 1.95

Super 150 + S/A 1.81 1. 73 1. 79 1.82 1. 73

Agras No. 1 180 1.94 1.90 . 1.87

Super 150 + Urea 2.24 1.91 2.14

Mean of 3 experiments

Super 150 2.34 2.06 1.96 1.97 2.09

Super 150 + S/A 1.90 1.95 1.85 1.91 1.89

Agras No. 1 2.06 2.00 1.94

Super 150 + Urea 2.21 1.88 2.05

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Table 9 Nitrogen Uptakes in whole tops, 2nd sampling expressed as percentage of the Superphosphate only treatment

Mn rates in MnS04 equivalent kg ha-l

P & N Fertiliser Nil MnS04 15 MnO

=

15

Dry Wet Dry Wet

84N03 18.9.84

Super 150 (13. 7 P) 100 118 93 105 102

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) 110 129 103 128 .J.06 Agras 180 (= p & N) 104 111 134

Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N) 115 113 114 84N04 19.9.84

Super 150 (13.7 P) 100 101 103 129 109

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) 145 158 183 200 149

Agras 180 (= p & N) 141 152 149 Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N) 128 146 123

84N05 21. 9. 84

Super 150 (13. 7 P) 100 110 98 112 103

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) 126 140 134 153 124

Agras 180 (= P & N) 119 128 141 Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N) 119 131 121

Mean of 3 experiments

Super 150 100 110 98 115 105

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) 127 142 140 160 126

Agras 180 (

=

p & N) 121 130 141

Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N) 121 130 119

8 N c.f. Super only. Mean 3 experiments

Super 150 0 4 10

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) 27 41 43

Agras 180 ( = p & N) 21 36 Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N) 21 25

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Table 10 Manganese concentrations in Youngest Expanded Blades, 2nd sampling

Mn rates in MnS04 equivalent kg ha-1 P & N Fertiliser Nil MnS04 15 MnO = 15

Dry Wet Dry Wet

84N03 18.9.84

Super 150 (13.7 P) 9.6 10.9 10.9 10.3 10.2

Super 150 + S/A ( 31. 5 N) 11.3 11. 7 14.0 10.9 12.3 Agras 180 (= p & N) 11.2 12.0 13.0

Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N) 9.9 10.7 10.7 84N04 19.9.84

Super 150 (13. 7 P) 8.8 11.2 12.3 10.5 10.5

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) 12.0 13.3 13.7 13.7 15.0 Agras 180 (= p & N) 10.9 13.0 18.0

Super 150 + Urea ( 31. 5 N) 10.2 11. 7 11.5 84N05 21.9.84

Super 150 (13. 7 P) 9.3 9.4 11.5 10.2 8.8

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) 11.3 16.0 17.0 13.0 15.7 Agras 180 (= p & N) 12.3 14.0 17.7

Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N) 9.9 13.3 12.7 Mean of 3 experiments

Super 150 9.2 10.5 11.6 10.3 9.8

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) 11.5 13. 7 14.9 12.5 14.3 Agras 180 = p & N) 11.l 13.0 16.2

Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N) 10.0 11.9 11. 6

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Table 11 Manganese concentration in grain (µg g-1)

Mn rates in MnS04 equivalent kg ha-1

P & N Fertiliser Nil MnS04 15 MnO = 15

Dry Wet Dry Wet

84N03

Super 150 (13.7 P) 5.5 5.7 6.0 6.1 5.1

Super 150 + S/A (31. 5 N) 6.0 7.1 6.7 8.4 6.5

Agras 180 (= p & N) 5.6 6.3 7.8 Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N) 5.4 6.3 6.7

