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TECHNICAL

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PRE F ACE

The 1983 edition is publ ished in two parts, Techni·:al 3nd Fi nancial, each being tvlO vol urnes. Both manual s have been exten- sively revised and updated, and some new ~aterial incorporated.

Prices quoted in these il1anuals are those pertaini'1g to the period from late 1982 to early 1983. These a)'e likely to alter during the coming year, so that the Manual should be used as a guide only.

Trade names of various products are used only to acquaint the reader with some of the types available, and for clarity and convenience. ~o preferential endorsement by the College is inten- ded. Nor is criticism of similar or alternative products i~plied.

We would like to express our grateful thanks to Mr 5- Diprose, the previous editor of these Manuals, for his contribution towards the revision of WKH Technical l~anual. \~e would al so especially thank Miss Elizabeth Burtt for her conscientious wor~ in supervising and co-ordinating the revision and updating of the Manuals, and also to Mr Robert Webster and Mr Prem Singh for gathering and collating information for the Financial Manual.

Thanks also to i~arion ~lischler and Miss Sue Gill for their secret- arial services.

To all other members of the College staff, commercial firms and orga'lisations who provided i:lformation and assistance in the revision of this Manual, we extend our thanks.

:H trust all readers of the Manual fi nd it of interest and v'Illle.

2

t~.8. Clark

G.D. Rennie EDITORS i1arch 1983

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CONTENTS

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CON T [ N T S

PAGE SECTION 1 - PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS 1.1 Normal and Expected Range of Temperature, Pulse and

Respiration ••••.•..••••••••••••....••••...••.•••.••••• 1-3 1.2 Puberty... 1-4 1.3 Length of Gestation Period •••....••.•..•••...••••...•. 1-4 1.4 Breeding Table ... 1-5 1.5 Age of Animals ••••...•.•••••••••••••••••••.•.•.••••••• 1-5 1.5.1 Age of horses... 1-5 1.5.2 Age of cattle •.•.••••••••••..•••..••..•••.•••. 1-6 1.5.3 Age of sheep... ... 1-6 1.6 Age Classes of Livestock ....•.•••.•••.••••••..•.••.••. 1-7 1.7 Table of Oestrus ... 1-8 1.8 Conversion of Stock Number to Stock Units (Ewe

Equivalents) •..•.•••..••..••..•.••...•••.••••.••..•••• 1-8 SECTION 2 - SHEEP PRODUCTION

2.1 New Zealand Sheep Statistics .••.••••••.•••••••..••...• 2-3 2.1.1 Sheep numbers by statistical areas as at 30

June 1980 ••••...•..••••..••••..••.•••••... ,. 2-3 2.1.2 Ewe numbers at 30 June for 1977 to 1980 ••••.•• 2-4 2.1.3 Physical and production data... 2-5 2.2 Budgeting Notes... 2-7 2.2.1 Lambing percentage •.•••••••..•••.••••••••••••• 2-7 2.2.2 Mortal ity... 2-7 2.2.3 Culling •.•••••...•••••••.•.•••••••••••••••••.• 2-7 2.2.4 Rams... 2-8 2.2.5 Home kill ing and dog tucker... 2-8 2.2.6 Flock replacement •••••••••••••••.••••.•••••••. 2-8 SECTION 3 - WOOL PRODUCTION

3.1 Shearing... 3-3 3.2 Crutching... 3-3 3.3 ~'oo·l Preparation... 3-3 3.4 Budgeting Procedure ...•••..•.••...••••...•••••.... 3-4

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3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11

3.12

Wool C1 ass; fi cat; on ... . Summary of Wool Characteristics of Breeds ... ", ... ..

Average Percentage Clean Wool Yields of Full Fleece Wool ...•...•...•....•...

Average Percentage Clean Wool Yield of Oddments of Good/Average Grade ....•...•....

Average Percentage Yield of First Lambs ...•...

Statistical Report on Wool Selling Season ... . Sampling and Testing of Wool ...•...

3 .11.1 I ntroducti on ...••...•...

3.11.2 Advantages of the sampling and testing system.

3.11.3 Core sampling ...•... , New Zeal and Sen ing System ... ..

3.12.1 Modes of sale ... . 3.12.2 Auction sales in New Zealand ... . 3.12.3 Private buying in New Zealand ... ..

3.12.4 United Kingdom auctions ... . 3-4 3-12 3··15 3-15 3-15 3-16 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-21 3-23 3-23 3-23 3-27 3-28 SECTION 4 - BEEF CATTLE PRODUCTION

4.1 Beef Cattle Statistics ...•...•... 4-3 4.1.1 Beef cattle numbers as at June 1980 ....•... 4-3 4.1.2 Physical and production data ... 4-3 4.2 Factors Influencing Beef Cattle Performance ... 4-3 4.2.1 Physical performance ..•..•...•... 4-4 4.2.2 Stock sale pol icy... 4-5 4.3 Methods of Selling Cattle ...•...•. 4-6 4.3.1 By auction... 4-6 4.3.2 By private treaty ... 4-6 4.3.3 On sChedul e... 4-6 4.3.4 Pool s... 4-6 4.4 Dressing Out Percentages ...•..•...•. 4-6 4.5 Beef Cattle Reconciliation ...•...•...•... 4-7 4.5.1 Production parameters ...•••..•...••... 4-7 SECTION 5 - DAIRY CATTLE PRODUCTION

5.1 Dairy Statistics... 5-3 5.1.1 Number of herds of ten or More cows ... 5-3 5.1.2 Trends in average herd size ... , 5-4

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5.2 5.3 5.4

5.5

5.6 5.7

5.8

5.1.3 Totals of dairy products manufactured by dairy factories ••..•..••••••••.••••...•••...••.•..•• 5-5 5.1.4 Milk produced and milkfat processed ••.•.•.•••. 5-5 Measurement of Milk and Cream •••.•.••..••••...•..••.••

Composition of Milk and Product yields ••••...•••.••.•.

Cow Production •.•.•..•...••••...••..•••.••.•••••••.•

5.4.1 Milkfat production •...••...•..•••••....••••

5.4.2 Town milk production •...•••...••••.•••••.••.

The Town Hilk Supply Quota System ... ..

5.5.1 Quota milk ... . 5.5.2 Surplus milk ....••....•...••.•..•.•...••••••..

5.5.3 The quota price ....••••.•••.•••.••••..•.•.••••

5.5.4 The payment scheme ...•.••••.•..••••.•••••.•.

Calving Patterns and Analysis of Town Milk Production.

