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Community Facilities and Open Space Assessment


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Growth Centres Commission


Turner Road

Community Facilities and Open Space Assessment

Final Report

Date Contact

March 2007 Chris Manning

9387 2600 [email protected]


Prepared by Chris Manning

Reviewed by

Ruth Murphy

Date March 2007

Job number 06/328

Document name

Turner Road – Community facilities and open space assessment

Version 1



Executive Summary 1

Executive Summary 1

1 Introduction 3

1.1 Background to the study 3

1.2 Development context 3

1.3 Scope of this study 3

1.4 The study process 4

2 Policy Context 5

2.1 Sydney Metropolitan Strategy 5

2.2 The Growth Centres SEPP 5

2.3 The Growth Centres Development Code 6

2.4 Camden Council 7

2.5 Other relevant policy studies 8 2.6 Principles for sustainable social

infrastructure 8

2.7 Approach to planning social

infrastructure 9

2.8 Approach to open space planning 10 3 Existing Social Context 12

3.1 Existing social context 12

3.2 Social Profile of the Surrounding Area 12 3.3 Assessment of existing services and

facilities 14

3.4 Assessment of existing open space and

recreation facilities 15

4 The Regional Context 17

4.1 The South West Growth Centre and

Structure Plan 17

4.2 Strategic and locational issues 18 4.3 Regional social infrastructure

requirements 19

4.4 Regional open space and recreation

requirements 22

5 Population forecasts for the Turner

Road Precinct 25

5.1 Development scenario 25

5.2 Estimated occupancy rates 25

5.3 Projected population numbers 26 5.4 Age and household characteristics 27 5.5 Socio-economic characteristics 30 5.6 Growth rate and development staging 30

5.7 Employment Population Projections 30 6 Community Facility Requirements 32

6.1 Introduction 32

6.2 The Draft ILP for Turner Road 32

6.3 Facility requirements 32

6.4 Funding and delivery arrangements 38

6.5 Section 94 requirements 39

6.6 Supporting community and cultural

development 39

6.7 Conclusion 40

7 Open Space and Recreation

Requirements 41

7.1 Demand Considerations 41

7.2 Establishing the quantum of open space

required 42

7.3 Local Open Space 43

7.4 District Open Space 45

7.5 Conservation areas and trails 47

8 Conclusion 48

References 50


Executive Summary

This report has considered the community facilities, human services and open space that will be required to support the residential and

employment populations in the future Turner Road Precinct, within the South West Growth Centre.

The report has been prepared for the Growth Centres Commission, as one of a number of technical studies undertaken to support the preparation of a precinct plan for the precinct. The study has encompassed both the Oran Park and Turner Road Precincts, with the outcomes related to the Oran Park Precinct presented in a separate report.

The report contains eight chapters:

Chapter 1 provides an introduction and background to the study, and outlines its scope and methodology.

Chapter 2 outlines the policy background, identifying objectives for the provision of social infrastructure and open space for the precinct within the Metropolitan Strategy, Growth Centres SEPP, Development Code, and policies of Camden Council. These objectives provide the framework and criteria against which the draft Indicative Layout Plan for the precinct may be assessed. The chapter also outlines a set of best practice principles and planning approach for social infrastructure and open space adopted in this study.

Chapter 3 examines the social context of the precinct, including the social profile of the population of the surrounding area and the availability of existing services, facilities and open space. It finds that most facilities and services will have no capacity to absorb demand generated by development within the Turner Road Precinct, and that a variety of new facilities, services and open space areas will need to be provided.

Chapter 4 examines the regional context and requirements for regional level facilities and areas of open space, in order to provide some context within which to identify social infrastructure requirements for the Turner Road Precinct. It identifies a number of fundamental issues about planning for the Growth Centre and the future development of Camden LGA that will require a response before regional facility requirements and locations can be determined. It also identifies the need to develop comprehensive regional strategies for social infrastructure and open space that are based upon partnership and commitment

amongst relevant local and state government agencies. An indicative hierarchy of facilities, services and open space is proposed in the absence of such strategies.

Chapter 5 considers the future population of the Turner Road Precinct. Based upon draft ILP yields to provide about 4,000 dwellings, it is estimated that the future population of the Turner Road Precinct will be about 12,400 people at completion. This population will have reasonably similar characteristics to households in other recent release areas in South West Sydney, although it is likely to be more diverse, reflecting the greater mix of dwelling types.

Chapter 6 identifies the community facilities likely to be required for the future Turner Road population, principles for their design and location and

requirements for Section 94 community facilities. It also reviews the proposals contained within the draft Indicative Layout Plan. The precinct will need to provide only local level facilities, and will rely on district and regional level facilities in the Oran Park Town Centre. Issues which require further

consideration in the next iteration of the ILP include:

– The need for a second primary school site of 3 ha, to be located to the north of Badgally Rd;

– Confirmation of the size of the proposed primary school site without sports fields included;

– The need to identify an appropriately sized and located site for a multi-purpose community centre;

– The need to identify appropriately sized and located sites for 2-3 childcare facilities.