84N04

Super. 150 (13.7 P) 4.9 7.3 8.7 7.4 6.2

Super 150 + S/A ( 31. 5 N) 7.9 9.3 8.4 9.5 8.4

Agras 180 (= p & N) 6.7 8.0 9.8 Super 150 + Urea (31. 5 N) 6.1 7.4 6.6

84N05

Super 150 (13.7 P) 5.0 5.6 5.8 4.9 6.8

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) 7.0 7.7 9.5 8.8 8.6

Agras 180 (= p & N) 5.3 7.4 8.7 Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N) 4.7 6.5 6.9

Mean of 3 experiments

Super 150 5.1 6.2 6.8 6.1 6.0

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) 7.0 8.0 8.2 8.9 7.8

Agras 180 (

=

p & N) 5.9 7.2 8.8 Super 150 + Urea (31. 5 N) 5.4 6.7 6.7

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Table 12 Effects of acidifying nitrogen fertilizers on the uptake of manganese by wheat from native soil supplies and fertilizer manganese supplied as sulphate as an oxide, either dry mixed or

incorporated into the fertilizer granule. Wheat grain yields t ha-1

P & N Fertiliser

Super 150 (13.7 P)

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) Agras 180 (= P & N)

Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N)

Super 150 (13.7 P)

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) Agras 180 (= P & N)

Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N)

Super 150 (13.7 P)

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) Agras 180 (= P & N)

Super 150 +Urea (31.5 N)

Super 150

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) Agras 180 ( = P & N) Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N)

Super 150

Super 150 + S/A ( 31. 5 N) Agras 180

Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N)

Mn rates in MnS04 equivalent kg/ha-1

Nil MnS04 15 MnO

=

15

Dry Wet Dry Wet

84N03, Rep 1, B. Schillings 1. 5

1. 7 1. 2.0 7

2.2 2.4 2.0 2.2

1.9 2.4 2.2 2.3

84N03, Mean of 3 reps 1.9 2.3

2.2 2.1

2.2 2.5 2.2 2.5

2.2 2.5 2.4 2.5

84N04, E. Crisps 1. 0.9 7

1.5 1.5

1.4 2.0 1.9 1. 6

1.9 1.5 1.9 1. 5

84N05, R. Huddleston 0.6 0.9

0.8 0.7

0.7 1.1 0.9 0.9

1.0 0.8 1.0 0.9

Mean of 3 experiments 1.13

1.63 1.50 1.43

1.43 1. 87 1.67 1.67

1.50 1. 80 1. 77 1.63

2.0 2.4

2.1 2.4

1. 6 1. 8

0.8 1.0

1. 50 1. 73

2.1 2.4

2.1 2.4

1. 1.2 7

1.0 0.7

1.33 1. 70

Mean of 3 experiments as % of Nil Mn - Nil N Super 150

Super 150 + S/A (31.5 N) Agras 180

Super 150 + Urea (31.5 N)

100 144 133 127

127 165 148 148

133 159 157 144

133 153 118 150

(19)

Table 13 Additional cost* of Manganese and Nitrogen fertilisers above plain superphosphate at 150 kg ha-1 and Gross Margin Returns.

Mn rates in MnS04 equivalent kg ha-1

P & N Fertiliser Nil MnS04 15 MnO

=

15

Dry Wet Dry Wet

Extra cost of N & Mn ($) Mean of 3 experiments

Super 150 0 10.8 10.8 8.7 8.7

Super 150 + S/A (150 kg ha-1) 35.4 43.5 43.5 41.4 41. 4 Agras 180 = p & N) 32.0 43.3 43.3