Herd Replacements •.••.•....•••..•....•.••.•.•...•..•.•

5.7.1 Herd wastage ..•••••.•..•••.••.•.•.••••..•.••••

5.7.2 Calving statistics •..•..•...••.•••.••••..••••.

5.7.3 Number of heifers available as replacements .•.

5.7.4 Bulls •.••••..•....•..•••.•.•••••.•..••.•...•••

Stock Reconciliations ..••••.•.• ; •.••..••••...••...•.••

5.8.1 Seasonal supply herd ... ..

5.8.2 Town supply herd .•.•...•....•..•...••••••

5-6 5-6 5-7 5-7 5-7 5-7 5-7 5-8 5-8 5-8 5-9 5-12 5-12 5-13 5-13 5-14 5-14 5-14 5-15 SECTION 6 - PIG PRODUCTION

6.1 Pig Production Statistics ...•••..••••.••••••••.••••••. 6-3 6.1.1 Pig population in New Zealand as at 30th June

1980... 6-3 6.1.2 Number of breeding sows in rel ation to pigs·

sl aughtered., . .• • •. . .. . •• . •• . • .•.• ••• •. . . .•. . • 6-3 6.1.3 Production - year ending 30th June 1981 ....•.. 6-4 6.2 Nutrition... 6-4 6.3 Feeding Scale •••...••.•..••••.•..••.•...•... 6-7 6.4 Piglet Survival... 6-8 SECTION 7 - GOAT PRODUCTION

7.1 General... 7-3 7.1.1 Requirements ... 7-3 7.1.2 Fencing ...•...•... 7-3 7.1.3 Environment ... 7-3 7.1.4 Water... 7-3

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7.1.5 7.i.6 7.1. 7 7.1.8 7.1.9 7.1.10

Breeding ... , ... . Reproducti on ... . Management routi ne ... . Grazing ...•...

Mustering and handling of feral goats ... . Identification ... .

7-4 7-4 7-4 7-6 7-6 7-6 7.2 Goat Milk Production ... 7-7 7.2.1 Introduction ...•... 7-7 7.2.2 Nutritional requirements ... 7-7 7.2.3 Subdivision... 7-7 7.2.4 Stock ... 7-8 7.3 Mohair Production ... 7-9 SECTION 8 - DEER PRODUCTION

8.1 Introduction... 8-3 8.2 Legisl ation... 8-3 8.2.1 Farming... 8-3 8.2.2 Ve·lveting... 8-3 8.2.3 Slaughtering ... , 8-3 8.2.4 Disease... 8-3 8.3 Reproductive Performance ... 8-4 8.3.1 Mating...

8.3.2 Calving... 8-4 8.3.3 Reproductive data ... 8-4 8.4 Growth and Development... 8-5 8.4.1 Early development ... 8-5 8.4.2 Growth from 12 months to maturity ... 8-5 8.5 Venison Production... 8-5 8.5.1 Slaughtered deer ... 8-5 8.5.2 Ki 11 ga.me... 8-6 8.6 Velvet Production ... 8-6 8.7 Disease ... 8-8 SECTION 9 - POULTRY

9.1 Egg Production... 9-3 9.1.1 Population and distribution ... 9-3 1= Summary of Entitlements in Provinces as

at 30th June

1981...

9-4 9.1.3 Production ...... 9-6 9.1.4 Sales of hen eggs (in dozens) by Licensed Egg

Marketing agents for the year ended 30 June 1981... 9-7

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9.2 Meat Production ••••.•••.•••••.•.•••••••••.••••••.••••. 9-8 9.3 Other Poul:ry •••••••..•••..••.••••.••••••••...‡‡‡‡ 9-8 9.3.1 Turkeys... 9-8 9.3.2 Ducks... 9-9 9.3.3 Geese .•.•••••••••.• , •••• , •••••..•••.••.••.•.•. 9-9 9.3.4 Pheasants and guinea fowls •••••.•• , •••••..•••• 9-9 9.4 Diseases... 9-10 SECTION 10 - RABBIT PRODUCTION

10.1 Breeds ..•••.•..•..••••. , .••••••..•.•.•••.••••••..•.••. 10-3 10.2 Housi ng and Equipment ... 10-3 10.3 Nutrition and Feeding •..••.•••...•••••••••.•••.••.•••• 10-3 10.4 Breeding .•...••....••..••.••.•.••••..•••.••..•..•••..• 10-4 10.5 Di seases and Hygi ene ..•...•••••••.• , . . . • • . • . . • • . • •. 1.0-4 10.6 Production parameters ..•••...•.•..•.•••.•.••...•....•. 10-5 10.6.1 ~1eat ... 10-5 10.5.2 Fur ••••.••..•..••....•••...•.••..•••..•.•••..• 10-5 SECTION 11 - LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION FROM PASTURE AND FODDER CROPS 11.1 Introduction ••...•••••••.•.•.•.•..••••••..••...•.•.... 11-3 11.2 Nutritive Value of New Zealand Forages .••••..••.••••.. 11-4 3DVWXUH~ ... ~ .. ,W a . . . ' ‡ 11.2.2 Hays ...•.••.••.•••••••••..•••••.••.•.•••.••••. 11-4 11.2.3 Straws ... 11-5

11.2.4 Tree EUDQFKHV'11-5

11.2.5 Silages ... 11-5 11.2.6 Greenfeed crops •.•.•..••.•...•..••.•.•.••••••• 11-5 11.2.7 Horticultural crops ••••••••...••••••••..••..•• 11-6 11.2.8 Process crop residues ..••••.•.••••.•...•.•.•.. 11-6 11.2.9 Grains and pulses ••.••••••.••••••.•.•.•..•..•• 11-6 11.2.10 Crops ... 11-6 11.2.11 Protein concentrates •••..•.•.•.•.••.•...•... 11-7 11.2.12 Other feeds ... 11-7 11.3 Energy Requirements of Sheep ••••..••..•..•.••...•... 11-8 11.4 Energy Requirements of Cattle ..•...••..•.•....•.•.•..• 11-10

11.4.1 Beef cattle ... 11-10 11.4.2 Finishing cattle •.•••..••...•...•...•.. 11-11 11.5 Energy Requirements of Dairy Cattle ... 11-13

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11.6 Monthly Feed Supply and Demand Tables ...•....••..• 11-21 11.6.1 Hay feeding ... 11-21 11.6.2 Pasture ...•...•....••...••.•• 11-22 11.6.3 Grain feeding ....•...•...••.•• 11-22 11.6.4 Brassicas and root crops ..•... 11-22 11.6.5 Silage ... 11-24 11.6.6 Winter greenfeeds ..•..•... 11-24 11.6.7 Maintenance feed requirement relationship

between livestock classes ... 11-25 11.6.8 Reciprocal maintenance feed requirement

relationship between livestock classes •... 11-25 11 . 6 . 9 P a stu re . • . . . • • . . . • . . . .. 11- 26 SECTION 12 - PASTURE PRODUCTION

12.1 Indentification of Grasses and Clovers ... 12-3 12.1.1 Identification of grasses .••...•.•... -...•... 12-3 12.1.2 Identification of clovers ...•.. 12-5 12.2 New Zealand Herbage Seeds ...••... 12-7 12.3 N.Z. Herbage Varieties and their Characteristics ... 12-8 12.3.1 'Grasslands Ariki' ryegrass ... 12-8 12.3.2 'Grasslands Manawa' ryegrass ... 12-8 12.3.3 'Grasslands Paroa' Italian ryegrass ... 12-9 12.3.4 'Grasslands Ruanui' ryegrass ... 12-9 12.3.5 'Grassl ands Nui' ryegrass ... 12-10 12.3.6 'Grasslands Tama' Italian ryegrass ... 12-10 12.3.7 'Grasslands Moata' Italian ryegrass ... 12-10 12.3.8 'Grasslands Apanui' Cocksfoot ... ,. 12-11 12.3,9 'Grasslands Kahu' Timothy ... 12-11 12.2.10 'Grasslands Matua' Prairie grass ... 12-12 12.3.11 'Grasslands Maru" Phlaris ...•.•••.•.•... 12-12 12.3.12 'Grasslands Raki' Paspalum ...•...•..•... 12-13 12.3.13 'Grasslands Roa' Tall Fescue ..•.••.••... 12-14 12.3.14 'Grasslands Huia' white clover ... 12-14 12.3.15 'Grasslands Pitau' white clover ...•..• 12-15 12.3.16 'Grasslands Turoa' Montqomery red clover ... 12-15 12.3.17 'Grasslands Hamua' broad red clover ... 12-16 12.3.18 'Grasslands Pawera' red clover ...•.•.. 12-16 12.3.19 'Grasslands Maku' Lotus ...•• 12-17 12.4 Seasonal Ranking, Ryegrass-Clover Swards ... 12-17 12.5 Pasture Production in New Zealand ... 12-18 12.5.1 Util isiltion ...•... 12-18 12.5.2 Spelling period ... 12-19 12.5.3 Extrapolation ... 12-19