Chapter 7 examines the likely open space and recreation requirements of the precinct. It

identifies that about 4.9 ha of local open space will need to be provided. In terms of district level open space, it has been assumed that passive recreation needs can be met within the designated riparian zones, conservation areas and wetlands, without the need to set aside additional areas of open space. However, it is recognised that this

recommendation is not consistent with the current position of the Department of Natural Resources and the GCC Development Code, which preclude conservation areas being embellished for recreation purposes. Once this issue is resolved, recommendations and costings for embellishment of the district passive open space will be prepared.

In terms of district level active open space, the Turner Road Precinct will form part of the wider Oran Park catchment. A range of indoor and outdoor sporting and recreation facilities are proposed, to be distributed across the catchment area. The recommended provision of local and district open space will need to be incorporated within the final ILP.


Chapter 8 provides a conclusion, highlighting the “big picture” issues that require further consideration and summarising the particular issues associated with the draft Indicative Layout Plan where further consideration is required. Critical issues include the need to develop a regional social infrastructure and open space strategy, for Camden Council to articulate its approach to the development and hierarchy of its centres, for an integrated planning structure for human services to enable joint planning to occur, for a number of state government agencies to progress their internal planning for the growth centre, for funding for community and cultural development strategies to be included as vital social infrastructure, and for the use of conservation areas for passive recreation to be resolved.


1. Introduction

This report provides an assessment of the community facilities and open space required to support residential and employment development in the Turner Road precinct, within the South West Growth Centre. The report has been prepared for the Growth Centres Commission, as one of a number of technical studies undertaken to support the preparation of a precinct plan for the precinct.

The study has been undertaken by Elton Consulting in association with Tangent Leisure Consultants, who have had responsibility for the open space and recreation components of the study. The study has encompassed both the Oran Park and Turner Road Precincts, with the

outcomes related to the Oran Park Precinct presented in a separate report.

1.1 Background to the study

In 2006 the NSW Government announced plans outlining the future of land releases in the North West and South West Growth Centres of Sydney.

The Growth Centres will together provide for 180,000 homes over the next 30 years,

characterised by staged delivery of infrastructure co-ordinated with land releases, new governance arrangements associated with the establishment of the Growth Centres Commission, and a focus on sustainability to achieve world’s best practice standards.

The Turner Road Precinct is one of the initial precincts to be released for development within the South West Growth Centre. Under the guidance of the Growth Centres Commission, precinct planning for the Turner Road Precinct will involve preparation of:

• an Indicative Layout Plan (ILP) to guide planning and assessment of the precinct

• a precinct planning report summarising the specialist investigations

• a development control plan

• a section 94 contributions plan

• an amendment to State Environmental Planning Policy – Sydney Growth Centres to facilitate the formal rezonings.

The Turner Road Precinct, along with the nearby Oran Park Precinct, is located within the Camden local government area. For both of these precincts, the Growth Centres Commission is working closely with Camden Council to facilitate the precinct planning process.

1.2 Development context

The Turner Road Precinct comprises approximately 536 hectares of land within Camden LGA. It is currently used for rural, rural residential and recreation (golf) uses. It is irregular in shape and is situated in the south-east corner of the South West Growth Centre, close to the boundary with Campbelltown LGA. It is bounded by Camden Valley Way to the west, Sydney Water supply canal to the east, and Turner Road to the south.

The precinct has two major landowners and 28 smaller landholdings. The Camden Valley Golf Resort forms part of the northern portion of the site.

The site adjoins existing urban development to the south and southwest, which includes the proposed residential sub-division of Manooka Valley and existing Currans Hill release area, the Smeaton Grange industrial lands and proposed residential development of Harrington Grove. St Gregory’s College adjoins the south eastern boundary. To the north, the former El Caballo Blanco site, the Gledswood site and the Camden Lakeside site are likely to undergo some limited residential

development, consistent with the need to develop some economic use for the Central Hills lands.

Adjoining the site to the east and to the west (Catherine Field) are rural and semi-rural lands.

The Oran Park Precinct, proposed to undergo development in parallel with the Turner Road Precinct, lies several kilometres to the west, on the further side of the Catherine Hill Precinct. The Oran Park Precinct is proposed to contain a secondary centre that will service the southern part of the South West Growth Centre

The Growth Centres Commission has adopted a target of around 4,000 dwellings for the Turner Road Precinct, together with about 80 hectares of employment land. A draft Indicative Layout Plan has been prepared for the precinct, based on the aspirations of the landowners and input from their urban design consultants. The draft Indicative Layout Plan is described in Chapters 5 and 6 of this report.