Super 150 +Urea 68.5 kg ha-1 27.1 37.9 37.9

With wheat @ $120/t, Gross Margin to extra Mn & N - 3 experiments

Super 150 0 25.2 33.6 35.7 13. 3

Super 150 + S/A 150 24.6 45.3 36.9 30.8 27.0

Agras 180 12.4 21.5 33.5

Super 150 +Urea 68.5 8.9 26.9 22.1

With wheat @ $160/t, Gross Margins to extra Mn & N - 3 experiments

Super 150 0 37.2 48.4 50.5 23.3

Super 150 + S/A 150 44.6 74.9 63.7 54.6 49.8

Agras 180 27.2 43.1 59.1 -

Super 150 + urea 68.5 20.9 48.5 42.1

With wheat @ $120/t, Gross Margins to extra Mn & N - 3 experiments

Super 150 0 29.4 24.5

Super 150 + S/A 150 24.6 41.l 28.9

Agras 180 12.4 27.5

Super 150 +Urea 68.5 8.9 24.5

With wheat @ $160/t, Gross Margin to extra Mn & N - 3 experiments Super 150

Super 150 + S/A 150 0

44.6 42.8

69.3 36.9

52.2 Agras 180

Super 150 + Urea 68.5 27.2

20.9 51.1

45.3

* Basis of calculations: Super $132/t

Ammonium Sulphate $200/t Agras No. 1 $288/t

Urea $322/t + $5/ha topdressing cost Manganese sulphate (25%) $520/t

Manganous Oxide 75% of price of Mn sulphate per unit of Mn

Mixing fee of all mixes $18/t of final mix Wheat $120/t or $160/t.

-18-

(20)

2. Apparent Critical Levels in Field Experiments

Table 14 summarises the apparent critical levels for 35 comparisons between manganese concentrations in a tissue and the dry matter yield of that or another tissue at that or another time.

It should be borne in mind that samples were taken at random along plots with no attempt to select uniform plants showing a particular level of deficiency or otherwise. Therefore some samples contained a mixture of deficient and adequate plants in which cases the apparent critical level will be higher than the actual concentration in the deficient plants even at the time of sampling. This may have particularly applied to the 84N04 first sampling as the occurrence of Mn deficiency symptoms

appeared patchier in this experiment than in the others.

An encouraging feature of these results is that for diagnosis (ie. for differentiating between healthy plants and those suffering growth limitation due to Mn deficiency at the time of sampling) the

concentration in youngest expanded blades (YEBS) was acce~tably constant (except for 84N04, Tl) ranging from 10.5 to 12.5 µg Mn g- in the

YEBS T2 [Mn] x WT D.M. T2 and was < 12 µg Mn g-1 in 84N03 YEBS Tl [Mn] x WT D.M. Tl. It is also worth noting that the apparent critical levels based on YEBS T2 [Mn] were little different for WT T2 compared with grain yields. In glasshouse studies with minimal within sample variation in Mn status Loneragan (unpublished) has found critical levels for YEBS of 10 µg Mn g-1 •

The relationships between grain Mn concentration and grain yield are also of considerable interest and despite the variation between experiments of some 1.5 µg Mn g-l in critical level between experiments the data suggest that a level of < 6.5 µg Mn g-1 indicates deficiency and above 8.0 µg Mn g-1 indicates that Mn deficiency probably did not limit grain yield. The results are promising enough to warrant further investigation.

The differences in critical levels based on the [Mn] WT T2 in diagnosing growth limitations due to Mn deficiency at T2 or grain yield restriction appeared greater both between experiments and between yield parameters

(for WT D.M. T2 diagnosis, the range of uncertainty in C.L. was 7.2 to 10.5 µg Mn g-1 and for grain yield prediction, 7.3 to 10.8 µg Mn

g-1) •

The difficulties in predicting Mn status of plants at later stages of growth from those taken earlier are illustrated in the change in

apparent C.L.s for WT Tl [Mn] and YEBS [Mn] Tl through WT T2 and grain yield.

(21)

Table 14

Sampled Tissue

WT Tl

YEBS Tl

WT T2

YEBS T2

Grain

(a) by ( b) By

*Apparent Field Critical Level Relationships Between Mn

concentrations of tissues taken at different times versus Plant or Grain Yield at different times. (Range shown in parenthesis).