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SECTION 13 - CASH CROP AND SMALL SEED PRODUCTION

13.1 Recommended Varieties ...•.•...•... 13-3 13.1.1 Wheat .•..••...••..•...•.•.... 13-3 13.1.2 Barley ..••...•...•... 13-3 13.1.3 Oats ..•...•...•...•••••.••..•••. 13-3 13.1.4 Ryecorn ... 13-3 13.1.5 Maize ...••...•... 13-3 13.1.6 Peas ...•...•••...•...•... , ... 13-3 13.1.7 Lupins ...••..••...•••.•••.•...•... 13-3 13.1.8 Potatoes ...•...•.•... 13-3 13.1.9 Rape ...•...•...•..•... , 13-3 13.1.10 Swedes ...•...•••.•...•. 13-3 13.1.11 Turnips ... 13-3 13.1.12 Kale ...••...••...•••...•.•.... 13-4 13.1.13 Fodderbeet ...•....•...•...• 13-4 13.1.14 Lucerne ...••...••..•..•... 13-4 13.1.15 Ryegrass ...•..•..•• : 13-4 13.1.16 Cocksfoot ...•...•.•...•... 13-4 13.1.17 Clovers •...•.••.•••••...•. 13~4

13.1.18 Lotus ...••••...•...•... 13-4 13.2 Sowing and Harvesting of Crops .•.•...•.•..•.... 13-5 13.3 Standards for Marketing Cash Crops and Small Seeds ••.• 13-7 13.3.1 Wheat ...••...•..•...••... 13-7 13.3.2 Barley .•...•••...•... 13-7 13.3.3 Oats ... 13-8 13.3.4 Peas ...•...•... 13-8 13.3.5 Beans ...•...•••...• 13-11 13.3.6 Potatoes ... 13-11 13.4 Sack Capacities ... 13-12 SECTION 14 - VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

14.1 Area and Production Statistics ...•.•...•... 14-3 14.1.1 Fresh and processed vegetable production ... 14-3 14.1.2 Potato production ... 14-4 14.2 Vegetable Varieties ... 14-5 14.3 Vegetable Crop Husbandry ... 14-10 SECTION 15 - FRUIT AND NUT PRODUCTION

15.1 Fruit Production Statistics ...••... 15-3 15.1.1 Orchards and subtropical fruits ...•.••... 15-3 15.1.2 Berryfruits ... 15-7 15.1.3 Apple and pear production ....•...• 15-8

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15.2 Fruit Production and Management .••••.•••••••••••••..•• 15-9 15.2.1 Berryfruits ••.••••••••••••.•••••••.••••••..••• 15-9 15.2.2 Citrus ••.•••••.••••.••..•••..•.•••••..•••.••.• 15-21 15.2.3 Pip and stone fruit •.••••.•••••••••••••••••••• 15-29 15.2.4 Subtropical fruit .•.•...•..•.•.•••.••.•..•.. 15-42 15.3 Nut Production •.•••••••••...•••.••.•••.••..•••.••••••• 15-54 SECTION 16 - GRAPES AND OTHER HORTICULTURAL CROPS

16.1 Grape Production .•••••••••••••••••••••••••....•.••...• 16-3 16.1.1 Grape husbandry •.••••••..••••••.••.•....•••••• 16-4 16.2 Hops ••.•.•.•••.•••••.••..•••.••••••..•••••..••.•... 16-6 16.3 Tobacco ...•.••••••.••••••••••••••.•••••••••••••.•••.•. 16-6 SECTION 17 - FARM FORESTRY

17.1 Planning ••••.••••..•.••••••••••••.•••••••.••••••..•.•. 17-3 17.2 Site Factors •..•....••••••••.•..•..•.•....••••..••.••. 17-3 17.2.1 Climate ••..••••••••••••••••.•••••••••••••.•••• 17-3 17.2.2 Altitude and aspect ••..•.•••.•••••••...•.••••• 17-3 17.2.3 Soi 1 s • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . . • • • • • • • • . . • • • • •• 17-4 17.2.4 Vegetable cover ••.•.•••.••••••••••....••..••.. 17-4 17.2.5 Site index ... 17-5 17.3 Species .•••.•••.•••..•••••••.•••.•.•••..•.••...•..•.•. 17-6 17.3.1 Rotation length .•••••••.•••.••.•••••.••.•••••. 17-8 17.4 Land Preparation .••••.•.•••••.•••••••••.•••••••••••••• 17-8 17.4.1 Techniques of land preparation ••••••.••••••••• 17-8 17.5 Planting ••••.•••.••••.•••..•••••••..•.•...•.•...•..••• 17-9 17.5.1 Tree stocks ••.••.•••••••••••••.••••••••.••••.• 17-9 17.5.2 Care of tree stocks ••.•••••.•.•.••.•••••••..•• 17-9 17.5.3 Planting technique •••••••..••..•••••.••.••.•• , 17-9 17.5.4 Spacing ••••....•••...•.••••..•.•..•••...•••••• 17-9 17.5.5 Blanking .•••••••..••••••.•••...•••••..••.•.••• 17-10 17.5.6 Fertiliser ...•••..•.•••.•••.•...••....••...• 17-10 17.6 Releasing •.••••.••.••.•..•••••••...•...•...•..•..••. 17-11 17.7 Tending Regimes •••...•.•....•.•••..••••...•••...•..••. 17-11 17.7.1 Boards and veneers •.••.•.•••••••••.•••..•••••. 17-11 17.7.2 Framing timber ••....•••....•..••..•••.•.••••.. 17-11 17.7.3 Roundwood ••.•.••.••.•.••••..•.•.••.•••..•••••• 17-12

1~.7.4 Pulpwood •••..••..••••.•••...•.•••••...••.•. 17-12 17.7.5 Wide spaced planting and grazing ••••...•..• 17-12 17.7.6 Sample management plans ... 17-12