1.3 Scope of this study

The Community Facilities and Open Space Assessment provides specialist advice to support the preparation of the Turner Road Precinct Plan with regard to:

• the community facilities and open space requirements of the Turner Road Precinct, based upon an estimated dwelling yield of about 4,000 dwellings.


• opportunities for innovative and site responsive strategies, including co-located and shared facilities.

• requirements for regional level community facilities and open space, and their potential location and delivery strategies within the subject precinct.

• spatial and locational criteria and costings for recommended social infrastructure, suitable to inform a section 94 contributions plan.

• recommendations for strategies with regard to management and land titling to facilitate social infrastructure outcomes, and for integration with conservation and other infrastructure outcomes.

1.4 The study process

Preparation of this study has involved:

• Review of existing policies and background studies from both Camden Council and the GCC / Department of Planning.

• Participation in workshops with other members of the consultant team, the land owners and their urban design consultants (the Precinct Working Group) to consider the draft Indicative Layout Plan.

• Analysis of the social context for the Turner Road Precinct, including demographic analysis of the surrounding and regional population (using ABS Census data) and assessment of existing community facilities, human services and open space in the surrounding area (drawing on previous studies and consultation with local service providers).

• Preparation of demographic forecasts for the Turner Road Precinct, based upon anticipated dwelling yield and mix targets.

• Consideration of likely market take-up rates and identification of impacts on the timing of provision of social infrastructure.

• Consideration of regional social infrastructure planning issues for the South West Growth Centre as a whole, to provide context for the Turner Road Precinct.

• Identification of social infrastructure required to meet the needs of the residential and

employment populations of the Precinct. This has involved review of existing agency standards and policies, and consultation with

state government human service agencies and other service providers to ensure their involvement in the planning process and commitment to recommended outcomes. This was primarily undertaken through two Human Services Agencies Workshops held in December 2006 and January 2007;

• Meetings with Camden Council community service and open space staff;

• Further consultation with individual agency stakeholders regarding location, delivery and costing details of proposed social infrastructure;

• Further liaison with other members of the consultant team, particularly with regard to integration of social infrastructure and open space outcomes with conservation, economic development and transport outcomes;

• Review of the draft Indicative Layout Plan in terms of the findings of this study, and feedback to the Working Party regarding the nature, number and location of facilities and open space recommended for the Precinct.


2 Policy Context

A range of policies has been examined to provide context and guidance for the planning and delivery of social infrastructure (community facilities, human services and open space) for the Turner Road Precinct. These policies also provide the criteria against which the draft Indicative Layout Plan for the Precinct may be reviewed. More broadly, the policy review has also identified the social objectives directed at ensuring that the communities created within the Precinct will be socially sustainable.

The policy review has considered:

• the Sydney Metropolitan Strategy

• State Environmental Planning Policy (Sydney Region Growth Centres) 2006

• the Growth Centres Development Code

• the strategic and social planning policies of Camden Council

• relevant policies of other State Government agencies.

A brief outline of relevant issues contained in these policies is presented below.

2.1 Sydney Metropolitan Strategy

Enhancing Liveability is one of five aims within the Metropolitan Strategy to achieve a more

sustainable Sydney. Key objectives with regard to Enhancing Liveability include to:

1. focus residential development around town centres, villages and neighbourhood centres;

2. concentrate economic activity, services and facilities in centres, which are well designed, viable, vibrant, safe and close to public transport;

3. create more employment opportunities in Western Sydney, close to where people live;

4. plan for a housing mix near jobs, transport and services;

5. provide for a range of dwellings suited to the changing population;

6. improve housing affordability;

7. promote good access to services and timely infrastructure;

8. improve access to shopping, friends and family, parks and recreation and other daily activities;

9. encourage use of active transport – public transport, walking and cycling - to improve community health and connectivity to services and facilities;

10. promote active healthy lifestyles and community interaction through provision of parks, sporting facilities and public places;

11. provide a diverse mix of parks and public places and improve the quality of local open space;

12. apply sustainability criteria for new urban development. The sustainability criteria include the provision of mechanisms to ensure infrastructure (including social infrastructure) is provided in a timely and efficient way, and that adequate and accessible services and facilities are available to meet quality and equity objectives.

2.2 The Growth Centres SEPP

State Environmental Planning Policy (Sydney Region Growth Centres) 2006 provides the statutory planning framework for the growth centres and establishes the broad planning controls for their development. In particular it identifies areas of open space and environment conservation to be protected, and areas that are flood prone or major creek lands and transitional lands that need to be further assessed in the precinct planning process.