Apparent Critical Level (µg Mn g-1) in Date Tissue in Relationship to Dry Matter

Expt No. Sampled Yield of

WT Tl WT T2 Grain Yield

84N03 7.8.84 < D 16 18.5 (18. 5-19. 0) 21 ( 20-23)

84N04 31.7.84 25 30 ( 25-35) 35 ( 35-55)

84N03 7.8.84 < D 12 16.0 (15.0-16.5) 17.5 ( 1 7 • 0-1 7 • 5)

84N04 31.7.84 24 25 ( 25-37) 35 ( 30-40)

84N05 15.8.84 17 ( 15-20) 23 (18-23)

84N07 31.7.84 27.5

84N03 18.9.84 7.5 ( 7. 2-7. 8) D 9.0 (7.3-9.0) 84N04 19.9.84 10.0 ( 9. 5-10. 5) 10.8 ( 9. 5-10. 8) 84N05 21. 9. 84 7.4 (7.3-7.5) 9.0 ( 7. 5-9. 8)

84N07 21. 9. 84 7.5? 8.5

D

84N03 18.9.84 11.0 ( 10 • 6-11. 4) 11.3 (10. 3-11. 4) 84N04 19.9.84 12.0 (10.5-12.5) 12.0 (11.5-12.5) 84N05 21.9.84 10.5 (10.5-12.3) 12.5 (12.5-14.0)

84N07 (a) 21.9.84 12.0 (10. 7-12. 7)

(b) 17.9.84 11.0

84N03 6.5 (6.0-6.5) D

84N04 8.0 ( 7. 5-8. 0)

84N05 7.2 (6.0-7.2)

84N07 6.5

W.A.D.A.

Murdoch University

D: Relationships with best chance of constancy and therefore most likely to be of value for diagnostic purposes. Remainder are expected to vary but may provide some basis for prediction.

* Apparent Field Critical Level, bearing in mind that due to the patchy occurrence of Mn deficiency in the study conditions, ~nd that in the comparisons other than indicated by "D", time has elapsed between when the samples were taken and the growth or yield measurement.

-20-

-

(22)

3. Differences between Wheat Varieties in Ability to Absorb and Utilize Soil and Fertiliser Manganese under Deficiency and Near-Deficiency Conditions in the Great Southern.

In the 1984 experiment (84N06 - Tables 15-20) there appeared to be substantial differences between varieties in their abilities to absorb either or both soil and fertiliser manganese. However, variability within the experimental site was, unfortunately high. Thus it is too early at this stage to talk about these results with much certainty. It does appear that Eradu had low ability to absorb soil Mn in the 1984 and

in both 1984 and 1985 its yields appeared to suffer more than varieties like Canna or Aroona.

Eradu is a recommended variety in many of the areas affected by Mn deficiency. There may prove to be a need to change these

recommendations. (See also Table 21, 85N068).

4. Results 1985

Grain yield results of 1985 experiments are shown in Tables 22 onwards but not discussed due to lack of required chemical analyses data.

5. Publicaions Arising

Johnston, T.C., Gartrell, J.W. and Riley, M.M. The effectiveness of manganese and nitrogen fertilisers on manganese uptake and correction of manganese deficiency in wheat in south-western Western Australia (In preparation).

(23)

Table 15 84N06 YEBS Tl [Mn]