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17.8 Pruning .•...••.••..••.•..•...•...••....•••••...•..• 17-13 17.8.1 Selection .•.•..••••.••.•..•...•••...•...• 17-13 17.8.2 Timing ...•••.•...•.••.•••.••.••••....•.• 17-16 17.8.3 Technique ..•..•...••.•..•..•...••.•••....•..•• 17-16 17.9 Thinning .••..•.••.••...•..••...•••••... 17-18 17.9.1 Technique - general ....•.••..•••..•••..•.•..•• 17-18 17.9.2 Fell ing method ... 17-18 17.9.3 Timing .••.•..••....•.•.•.•••.••..••••••..•.... 17-19 17.9.4 Production thinning .•.•.•.•.••..••••.•...•..•• 17-19 17.9.5 Radiata pine - seiection •....•••.••••••..•.•.• 17-21 17.9.6 Douglas fir •.•.•••...•••..•.•••••...•... 17-22 17.9.7 Eucalypts .•..•..•....•...••...••.•• 17-22 17.10 Protection •..••.•..••...•.•..•...•....•••...••.. 17-22 17.10.1 Fire ..•..•...•...•...•...•..••••...••..• 17-22 17.10.2 Animals ....•...••.•...•..•..••...•..•. 17-22 17.11 Disease ..•.•....•...••....••...••.••....•••...• 17-23 17.12 yield .••...•...•.•....•...••...•....•.•....••. 17-23 17.13 Harvesting and Sale •••••.•.•...•..•..•••.•....•.... 17-24 17.13.1 Methods of sale ...•....•.••..••...•.•.• 17-24 17.13.2 Conditions of sale •...•....••.••••...•.•..•• 17-26 17.14 Assessment of Volume ... 17-26 17.14.1 Standing trees .•••...•...•.•..••..•••...•.• 17-26 17.14.2 Logs •...•...••.•..•...•••.•.•...• 17-27 SECTION 18 - SOILS AND FERTILISERS

18.1 The Soils of New Zealand ... 18-3 18.1.1 Zonal soils •..•...••.••..••..•..•.•• 18-3 18.1.2 Intrazonal soils •..•••.••..•..•..•...••. 18-4 18.1.3 Azonal soils ••..•..•.•..•.•....••...••.•...• 18-4 18.1.4 Mapping ..••.•..•...•.•...••...•..•• 18-6 18.2 Essential Elements .•...•...•...••.• 18-6 18.3 Soil Testing ... 18-7 18.3.1 Interpretation of M.A.F. soil tests ... 18-9 18.4 Fertil iser and Lime Requirements for Pastures in New

Zeal and ...•...••...•.•...•.... 18-10 18.4.1 Frequency and time of fertiliser appl ication .. 18-11 18.4.2 Costing of fertiliser ...•. 18-16 18.4.3 Lime ...•....•...•...•...•..•...•.. 18-17 18.5 Soil Physical Conditions and Crop Production ... 18-18

11

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SECTION 19 - IRRIGATION AND FARM WATER SUPPLY

19.1 Measurement ••••••••••...••.••.•.••...•••.•••••••••••.• 19-3 19.1.1 Useful conversions •••••••••••••••••.••.••••••• 19-3 19.1.2 Commonly used units for farm water supply

projects •.•....•..•.•••.••.••.••.•.••••..••• 19-4 19.1.3 Metric - Imperial equivalents ... 19-5 19.2 Water Requirement ••.•.••••••••.••••.••••..••.••.•••.•• 19-6 19.2.1 Average rates of demand ... 19-6 19.2.2 Peak rates of demand ... 19-6 19.2.3 Quantity and time patterns ... 19-7 19.3 Average and Peak Water Requirements for Farm Water

Supply ••••.•.•••.••.•.••.••••.•..••••••.••.•••.••••• 19-7 19.3.1 Average daily stock water requirements .••..•.. 19-7 19.3.2 Average daily domestic consumption .•••..•••••• 19-7 19.3.3 Average daily garden consumption ••.•••.••••.•• 19-8 19.3.4 Avera~e.c?nsumption of general farming

actlvltles •...•••••••••.•.••.••.••.•••••.•.. 19-8 19.3.5 Long term demands in domestic and stock

suppl ies •.•••••••.••.••••.•..••..••••••••••• 19-9 19.3.6 Storage provision of tanks and dams filled by

pumping or gravity from a source ot supply •. 19-10 19.3.7 Pumping rates for filling storages from

supply •.•••••••...•.•....•••...•..••...••.•• 19-10 19.3.8 Maximum rates of consumption for domestic and

stock purposes •...••....••...••••••••••••••. 19-11 19.4 Factors Influencing Cost of Irrigation Systems .•.•..•. 19-12 19.5 Establ ishing the Watering Cycle ... 19-13 19.5.1 Frequency of i rri gati on ..•.•••.•••••.••..•..•• 19-13 19.5.2 Net available water ... 19-13 19.5.3 Total available water •••••••.••••..••...•••••• 19-13 19.5.4 Total available water per metre of soil ..•••.• 19-13 19.6 Sprinkler Irrigation Design Data ...••..•.•...•....•..• 19-14

19.6.1 Mean available water-holding capacities of

soils of various textural classes ..••..••••• 19-14 19.6.2 Mean available water-holding capacities of

soil groups in New Zealand •...••••• 19-15 19.6.3 A guide to soil textures ... 19-15 19.6.4 Crop root zone ...•...•.•...••.. 19-16 19.6.5 Maximum net and grossappl ication ... 19-17 19.6.6 Efficiency of application •••••.••••.••.•.••.•. 19-18 19.6.7 Application rate •••.••.•.••.•.•..••...•.•. 19-18 19.7 Trickle Irrigation •..•••...•..•.•.•••.•••...•...•. 19-20 19.7.1 Water sources ...•.•••..•.•...••.••.•...• 19-21 19.7.2 Components ..•••..•...•••••...•.•.••. 19-21 19.7.3 Pi pes ....•....••..•...•...•••.•.••...•...•• 19-22

12

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19.7.4 Watering rate ...•....••..•..••.•...•.• 19-25 19.7.5 Water distribution ...••..•..•••..•..•..• 19-25 19.7.6 Daily water requirements ...•...•.•••..•. 19-25 19.7.7 Fertiliser requirements ...•...•..••.... 19-25 19.8 Pump Characteri sties ... ~ ... 19-25 19.8.1 Pump total head, HT •.•..••.•...••...•...••.... 19-25 19.8.2 Pump discharge, Q ...••...•.•... 19-28 19.8.3 Water power (W.P.) ...•...•...•...•...•.. 19-28 19.8.4 Pump eff'iciency ...••...••...•...•.... 19-29 19.8.5 Suction capacity ...•...•...•...•.•.. 19-29 19.8.6 Pump selection ... 19-30 19.9 Spray Irrigation Systems ...•...•....•.••.. 19-31 19.9.1 Pumps ...•...•••••...•. 19-31 19.9.2 Irrigation comparison ••..•...•..•..••..•.... 19-32 19.9.3 Travelling irrigators ...••... , ..•.... 19-33 19.10 Working Lives for Farm Water Supply Equipment ....•..•• 19-34 19.10.1 Storages ...•...•...•.••... 19-34 19.10.2 Pumps ...••...••...•.•....•..•. 19-34 19.10.3 Motors .•...•...•..•...••..•••.. 19··34 19.10.4 Miscellaneous ....•..•....•....•...••... 19-34 SECTION 20 - PEST CONTROL