The objectives of the SEPP include:

• to enable the establishment of vibrant, sustainable and liveable neighbourhoods that provide for community well-being and high quality local amenity;

• to provide controls for the sustainability of land in those growth centres that has conservation value;

• to provide for the orderly and economic provision of infrastructure in and to those growth centres.


The SEPP also provides objectives for Public Recreation: Regional and Local Zones, which include:

• to enable the land to be used for regional open space or recreation purposes that are consistent with the protection of its natural and cultural heritage values.

2.3 The Growth Centres Development Code

The GCC Development Code provides the basis for the planning and design of precincts and

neighbourhoods within the Growth Centres and a guide to the incorporation of best practice

standards. The Development Code contains a large number of objectives to guide the planning and provision of community facilities and open space.

They include:

• achievement of quality design outcomes,

• infrastructure investment to keep pace with development,

• a range of housing types to suit the needs of all members of the community,

• planning to enable residents to walk to shops for daily needs,

• easy access to town centres with a full range of shops, recreational facilities and services, along with smaller village centres and neighbourhood shops,

• a range of land uses to provide the right mix of houses, jobs, open and recreational spaces.

Specific objectives of the Development Code address particular elements and include to:

• increase housing choices,

• Provide facilities and services at a local level, including parks, libraries, shops, schools, and health facilities,

• Improve walking and cycling pathways, especially between residential areas and shops and schools,

• integrate existing infrastructure,

• provide, protect and maintain a range of open space opportunities throughout the entire precinct,

• provide a range of commercial and retail opportunities,

• enhance safety, maximise surveillance and minimise opportunities for crime,

• utilise public places and public buildings to promote community identity.

Specific Development Code objectives with regard to community facilities include:

• to provide community facilities within walking distance of residential neighbourhoods and transport nodes;

• to provide access to a wide range of social and community facilities catering for different social groups and age groups;

• to create good access to new areas of open space and community facilities;

• to improve access to existing parks and recreational facilities;

• to minimise the impact of access ways on the environmental qualities of public open space;

• to provide good, but unobtrusive, access.

The Code also provides objectives in relation to the location, co-location and multiple use of community services and facilities in order:

• to facilitate efficient use of resources and services through maximising opportunities for joint, shared or multiple-use of open space and community facilities;

• that adequate social, cultural and community facilities are appropriately located in relation to public open spaces;

• to facilitate the viability of social facilities by means of appropriate location and distribution;

• to maximise accessibility and convenience of social facilities and services through co-location;

• to facilitate social and community facilities that meet the future requirements of the population;

• to provide for the social needs of future communities;

• to enable adequate land to be made available for the provision of social infrastructure;

• to facilitate the timely provision of community facilities and services;


• to locate community facilities within the centres and neighbourhoods;

• to create opportunities for the optimal use of land and resources, educational and community facilities.

The Development Code objectives relating to public open space aim to balance the dual function of the undeveloped land for both recreational purposes and conservation and stormwater management systems. In addition the land needs to be accessible and useable by the public for a wide range of activities. Specific open space objectives include:

• to integrate stormwater management and water sensitive urban design with networked open space;

• to provide a balance of useable and accessible open space with neighbourhood and district stormwater management;

• to protect recreational uses;

• to provide an interconnected network of open spaces;

• to integrate public open space into the urban structure to maximise land use efficiency;

• to facilitate the provision of public open space of an appropriate quality and quantity;

• to facilitate the provision of public open space and its development as part of the subdivision process;

• to provide a diverse mix of open spaces and community facilities designed to cater for a range of uses and activities;

• to facilitate the provision of sporting and recreation facilities that can meet the needs of future communities;

• to provide amenity to residential areas;

• to avoid pressure to existing open space systems in surrounding areas;

Additional open space objectives with regard to urban spaces and connections include:

• to provide public open space that is pleasant, safe and usable both during daytime and at night;

• to integrate open space with the mix of uses in the town centre to form a focal point;

• to provide residents with accessible passive and active recreational opportunities;

• to provide open space that promotes local character and identity;

• to provide play spaces which are designed and located to be safe and convenient and to assist in childhood development;

• to retain existing stands of remnant vegetation and to associate them with passive recreational facilities;

• to provide open space for a diversity of interests catering for a wide range of users.

The Development Code also contains a set of Precinct Development Parameters which provide some guidance in establishing benchmarks and thresholds for the planning of open space and social infrastructure in precincts.