LSD .05

=

10.64

Variety 0 Mn 15 MnS04

Jacup 27.67 7 46.33 1 ***

E-radu 26.67 10 43.67 5 **

Bokal 30.00 4 36.33 13 ns

Garnenya 26.67 10 42.00 7 **

Bodallin 37.67 1 44.33 4 ns

Egret 32.00 3 43.00 6 *

Canna 27.33 8 39.67 10 *

Lance 28.00 6 38.33 12 ns

Miling 26.67 10 45.67 2 ***

Madden 23.33 14 35.67 14 *

Tincurrin 34.00 2 39.00 11 ns

Millewa 25.00 13 40.33 9 **

Gutha 29.33 5 40.67 8 *

Aroona 27.00 9 45.00 3 **

Table 16 84N06 Mn Uptakes Tl

LSD·. 05

=

4.32

Variety 0 Mn 15 MnS0 4

Jacup 7.60 14 17.40 6 ***

Eradu 9.17 11 14.73 13 *

Bokal 9.17 11 15.73 11 **

Gamenya 11. 73 5 20. 77 1 ***

Bodallin 15.60 1 16.97 8 ns

Egret 10.73 8 16.20 10 *

Canna 12.70 3 14.93 12 ns

Lance 9.23 10 14.57 14 *

Miling 11. 60 6 16.87 8 *

Madden 10.70 9 19.93 3 ***

Tincurrin 12.33 4 20.73 2 ***

Millewa 13.57 2 17.07 7 ns

Gutha 8.67 13 18.33 5 ***

Aroona 11.07 7 18.73 4 ***

-22-

(24)

Table 17 84N06 YEBS T2 [Mn)

LSD .OS

=

3.66

Variety 0 Mn lS MnS04

Jacup 13.67 17.67

*

Eradu 13.33 lS.67 ns

Bokal 12.67 lS.67 ns

Gamenya 14.00 16.67 ns

Bodallin 18.67 22.33

*

Egret 17.67 21.33

*

Canna 17.67 19.00 ns

Lance 14.33 13.67 ns

Miling 14.00 14.67 ns

Madden 13.67 16.67 ns

Tincurrin 13.67 16.00 ns

Millewa 14.67 16.33 ns

Gut ha 13.00 lS.33 ns

e

Aroona lS.67 20.00

*

Table 18 84N06 Mn Uptake - Anthesis· T2, 3, 4

LSD .OS

=

11.08

Variety 0 Mn lS MnS04

Jacup 26.30 11 39.87 8

*

Eradu 22.43 14 32.23 12 ns

Bokal 27.13 8 41.27 7

*

Gamenya 37.20 3 47.13 3 ns

Bodallin 32.SO 6 41.80 6 ns

Egret 30.63 7 44.40

s *

Canna 33.60

s

46.93 4

*

Lance 2S.87 12 26.30 14 ns

e

Miling Madden 26.80 26.S7 10 9 36.70 10 ns 38.03 9

*

Tincurrin 42.13 1 64.03 1

***

Millewa 36.97 4 3S.33 11 ns

Gutha 23.96 13 31.97 13 ns

Aroona 39.13 2 S2.97 2

*

(25)

Table 19 84N06 Grain [Mn]

LSD .05

=

2.39

Variety 0 Mn 15 MnS04

Jacup 7.90 12 11.67 4

**

Eradu 8.80 10 9.20 11. ns

Bokal 8.90 7 9.20 11 ns

Gamenya 8.83 9 10.73 7 ns

Bodallin 10.00 3 10.80 6 ns

Egret 8.57 11 11.93 3

**

Canna 12.33 1 14.00 1 ns

Lance 9.10 5 9.60 10 ns

Mi ling 7.87 13 8.63 14 ns

Madden 8.87 8 9.87 8 ns

Tincurrin 9.10 5 9. 77 9 ns

Millewa 7.00 14 8.97 13 ns

Gutha 9.83 4 11.00 5 ns

Aroona 10.93 2 12.67 2 ns

Table 20 84N06 Grain Yield (t/ha)

LSD .05

=

0.27

Variety 0 Mn 15 MnS0 4

Jacup 1.58 11 1. 73 10 ns

Eradu 1.64 10 1.86 4 ns

Bokal 1.51 13 1.58 13 ns

Gamenya 1.83 4 1. 72 11 ns

Bodallin 1. 79 5 1. 79 8 ns

Egret 1. 69 7 1. 81 7 ns

Canna 1. 78 6 1.84 5 ns

Lance 1.41 14 1.47 14 ns

Miling Madden 1.91 1.66 3 9 1. 79 2.06 8 ns 2 ns

e

Tincurrin 1.95 2 2.19 1 ns

Millewa 2.03 1 1. 84 5 ns

Gutha 1.53 12 1.64 12 ns

Aroona 1. 67 8 1.90 3 ns

-24-

(26)