20.1 Weed Control ...•....••••...•...•...•..•.•... 20-3 20.1.1 I ntroducti on ...•..•..•..•...•...••... 20-3 20.1.2 Weed control .•.•...••..•.••.••...•..••. 20-4 20.1.3 Pastures - general principles ... 20-16 20.1.4 Noxious plant control ....••...••..•..•...•.. 20-18 20.1.5 Farm forestry and shelter belts ...•...••...• 20-20 20.1.6 Weed control in orchards and vineyards ..••.... 20-21 20.2 Insect Control ...•.•.•...•.••••.•.•..•...•.... 20-38 20.2.1 Introduction .•.•••..•.•.••••....••..•.•...••.• 20-38 20.2.2 Berryfruit pests ...•...•...••••.••.•••.••.. 20-40 20.2.3 Pip and stone fruit •.••.•••..••..•...•.••..•.• 20-42 20.2.4 Cereal crop pests ...••...•... 20-44 20.2.5 Forage and seed crop pests ..••.••••...•...•• 20-44 20.2.6 Livestock pests ...•...•... 20-45 20.2.7 Pasture pests ....•..••..•..••..••...••••..••.• 20-46 20.2.8 Stored products pests ...•...•..•...•..•.•.. 20-47 20.2.9 Vegetable crop pests .••..•..•.•...•.•...•. 20-49 20.3 Disease Control in Crops ....•...•...•.. 20-50 20.3.1 Introduction •...•••....•...•...• 20-50 20.3.2 Cereals - wheat, barley, oats and maize •..•... 20-54 20.3.3 Potatoes ...•.••....•••...•.•....••.•...• 20-58 20.3.4 Peas •...•..•..•.•...••.. 20-59 20.3.5 Brassicas ....•...••..•....•...•...•.•••...• 20-59 20.3.6 Lucerne. . . • . . . • • . . . • . . . • .. 20-60 20.3.7 Pasture •...•..•..•...•... 20-60

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SECTION 21 - FARM STRUCTURES

21.1 Sheep yards ... " ..•...•...•.. 21-3 21.1.1 Introduction •..•...•.•••.•••..•••...• 21-3 21.1.2 Yard size ... " ... 21-4 21.1.3 Yard shape .••..•..•....•..•••...•.•....•..••.. 21-4 21.1.4 Yard construction ...•.•.••...••.•.•. 21-6 21.1.5 Gates •...•••.•.•...•.•.•.•.... 21-13 21.1.6 The crush ... 21-16 21.1.7 The drafting race .••...•..•...•.•.•...•.• 21-16 21.1.8 Drafting pens ...•.••••.•••.•... 21-17 21.1.9 Check pens ...•...••.•.••...•.•.•...•. 21-17 21.1.10 Footrot baths ...•...••• 21-17 21.1.11 Circular sheepyards ..•...••..••••••... 21-18 21.1.12 Covered yards ...••..•••..•..•..•...•. 21-23 21.2 Cattle yards .•...•••...•..•...•...•.• 21-25 21.2.1 Introduction ...•••...•...•.•. 21-25 21.2.2 Designing the yards •••.•••...•.•... 21-25 21.2.3 Yard construction ...••..•...•... 21-27 21.2.4 Circular cattle yard ...•••.•••.••....••...•. 21-27 21.3 Cattlestops .••...•...••... 21-33 21.4 Deer yards ...•.•...•...••.•••... 21-34 21.4.1 Requirements ...•...••...••....•..• 21-34 21.5 Woolsheds ... 21-37 21.5.1 Regulations ..•...•..••..•...•..•.• 21-37 21.5.2 Wool rooms .•...••...•••... 21-38 21.5.3 Notes •..•....•..•...•..•..••••..•.•...••. 21-38 21.6 Dairy Shed and yards ... 21-44 21.7 Haybarns ...•...••.. , ..•...••... 21-46 21.8 Grain Storage Building .••..•.•...•...•.•••. 21-46 21.8.1 Galvanised steel silos ..•...•..••..•...•.•. 21-46 21.8.2 Steel mesh silos .•...•...•.•••.. 21-46 21.9 Other Farm Buildings ...••...•....•... 21-47 21.10 Permanent Electric Fencing ....•..•... , ...•...• 21-47 21.10.1 Concepts .•.••.••..•...••.•.•...••. 21-47 21.10.2 Components ...•...••...•...•...••... 21-48 21.10.3 Fence design .•... 21-50 21.10.4 N.Z. Safety Regulations ...••...•. 21-51 21.10.5 Fence management ... 21-51 21.11 Concrete ... 21-52 21.11.1 Quantity estimatio~ ...••...••..•• 21-52 21.11.2 Buying or self mixing ...•...••... 21-52 21.11.3 Strength specifications .•...••... 21-52 21.11.4 Site mixing ...•...•...• 21-53

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21.12 Timber ... 21-54 SECTION 22 - FARM MACHINERY

22.1 Power Terms •....•..•...•..•..•..•.•.•..•...•.... 22-3 22.2 Useful Formulae ...•...••....••••••••..••..•..••. 22-5 22.3 Estimated Fuel and Oil Consumption of Tractors ...•.... 22-5

22.3.1 Average specific fuel consumption per S.F.C.

kw/hour for a sample of new tractors ..•...•. 22-6 22.3.2 Fuel consumption in litres/hour for different

sizes and loads of tractor engines ...•....•. 22-7 22.3.3 Oil consumption ....•.•.••...•.•...•...•.•. 22-8 22.4 Hork Capacity of Farm ivlachinery and Implements ...• 22-8 22.4.1 Cultivation .•...•..•..••....•...••.•. 22-8 22.4.2 Harvesting ...•••..•.•...•••••••.•.••.••. 22-8 22.5 Field Capacity and Efficiency ... 22-8 22.5.1 Field capacity ... 22-8 22.5.2 Effective field capacity ... 22-9 … >[DPSOHV RI:2IN 2XW 7UDFWRU +RXUV

22.6.1 Heavy soils .•.•.••..••.•.•...•.•...•. 22-10 22.6.2 Medium soils ..•...•...•.••.•.•...••••.• 22-11 22.6.3 Miscellaneous ...•.•..••....•...••... 22-12 SECTION 23 - WEIGHTS AND MEASURE

23.1 The S. ,System... 23-3 23.1.1 Introduction ..•••••.••.•••...••••••...•. 23-3

23.1.2 S.l. 8QLWV23-3

23.1.3 The prefixes of S.l. units ...•...•.•..•... 23-4 23.1.4 Special names ...•...••••..••.•....••••.• 23-5 23.1.5 Rules of style ... 23-5 23.1.6 Precision and conversion .••.••••••...•....• 23-6 23.1.7 Metric and imperial listings ••••...••••••. 23-6 23.2 Imperial to Metric Conversions ... , ••...••..••... 23-6 23.2.1 Area ..•...•..••.•...••...•...•... 23-6 23.2.2 Density ...•...••••...•.•... 23-7 23.2.3 Energy ...•...••...•....•..••... 23-7 23.2.4 Length ....•...••...•...••..•. 23-7 23.2.5 Mass ...•...•...•••.•. 23-S 23.2.6 Mass per unit area ...•... 23-S 23.2.7 Mass per unit length •...•...•...•.... 23-S 23.2.S Pressure ...•...•..••..•... 23-9 23.2.9 Temperature ••...•...•••...•••... 23-9

23.2.19 9HORFLW\23-9

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23.2.11 Volume ...•...•..•.••....•... 23-9 23.2.12 Volume per unit area ..•...•... 23-10 23.2.13 Volume per unit time ...•...•... 23-10 23.3 Miscellaneous Measures ...•...•... 23-11 23.3.1 Cost conversions •...•...•... 23-11 23.3.2 Crop yields ...•...•.. 23-12 23.3.3 Distance ...•....•....•...•... 23-13 23.3.4 Rainfall ...• 23-13 23.3.5 Temperature .•...•..•.•...•...•.•...•. 23-13 23.3.6 Velocity ... 23-13