2.4 Camden Council

The study has reviewed the following Council planning policies:

– Camden 2025: A Strategic Plan for Camden – Camden Council Community Plan (2004/9) – Camden Council Community Well Being Policy


– Camden Sustainability Indicators (2003) – Camden Children & Families Strategic Plan


– Camden Youth Strategic Plan (2005-2010) The Council policies together provide a sound and consistent framework for considering the social sustainability of the Oran Park Precinct and more specifically its requirements for social

infrastructure and open space. An outline of relevant aspects of each of the policies listed above is provided in Appendix 2 to this report. In summary, key Council objectives include:

1. Achieving housing choice and population diversity, to create social mix and a balanced community;

2. Creating a pleasant and safe

environment which promotes a sense of security, health, well-being and quality of life, with liveable

neighbourhoods and spaces for social interaction;

3. Providing a range of facilities, services and open space that reflect the local community’s values and aspirations, promote the health and well-being of residents, support their lifestyle


choices, and encourage the

development of social capital. Timing and accessibility of social infrastructure are also priority objectives;

4. Providing convenient and equitable access within the precinct and to employment, education, shops, and facilities in the wider region, through public transport and mobility strategies;

5. Creating an identity and image for the development that promotes civic pride and celebrates its unique sense of place, and its natural and cultural heritage;

6. Integrating with surrounding communities and the wider region, both physically and socially, in ways that promote inclusion and social cohesion and fair access to resources;

7. Providing opportunities for all sections of the population to become involved in the life of the community, to develop community networks and connections with other residents, and to support cultural development initiatives;

8. Providing opportunities to participate in the on-going planning and

development of the community and to develop stewardship over its resources.

Additionally, Camden Council’s policies recognise the need to preserve and enhance the visual, cultural and scenic landscape qualities that characterise the Camden area, and the provision of open space is critical in this context. Open space is important in:

– creating appropriate separation, containment and linkage of urban development

– preserving cultural landscape elements by the retention of view corridors and adequate buffers around significant heritage items – establishing sustainable populations of native

flora and fauna

– providing appropriate recreation and leisure opportunities for the community.

Camden Council has developed an Open Space Framework Plan 2002 which identifies three primary functions of Open Space within the Camden Local Government Area. These functions apply to all land, irrespective of land ownership, usage and location, and encompass:

– biodiversity & environmental preservation – scenic and cultural landscape preservation – recreation and leisure use.

The Oran Park and Turner Road Precincts contain environmentally significant open space, which is

defined by Camden Council’s Open Space Strategy as “land which exhibits distinctive scenic appeal or natural and cultural heritage qualities.”

Within Camden, these areas generally include hills, ridgelines, floodplains, watercourses and remnant native vegetation, as well as those landscapes which demonstrate historic settlement patterns.

The policies also recognise the importance of retaining adequate curtilage around historic and cultural sites to ensure the integrity of these items are preserved and enhanced.

The design of open space areas should allow for the provision of movement and vegetation linkages or corridors to connect habitat areas and significant features to allow for the movement of flora and fauna. Consequently, recreation opportunities may need to be sensitive in

particular areas and access controlled or restricted to preserve sensitive areas. Conversely, the provision of passive recreation opportunities may be used to reinforce and preserve the integrity of the open space areas.

2.5 Other relevant policy studies

The study has also been guided by several other government policy documents and directions, including:

– NSW Legislative Assembly Standing Committee Inquiry into Sportsground Management in NSW (2006)

– Urban Design Guidelines with Young People In Mind DUAP (1999)

– Parliamentary Enquiry Into Children, Young People And The Built Environment NSW Parliament (2006)

– NSW State Plan (2006 ) Priority E8: More people using parks, sporting and recreational facilities, and participating in the arts and cultural activity;

– NSW Healthy Ageing Strategy, and – a variety of health policies promoting

exercise, fitness and activity to reduce obesity in children and adults and promote healthy lifestyles (eg the NSW Health Obesity and Active Recreation program).

Key elements of these policies are also outlined in Appendix 2.

2.6 Principles for sustainable social infrastructure

Based on the objectives contained within the state and local government planning policies outlined above and best practice principles, objectives for the provision of sustainable social infrastructure in Oran Park and Turner Road Precincts include to:


1. provide facilities and services in an efficient, timely and co-ordinated way to support the pattern of development. This means ensuring that facilities and services are available to residents as early as possible and they are not

disadvantaged through delays in delivery;

2. make most efficient use of limited resources, for instance through designing community facilities to be multipurpose, co-located with other facilities and able to accommodate shared and multiple use arrangements;

3. cluster related facilities and services, preferably within designated centres or hubs, to promote civic identity, safety, accessibility and focal points for the community;

4. ensure facilities and services are

accessible by public transport and located to maximise access for pedestrians and cyclists;

5. ensure flexibility in the design and use of facilities, so they can respond and adapt as needs change. Where possible, buildings should be capable of delivering a range of services, rather than

designated for single uses or specific target groups that may quickly become outdated;

6. promote equitable access for all sections of the population, through the

distribution, design and management of facilities. In particular facilities should be affordable for their target population;

7. provide environmentally and economically sustainable buildings;

8. ensure viable levels of resourcing, particularly recurrent funding for staff and programs, not just initial capital


9. promote innovation and creativity in the way agencies come together to deliver and integrate services that aim to enhance community capacity and resilience;

10. develop sustainable ownership, governance, management and

maintenance arrangements for facilities.