Table 21 85N06.8 - Grain Yields (kg/ha)

0 Mn 20 Mn

Millewa 885 895

Gamenya 890 1030

Bodallin 1000 1090

Cann a 1075 1159

Jae up 850 740

Cranbrook 1005 1235

Eradu 720 870

Aroona 1025 1220

Tincurrin 1150 1217

Table 22 85N064 Grain Yields

Rate of MnS04 (kg/ha)

0 15 22.5

D A p 83 + Double Super 95 1815 1760 1690

D A p 167 kg 1760 1905 1965

S/A 71 + Double Super 190 1810 1840 1835

S/A 143 + Double Super 190 1770 1720 2000

NaN03 94 + Double Super 190 1660 1570 1775

NaN03 188 + Double Super 190 1550 1660 1950

Table 23 85N065 Grain Yields

Mn Yield kg/ha

Agras No 1 180 0 1409

15 1435 (1534)

30 1511

60 1493

Super 150 0 880

Super 150 +Urea 68.5 0 1200 ( 1026)

(27)

Table 24 85N066 - Grain Yields

Rate of S/A Rate of MnS04 (kg/ha)

(kg/ha) 0 7.5

0 825 1125

50 1185 1275

100 1410 1350

150 1455 1480

200 1415 1540

Table 25 85N067 - Grain Yields (3 reps only)

Rate of S/A (kg/ha)

50 0 150 100 200

Rate of MnS04 (kg/ha)

0 7.5

1587 1827 1647 1820 1827

1507 1753 1700 1880 1880

Table 26 85N069 Grain Yields (2 reps only)

1. Super 150 + Urea 68.5 2. Super 150 +

Urea 68.5 &

MnS04 15 3. Agras 180 4. Agras 180 +

MnS04 15

0

480

610 760

720

Mn Sprays (4 kg/ha) 1

390

640 660

800

-26-

15

1070 1165 1420 1490 1555

15

1580 1107 1687 1887 1847

2

610

580 960

710

(28)

Table 27 85N05 - 1985 Grain Yields

Treatment 1984

1 p

2 p S/A

3 A

4 p u

5 P Mn S D

6 P Mn S W

7 P S/A Mn S D

8 P S/A Mn S W

9 A Mn S D

10 A Mn s

w

11 P Mn S DU

12 P Mn s

w

u

13 P Mn 0 D

14 P Mn 0 W

15 P S/A Mn 0 D

16 P S/A Mn 0 W

Trial badly affected by take-all

Table 28 84N07 - Grain Yields 1985

1984

Super 150 & Urea 6805 1 0

2 15

3 30

4 60

5 0

6 0

Agras No 1 180 7 0

8 15

9 30

10 60

11 0

12 0

13 0

14 15

15 39

16 0

Substantial take-all damage

-27-

MnS04

1985

p

P Mn S/A

A

PS/A p p p S/A p S/A A A p S/A P Mn P Mn p

S/A

P Mn S/A P S/A

1985

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 0 0 0 15 15 0

kg/ha

164 347 178 138 409 258 396 298 298 289 284 342 204 142 369 351

Grain Yield 1985

591 715 724 640 644 733 769 942 769 942 858 858 893 827 818 871

(29)

Table 29

s & u

SU & Mn A A & Mn

Table 30

SU SU & Mn

85LG36 - Grain Yields

Mn Sprays

0 1 2

625 642 640 610 663 6iO 555 555 501 532 602 501

85LG37 - Grain Yields - Lupins

Mn Sprays

0 1 2

463 432 494 409

-28-

440 440

References

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