23.3.7 9ROXPH23-13

23.3.8 Volume per unit area ...•••••... 23-13 23.3.9 Application rate conversion chart •... 23-14 SECTION 24 - ENERGY

24.1 Definition of Electrical Terms ... 24-3 24.2 Electrical Consumption - Equipment Used in Dairy

Sheds ...•...•...•.•...•....•.. , 24-4 SECTION 25 - METEOROLOGICAL DATA

25.1 Annual Rainfall ... 25-3 25.2 Weather Forecasting ...••...•... 25-4 25.2.1 Symbols ...••••..•... 25-4 25.2.2 Example of a weather map ...•... 25-5 25.2.3 Surface charts ... 25-6 25.2.4 Prognostic charts and forecasting ... 25-7 25.3 Summaries of Climatological Observations at New Zealand

,1'(;

Stations to 1980 •...•...•... 25-7 25.3.1 Introduction .•..••...•.•...•...•.•.. 25-7 25.3.2 Notes on the tables .•••..•...•...• 25-8 25.3.3 Example of table ...•...•...•... 25-13 25.3.4 List of observing stations within New Zealand. 25-15

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SECTION 1

PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS

Revised with the assistance of the Animal Sciences Group

(20)
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1. PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS

The following information is given as a handy guide and is not intended to be very specific. r~ore detailed information can be obtained from the appropriate sources: Your veteri nari an, the Mi ni stry of Agri cultu re and Fi sheri es, or text books.

NORMAL AND EXPECTED RANGE OF TEMPERATURE, PULSE AND RESPIRATION

Rectal Temperature Pulse Respiration Deg. C (Beats/Min) (Breaths/Min) Sheep 38.9 (37.2-40.5) 75 (60-120) 12 - 20 Cattl e 38.6 (37.8-39.3) 70 (40-1DO) 30 (27 - 40) Pig 39.3 (38.8-40.3) (55- 86) ( 8 - 18) Horse 37.8 (37.2-38.1) 44 (23- 70) 11.9 (10.6-13.6) Dog 38.9 (36.7-40.5) (100-130)* 18 38) Goat 39.3 (37.8-40.5) 90 ( 70-135) 19

* Heart rate varies in all these animals according to body wei ght, but the very great range of si ze inbreeds of dog make this difference more marked. Thus, a Great Dane has a resting pulse of about 80, while toy breeds have a resting rate of about 130.

The temperature wi 11 vary consi de'rably for each animal within a certain range. Thus, LWis highest in the afternoon and lowest soon after midnight. In cattle under paddock conditions, for instance, this range may cover 2.20C. The range is not so marked in housed cattle, or where the climate is temperate.

Exercise, feeding and excitment, will raise the temperature.

Drinking cold water and bleak conditions will lower the temperature.

An abnormal temperature may be of great importance as indicating the nature of the disease. For' example, a cow after calving may go down and become semi-comatose; if the temperature is high, it points to the possibil Hy of septi caemi a. ,Ithe temperature is low, LWpoi nts to the possibil ity of a metabol ic disease such as milk fever.

Rectal temperature should always be taken, if, for example, symptoms are being notes in order to telephone a veterinarian for advice. It is often the sin~e most important piece of information. ,Wshould be taken in the rectum, with an ordinary human clinical thermometer being left in a minute and a half, to obtain an accurate reading.

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The pulse and respiration should also be taken in conjunction with the temperature, as they often give most valuable evidence. The simplest way to count the pulse is to hold the hand over the heart area (under the elbow) and count the impulses of the heart beat.

The pulse and respiration will vary widely with exercise, excitment, or weather conditions, quite apart from the effect of di sease.

1.2 PUBERTY

Sheep Cattle Pig Horse Dog Goat Deer

Normal Time (Age in months)

8 - 12 12 - 18 4 - 5 12 - 24 7 - 10 8 - 12 14 - 16

Puberty is the age at whi ch ani rna 1 s are capabl e of breedi ng for the first time.

The main factor affecting puberty is body wei ght, whi ch is affected by feeding level, breed and extremes of climate.

1.3 LENGTH OF GESTATION PERIOD

Mare ... . Cow ... . Ewe ...•...•....

Sow ... . Hi nd ... . Goat ... . Bitch ... . Cat ... . Rabbit ... ..

Turkey sitting ) Hen ... . on the eggs ) Duck ... . of the ) Turkey .... . Hen sitting on ) Duck ... . the eggs of the) Hen ... . Duck ... . Goose ... . Pi geon ... . 1-4

Average Period (Days)

347 282 147 115 233 156 60

50 28 24 27 26 30

21

30

30 18

Range (Days) 322 - 419 272 - 292 140 - 160 109 - 143

223 - 243 150 - 163 55 - 63 48 - 56 20 - 35 27 - 28 24 - 30 24 - 30 26 - 34 19 - 24 28 - 32 27 - 33 16 - 20

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1.4 BREEDING TABLE

Time of Service Calving Date Lambing Date Farrowing Date Calving Date (Deer) ,July 9 April 17 December 5 October 31

July 23 May 1 December 19 November 14 August 6 May 15 January 2 November 28 August 20 May 29 January 16 December 12 September 3 June 12 January 30 December 26

September June 26 January 9

October October October November November December December January January February February March March Apri 1 Apr;

Apr;

May May June June Sheep:

Cow Sow Hind

1 July 10 15 July 24 29 August 7 12 August 21 26 September 4 10 September 18 24 October 2 May

8 October 17 June 22 October 31 June 5 November 14 July 19 November 28 July 5 December 12 August 19 December 26 August 2 January 9 August 16 January 23 September 30 February 6 September 14 February 20 October 28 March 6 October March 20 November 25 April 3 November 5 months (147 days) less 4 days.

9 months (182 days) plus 9 days.

113 days.

233 days

January 23 February 6 February 20

March 6

March 20

April 3

22 April 17

6 May 2

20 May 16

4 May 30

18 June 13

June 27

15 July

29 July 25 November 12 August 8 December 26 August 22 December 10 September 5 January 24 September 19 January 7 October 3 January 21 October 17 February

1.5 AGE OF ANIMALS 1 .5.1 Age of Horses

Location of teeth

First pair of middle incisors

Second paid incisors (Located at either side of "nippers")

Third pair of corner incisors

1-5

Ages at eruption of

permanent teeth

2.5 years 3.5 years

4.5 years

·Cups" disappear from weaning

surfaces of permanent teeth

lower jaw 6 years 7 years

8 years

21 19 2 16 30 13

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The age of the older horses is more difficult to determine but, in general, the shape of the wearing surface of the teeth gradually change from oval to triangular, the forward pitch becomes more marked, and the neck of the teeth at the gums becomes narrower. At 10 years, a groove, known as Gal vayne ,s Groove, aopears on the Upper Corner Incisor. At 15 years, this groove is halfway down the tooth, and at 20 years it is the full 1 ength of the tooth. This depends on the speed of eruption.

1.5.2 Age of Cattle

The age of cattl e is often est; mated from the genera 1 appearance of the animal. However, the time that the teeth erupt can be used as a guide to age. During the first few weeks of life, four pairs of temporary incisors in the lower jaw appear. These are rep1 aced by the same number of permanent incisors as follows:

Teeth

First or central pair of incisors Second pair of incisors

Age of Eruption 22 to 30 months 27 to 41 months 33 to 42 months Third pair of incisors

Fourth pair of incisors 42 months

As the teeth of 01 der catt1 e become worn, the space between the teeth enl arges and the gum receeds. Si nce factors such as level of feeding and the type of feed can influence the eruption of the permanent incisors and their wear, the state of the teeth of cattle should only be used as a guide to age.