2.7 Approach to planning social infrastructure

In social infrastructure planning, facilities and open space resources are commonly considered at three levels:

• Neighbourhood level services and facilities, available within about five - ten minute walking distance for most residents, and generally provided for a population of about 4,000 – 12,000 people. These core services are required by most new residents from the outset of settlement to meet their local everyday neighbourhood needs. Without access to such basic services, residents are likely to be significantly inconvenienced or disadvantaged and for this reason it is considered that these services should ideally be available from the time the first residents move into an area, or as soon as possible afterwards. Neighbourhood level facilities include:

– corner shop, general store – local shops and services

– spaces for informal meeting and gathering – spaces for local activities such as a

neighbourhood community centre – childcare centres

– local parks and playgrounds – primary school

– doctor’s surgery, medical centre – churches

– public telephones and post boxes.

• District level services are more specialist services which operate on a broader district catchment (about 15,000 – 50,000 people).

These will vary according to the particular characteristics and needs of the population.

They are usually staged to respond to the achievement of population thresholds, with numbers sufficient to support their provision.

They will include:

– a large cluster and variety of shops and commercial services

– high schools and other learning facilities, – civic and cultural facilities, including a branch

library and community arts spaces

– entertainment, leisure facilities and services – sporting and recreation facilities

– larger areas of open space for passive recreation

– a range of medical and community health services

– individual and family support services, and services addressing particular issues such as welfare, legal aid, employment, housing – facilities and services for particular sections of

the population, such as young people, older people, people with a disability, people from culturally and linguistically diverse


– larger places of worship – emergency and safety services.


• Sub-regional and regional level services, comprising major facilities for a population of over about 100,000 people, and including:

– health services,

– tertiary education facilities – TAFE colleges and university

– major cultural and civic facilities – eg large performing arts venue, exhibition space, local government branch office, major library – specialist higher order entertainment and

leisure facilities

– major recreation and sporting facilities – eg stadium, regional park, botanic gardens.

Social infrastructure is provided by a wide variety of agencies, including all levels of government, non-government organisations and the private sector. At this precinct planning phase, the strategy needs to focus on the facilities which may have significant land requirements, to ensure that sufficient land is identified in appropriate locations to meet future need. This focuses particularly on facilities and services provided by local

government and State Government agencies (such

as schools). Services provided by the Commonwealth Government (eg employment services, some family services, veteran’s services,) have land requirements that are likely to be relatively modest, and most likely will use available commercial office space within designated centres.

Such sites can be identified in subsequent detailed levels of planning.

Sites for facilities provided by the non-government and private sectors are usually acquired through the private market and will need to be considered at a later stage of development as demand is established. At the same time, it is recognised that some types of private / non-government facilities may have significant land requirements. These include private schools, private hospitals and medical services, churches, private childcare services, commercial gym and fitness facilities, residential aged care facilities and entertainment facilities such as cinemas, hotels and restaurants.

The Precinct Plan will need to allow sufficient scope and flexibility to accommodate such uses as demand emerges.

2.8 Approach to open space planning

The proposed hierarchy of regional, district and local open space is outlined below.

Table 1: Categories of Open Space

Categories Catchment Uses

Regional Park Provide for active and passive needs of the wider population who may travel from a 15-25km radius catchment.

Space requirement 25 Ha plus.

May have conservation, passive and sporting recreation opportunities. It attracts a wider range of users and has more extensive infrastructure of parking, amenities and facilities including BBQ, food and beverage outlets and hire equipment. Regional sporting facilities include capacity to host events with spectators and are classified by the number of competitors and spectators they can accommodate.

Proximity to public transport, hospitality and road networks are essential.

District Park Provide for active and passive needs of the wider catchment area.

Space requirement 5-10ha

Range of uses include competition standard sports field, courts and ovals as well as facilities, lighting and gardens. Parking and Amenity buildings need to be included in quantum. Playing fields for sport located outside flood prone land. Leisure Centre may be located on District Open Space.

Local Sports Park

Provide for village/precinct catchment only

Space requirement 3-5ha

Predominantly a destination park with competition standard sports facilities but also more passive recreation and social areas.

Managed lawns Provide for passive recreation of the neighbourhood.

Space requirement 0.3-2.5ha

Informal play spaces area for community/family gatherings with kickabout area but no formal sports markings.


Playspaces Provide for local residents located within walking distance of dwellings

A range of play equipment, cycletracks and age appropriate facilities

Conservation Area

Conservation objectives dominate Primarily concerned with the protection of significant flora and fauna but may provide passive recreation opportunities.

Riparian Zones Provide for drainage and flood storage areas.

Retained or enhanced in their natural state they may protect areas of native vegetation. May be suitable for linear walkways and cycleways as well as seating, picnic and BBQ areas.

Pathways Design considerations should focus on safety and security as well as amenity for users.

Provide for active transport, walking, cycling within residential areas, as well as along roads between villages and centres and adjacent to conservation corridors.


3 Existing Social Context

It is important to understand the social context of any new development, to ensure that its planning takes account of and is responsive to the

surrounding social conditions and that it will integrate, both physically and socially, with the surrounding area. This chapter presents an overview of the social context for development within the Turner Road Precinct. It considers issues of growth and change in Camden, the characteristics of the population that surrounds the subject site and the availability of existing

community facilities, human services and open space that could address some of the needs of the future new population.

3.1 Existing social context

South West Sydney, and Camden LGA in particular, have experienced very considerable urban development in the last decade or so. In 1991, Camden LGA had a population of just 22,500 people. By 1996, this had grown to 32,000, and by 2001 to 43,700 people.

Since the 2001 census, further population growth has occurred in a number of new release areas within the LGA, particularly Harrington Park, Mount Annan and Currans Hill. It is estimated that by December 2006, the population of Camden LGA had grown to around 50,800 people.

Further development has been approved to occur in Harrington Grove, the Mater Dei site, Manooka Valley, Mount Annan South, Spring Farm and Elderslie. Just beyond the Growth Centres boundary in the Central Hills area, further

residential development is being considered within the Camden Lakeside, Gledswood and former El Caballo Blanco sites. These developments within the current growth area, when completed, are likely to increase the Camden population to around 77,200 people.

The South West Growth Centre will, at completion, have a population of between about 250,000 and 300,000 people. It is estimated that about 162,000 of these people will live within Camden LGA. This will bring the total population of Camden to nearly 240,000 people in the next 20-30 years.

This very substantial growth has enormous implications for the planning and delivery of social

infrastructure. Rapid population growth has placed strain on existing services and facilities within Camden, which are struggling to keep pace with new development. Any spare capacity in existing facilities and services which does currently exist is likely to be taken up by the developments currently approved in Camden outside of the Growth Centres boundaries, and so will not be available for the Growth Centre population.

Camden in 25 years or so will have a population of a scale similar to Blacktown LGA, or to Canberra, requiring a very different range of facilities and services than that required for its current population.

Further social issues associated with the rapid rate of urban development within Camden include:

• There have been community concerns about the need to preserve the rural and historic identity, country atmosphere and quality lifestyle that have been key attractions of living in Camden.

• There is a shortage of local employment opportunities and many residents spend considerable time commuting to work outside the region. Time spent commuting can restrict time available for recreation and family life and for involvement in community life, pointing to a need for facilities and activities that are locally based.

• Newcomers separated from established support networks may experience isolation and

dislocation, pointing to a need to foster social support networks and services.

• The relatively high cost of new housing creates financial stress for many households, pointing to a need for social and recreational

opportunities that are affordable.

• There is a need for strategies to promote the integration of new and existing populations and communities, to foster community cohesion and identity and help ensure that the change process does not strain social harmony.

3.2 Social Profile of the Surrounding Area

Understanding the profile of the existing population of an area can help in predicting the characteristics of the new population attracted to development, as well as underpinning strategies to promote integration of new and existing

communities. The study has considered the social profiles of the Camden LGA as a whole, as well as three sub-areas relevant to the Oran Park and


Turner Road Precincts, using the 2001 ABS Census of Population and Housing. These small areas are:

• the rural and semi-rural areas in the north east of Camden which include the Central Hills sites, Catherine Field, Leppington and Rossmore. The Turner Road Precinct falls within this small area (identified as Area 8 in Council’s community profile),

• the locality of Oran Park, and

• the suburb of Harrington Park. This area adjoins the Turner Road Precinct and, as a recently developed estate, has a population profile likely to be similar in many ways to the future Turner Road population.

It is noted that while the existing populations of both Oran Park and Turner Road Precincts are likely to be displaced by proposed South West Growth centre development, such development will occur over a 15-20 year period. Given this timeframe, it is important to understand the characteristics of the existing population, to enable comparison of similarities and differences with the anticipated future population.

The profiles of these areas have been compared with the Sydney Statistical Division to provide a benchmark for comparison.

Detailed tables and statistical information pertaining to the social profile of the surrounding area can be found in Appendix 1. A summary of the salient points is provided below, to provide a snapshot of the area.