1.5.3 Age of Sheep

The age of sheeo can be gauged approximately by the time of the appearance of permanent incisors, there being four pairs, all in the lower jaw. A more accurate method is by the use of age marks and eartags.

Incisor teeth erupt as follows:

Common

Teeth Age at Eruption term

Fi rst or central pair of

i nci sors 12 to 18 months 2 tooth Second pair of incisors 20 to 24 months 4 tooth Third pair of incisors 26 to 30 months 6 tooth Fourth pair of incisors 34 to 40 months full mouth Type of feed and pasture have a good deal of influence on the rate at whi ch the teeth of a sheep begi n to wear and

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fall out. The extent of teeth wear largely influences the age at whi ch sheep are culled. Norma lly a ewe is culled at 6 to 7 years of age.

1.6 AGE CLASSES OF LIVESTOCK

Livestock Age Female Male Neuter

Cattle ( a ) Young heifer calf bull calf steer calf (b) Immature heifer bull steer

(c) adul t cow bull steer

Deer

(il )D01'1 (a) fawn fawn

(b) (c) doe buck

( i i) Red ( a ) calf calf

(b) (c) hind stag

(i LLOWapiti (a) calf calf

(b) (e) cow bull

Ducks (a) duckling duckling

(b) (e) hen drake

Fowls D chi ck chi ck

(b) pull et

(c) hen rooster/cock capon

Goats (a) kid kid

(b) (c) doe/nanny buck/billy wether

Horses (a) foal foal

(b) fi lly colt gelding

(c) mare sta 11 ion gelding

Pigs (a) pi gl et piglet

(b) gilt boar barrow/hoq

(c) sow boar barrow/hog

Sheep (a) ewe lamb ram lamb wether 1 amb (b) ewe hogget ram hogget wether

hogget

(c) ewe ram wether

Turkeys (a) poult poult

(b) (e) hen tom/gobbler

Rabbits (a) kitten kitten

(b) (c) doe buck

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1.7 TABLE OF OESTRUS

Duration of Return after Recurrence if Oestrum Parturition not pregnant Ewe - 2th 8-18 hours Next late summer/ 17 days

( Romney) autumn

- mature 20-36 hours (4 to 6 months) {12-19 days) Cow 14 hours (10 40-120 days 21 (18-24)

-18 hours) days

Mare 4.5-9 days 9-14 days 21 (12-25 )

days Sow 2-3 days 7 days after 21 (14-26 )

weaning days

Bitch 4-13 days 5-6 months 5-6 months

Hind 3-4 months 18 days

1.8 CONVERSION OF STOCK NUMBER TO STOCK UNITS (EWE EQUIVALENTS) The stock unit (s.u.) conversi on rel ates the annual total energy requirements of the various classes of stock to the total annual requirements of one breeding ewe (55 kg) producing one lamb per annum.

SHEEP s.u.

Breeding ewe (Std 55 kg) 1.0

Breeding ewe (light 45 kg, e.g. Merino) 0.9 Breeding e\'Je (heavy 65 kg, e.g. Coopworth) 1.1

Stud ewe 1.1

Ewe hogget, not mated 0.7

Ewe hogget, mated 1.0

Wether hogget 0.7

Wether, 2th and older 0.7

Ram hogget 1.0

Ram, 2th and older 0.8

Stock units are conventionally calculated for winter tally, at 30 June and 1 July each year.

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CATTLE

Heifer calf, autumn-born Rising 1 year heifer Rising 2 year heifer, empty Rising 2 year heifer, in-calf Rising 3 year heifer, in-calf Beef breeding cow

Steer or bull calf, autumn-born Rising 1 year steer/bull

Risinq 2 year steer

Rising 3 year steer, and older Rising 2 year bull, ~nd older Nurse cow, multiple-suckled

Dairy cow, liqht breed (e.g. Jersey) Dairy cow, heavy breed (e.g. Friesian) DEER

Stags 3-15 months 15-27 months

27 months and older Hinds 3-15 months

15 months and older HORSE

s.U.

2.0 3.5 4.5 6.0 6.0 6.0 2.0 4.0 5.0 5.5 5.5 up to 8.0 7.5 8.5 S.u.

1.4 1.8 2.2 1.2 1.9 7.0

NOTE: Stock unit conversion r~tios to be llsed by the R.B.F.e. in administering the Livestock Incentive Scheme are sl ightly different in some cases from the above ratios.

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SECTION 2

SH EEP PRODUCTION

Revised by D. G. Elvidge, Animal Sciences Group

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2. SHEEP PRODUCTION

2.1 NEW ZEALAND SHEEP STATISTICS

2.1.1 Sheep Numbers by Statistical Areas as at 30 June 1980 Total Percent Breeding Percent Hog- Hoggets Other Sheep change Ewes change gets Wether sheep Statistical 'ODD from last 'ODD from Ewe 'ODD 'ODD

Area year 'ODD last yr 'ODD

'000

Northland 2,130 14.3 1,420 12.0 425 169 116 Central

Auckl and 1,095 15.1 690 9.6 182 133 90 South Auckland/

Bay of

Pl enty 9,809 9.0 6,808 5.6 1,998 551 452 East Coast 2,891 7.6 1,966 6.6 632 138 155 Hawke's Bay 7,805 4.6 5,510 3.1 1,687 279 329

Taranaki 1,659 9.2 1,179 6.5 316 82 82

We 11 Lngton 10,714 8.0 7,338 6.1 2,245 644 487 North

I sl and 36,103 8.1 24,911 5.8 7,485 1,996 1711 Marlborough 1,611 8.7 1,059 6.6 294 76 182 Nelson/

Westland 1,226 10.8 843 8.6 235 64 84

Canterbury 11,981 9.1 8,497 6.0 2,378 353 753

Otago 8,862 7.2 6,333 5.2 1,744 245 540

Southl and 8,989 5.1 6,602 3.6 1,825 171 391 South

Island 32,669 7.5 23,334 5.2 6,476 909 1950 NEW

ZEALAND 68,772 7.8 48,245 5.5 13,961 2,905 3,661 1981 Provisional

Fi gures (70,182) (2.0) (49,275) (2.1)

Source: "Annual Review of the Sheep Beef Industry 1981/82"

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2.1.2 Ewe Numbers at 30 June for 1977 to 1980 Ewe Numbers at June Statistical Area 1977 1978 1979 1980

'ODD 'ODD 'ODD 'ODD

Northl and 1,032 1,179 1,277 1,420

Central Auckl and 545 591 582 690

South Auckland/

Bay of Plenty 5,932 6,413 6,583 6,808

East Coast 1,819 1,904 1,947 1,966

Hawke's Bay 5,222 5,376 5,436 5,510

Taranaki 1,008 1,068 1,119 1,179

We 11 i ngton 6,384 6,528 6,961 7,338 North Island 21,942 23,059 23,905 24,911

Marlborough 938 961 1,021 1,059

Nelson/Westl and 651 711 761 843

Canterbury 7,569 7,678 8,055 8,497

Otago 5,646 5,875 6,096 6,333

Southl and 6,034 6,231 6,270 6,602

South I sl and 20,838 21,456 22,203 23,334 NEW ZEALAND 42,780 44,515 46,108 48,245 (Source: "Annual Review of the Sheep and Beef Industry,

1980/81, 1981/82", N.Z. Meat and Wools Boards Economic Service.)

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2.1.3 Physical and Production Data

Number of Farms in Sample AREA

Tota 1 Hecta res Effective Hectares STOCK NUMBERS Sheep at 1/7/79 Sheep at 30/6/80 Cattl e at 1/7/79 Cattle at 30/6/80

Stock units: sheep at 1/7/79 : cattle at 1/7/79 : TOTAL at 1/7/79 Stock units/effective hectare LABOUR

Labour (man years)

LAMBING

&

CALVING PERCENTAGE Ewes to ram

Lambing percentage Cows to bull Calving percentage STOCK LOSSES

Lambs: as % of lambs marked Sheep: as % of sheep at 1/7/79 Cattle: at % of cattle at 1/7/79 WOOL

Wool sol d (kg)

STOCK SALES & PURCHASES (no.) Sa 1 es: 1 ambs

: sheep : cattle Purchases: lambs

: sheep : cattle PRODUCTION

~1eat per hectare (kg) Wool per hectare (kg)

1 2

S.l. High S.I. Hill Country Country

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10,954 10,594

*7,726

*8,126 272 286 6,599 1,347 7,946 0.8 2.70 3,298 86.9 160 78.1 4.5 **

2.2 29,548 1,303 891 116 111 110 12 2.9 5.4

1,940 1,828 4,467 4,782 287 295 3,978 1,332 5,310 2.9 2.31 3,120 97.6 132 80.3 2.5 5.0 3.1

18,927 1,723 848 94 30 190 6 32.9 12.0

3 N. ,Hard Hi 11 Country

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772 624 3,941 4,170 401 3,471 1,756 5,227 8.4 2.23 2,706 92.4 172 78.5 4.8 5.4 3.7

18,241 1,154 747 127 20 45 31 89.5 32.2

Sheep numbers for the high country are based on the annual shearing tally

** Lamb losses included in sheep losses 2-5

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4 5 6 8 ALL CLASSES AV.

N.I. Hill N.l. Intensive 5.1. Finishing 5.1. Intensive S. I. Mixed (Weighed avo Country Finishing Breeding Finishing Finishing of all farm

(129) (971 (76) (44) (20) classes)

403 203 350 206 229 536

362 191 347 201 229 507

3,014 1,970 2,789 2,549 1,468 2,754

3,147 2,127 2,946 2,627 1,610 2,906

254 176 84 46 10 163

258 166 92 42 8 165

2,659 1,798 2,503 2,325 1,368 2,466

1,142 705 360 171 34 713

3,801 2,503 2,863 2,496 1,402 3,179

10.5 13.1 8.3 12.4 6.1 6.3

1. 79 1.55 1.93 1. 76 2.05 1.85

2,098 1,547 2,041 1,972 1,230 1,990

96.6 98.0 109.7 119.4 113.7 103.4

101 29 26 5 0 56

81.2 86.2 84.6 100.0 80.4

4.5 3.2 2.6 2.6 2.5 3.3

5.1 4.4 4.3 4.1 4.7 4.7

3.1 1.7 3.6 2.2 0.0 3.1

15,067 9,905 13,548 13,111 7,137 13,374

1,086 1,234 1,525 1,826 1,307 1,374

651 569 568 469 343 582

101 114 40 36 10 76

38 300 103 93 246 128

121 319 135 118 279 172

31 83 30 29 9 38

124.9 184.6 110.3 185.8 90.6 79.3

47.2 58.9 43.8 80.2 37.5 30.2

Source: "Sheep & 8eef Farm Survey, 1979/80"

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2.2 BUDGETING NOTES

2.2.1 Lambing Percentage

There are several common methods of calculating the lambing percentage figure:

1.

2.

3.

Number of lambs docked x 100 Number of ewes to ram

U

Number of lambs docked 100 Number of ewes alive at dockfii9 x \ Number of lambs surviving to sale 100 NUmDer of ewes put to the ram x ~ 4. Lambs born

Ewes Oambi ng Lambs born Ewes to ram

The 3rd cal cul ati on is the only correct one for budgeti ng and should be used in preference to 1 and 2.

These two methods are often used by farmers but give a false picture of the flock's lambing performances.

2.2.2 Mortality

The average mortality for a ewe flock on low country is 4%-5%. On harder country, this figure is higher. 6%-10%

overall is common on South Island high country runs with occasional losses of greater than 15%.

Lamb losses are usually taken as from dock ing to sale.

Average death allowances are 2-3% for stores and 3-4% for export 1 ambs.

2.2.3 Culling

It is usual to cull to some extent in most ewe flocks.

The criteria on which the sheep are culled vary a lot with the flock pol icy and the type of country. Sheep woul d be predominantly culled for age and/or body condition at 5-7 years of age. Any ewe with bearing troubl e, bad udder, poor constitution, barrenness or poor wool performance may be cull ed at any age. Cull i ng is heavy at either the 1 amb or 2 tooth 7 stage before the ewe enters the breedi ng flock. A suffi cient number of ewe ambs are requi red to be retai ned th rough the wi nter to a 11 ow for deaths and culling. Culls from hill farms are readily sold to farmers on lower country, either as ewe lambs or as 2 T in the autumn.

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Most hill country farmers di scard ewes when they have lambed 3 or 4 times because of a decreasing wool producti on, or when the mouths are worn down. These '4 year olds' and '5 year olds' are sold at local ewe fairs for export 1 amb producti on. They are usually mated to a termi nal cross bred meat si re (termed 'cast for age' or c. f. a. ewe s. )

2.2.4 Rams

,Wis usual to buy rams as 'one-shear' by pri vate treaty and a small number at local ram fairs, which are either stud or flock. The average farmer buys flock rams. Rams 1 ast 'on average' four breedi ng seasons and are usually disposed of by killing for farm dogs. One ram per 70 ewes is a common ratio but recent research has shown that 1:150 is adequate. Thi s depends on the breed and the type of country.

2.2.5 Home Killing and Dog Tucker

On sheep farms, a suitable allowance ;s half a sheep per household per week. This varies with the number of employees and the time of the year. ,Wis usual to keep some cull 1 ambs for house meat but wether hoggets may be bought. Dogs are usually fed on ram meat or other sheep that are killed for this purpose. It cannot be stressed enough that ALL meat or offal fed to dogs should be either frozen or cooked for the legal minimum periods of time for the control of hydati ds and sheep measl es. Meat frozen for 10 days at -100C or boiled for 1 hour is deemed safe for dogs.

For further informati on, contact the Hydati ds Offi cer at your local Council office.

,Wshoul d al so be emphasi sed that all meat for home consumption should be prepared in hygienic surroundings.

Farm-killed meat must NOT be offered for sale.

2.2.6 Flock Replacements Method 1:

,W;s essential in any budgetary estimate to state the cl ass, number and performance of the sheep flock on the property and to tie this up in a stock reconciliation covering a twelve month period. An example is given here of a store sheep unit carrying 2,000 ewes and breeding own replacements. Ewes last five seasons and 100 per cent of lambs survive to weaning. Mortality in the ewe flock is 5 per cent and approximately 5 per cent of the 4, 6 and 8 tooth ewes and the 5 years ewes are cull ed each year.

Twenty per cent of the 2 tooth ewes are cull ed before 2-8

References

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