3.2.1 Profile of the City of Camden

The population of the City of Camden differs from that of Sydney as a whole in some important ways:

• It has very high rates of population growth, associated with the release of new residential areas. Between 1996 and 2001 its annual growth rate was 7.3%, compared with 1.3% in the Sydney Statistical Division.

• It has a younger age profile, a high proportion of children and relatively low proportion of older people. The median age is 30, compared with 34 years for Sydney as a whole

• It has a high proportion of family households with children (48% of all households, compared with 36.6% for Sydney as a whole). It has a corresponding low proportion of other types of households (for instance only 13% of

households are lone person households, compared with 22% for Sydney as a whole).

• Associated with its predominance of family households, it has a relatively large average household size (3.0 persons compared with 2.7 persons for Sydney as a whole)

• It is relatively culturally homogeneous and has low proportions of indigenous people and people from non English speaking backgrounds (with only 7.5% of people born in a non English speaking country, compared with 23% for Sydney as a whole).

• It has relatively high proportions of residents in the higher household income brackets and low rates of unemployment, The median weekly household income is $1000-$1199, compared with $800-999 for Sydney as a whole.

• It has lower rates of people with university qualifications and employed in professional and managerial occupations, but higher rates working in trades, clerical, service and sales positions

• It has very high rates of home ownership and vehicle ownership, and

• A very high proportion of its housing stock is separate houses (92%), with very low proportions of medium density dwelling types.

3.2.2 Characteristics of sub areas within Camden

Oran Park

The current population of Oran Park has

characteristics which differ from the wider Camden area.

• Population growth has been much lower and the population is a fairly stable one. Between 1996 and 2001 its annual growth rate was only 0.7%.

• The population has an older profile to that of Camden, with higher proportions of teenagers, young adults and people in their 40’s and 50’s.

The median age for the suburb is 32.

• Oran Park has by far the highest proportion of couples with children (75%) of all the areas examined. Correspondingly Oran Park has a large average household size of 3.4 persons.

• Weekly household income levels have high levels of occurrence at both the lower brackets

$0-699 and the highest bracket $2000+.

However, the median weekly household income is $1000-$1199, the same as that of Camden as


a whole. A high percentage of people are employed as managers and administrators.

• Given the rural location, there is a higher proportion of the workforce employed in agriculture (8.9% compared to 2.3% in Camden).

• A high percentage of children (11.1% compared with 7.7% in Camden) are attending secondary school, which demonstrates the more mature life cycle stage of the majority of residents.

Harrington Park

Harrington Park, as a new residential

development, has attracted a different population to the surrounding established areas. Key characteristics include:

• The high proportion of young families with pre- school and primary school aged children. 26%

of the population are aged 0-11 years

(compared to 21% for Camden). There are also much higher proportions of adults in their 20’s and 30’s.

• The families are predominantly Australian born and 89.5% speak English only, resulting in limited cultural diversity within the local population.

• The Harrington Park residents are the most affluent of the areas studied, with high proportions in the upper income brackets (18.3% with weekly earnings of $2000+). This is reflected in the relatively high cost of the housing in the development.

• Correspondingly the Harrington Park residents have the highest levels in employment (96.5%) and are most frequently employed as

professionals / managers in occupations such as finance, insurance and business services (16.1% compared with 12.9% for Camden).

• The major characteristic of the Harrington Park development is the dominance of separate housing at 99.6%, with the remaining 0.4%

being semi-detached.

Catherine Field Area

The Catherine Field area includes the Turner Road Precinct and rural residential settlements around Catherine Field, Leppington and Rossmore. The area demonstrates similar characteristics to Oran Park.

• The area is characterised by a stable population with low population growth and more mature families. There is a larger proportion of middle aged and older people residing in the area with

14.7% of the population aged 60+, in contrast to 10.5% in Camden.

• Reflecting this trend is a large proportion of lone person households, making up 14.2% of the population when contrasted to Oran Park with only 3.6%.

• The area has a more culturally diverse population than surrounding suburbs with 31.4% of people, compared with 8.8% in Camden, speaking a language other than English at home. The top three languages spoken were Italian, Chinese and Arabic.

• The area has a larger proportion of residents in the lower income brackets. 30.3% have a weekly household income between $0-699 whilst in Camden this figure is 24.4%. Lower incomes are related to the higher number of people with no educational qualifications. The area also had the lowest levels of computer (35.7%) and internet use (27.9%) in the study.

3.3 Assessment of existing services and facilities

Existing human services and community facilities that could be accessed by the future population of the Turner Road Precinct have been identified and examined to determine their availability and capacity to absorb demand generated by the future population. These include:

• local level facilities, such as primary schools, childcare centres and community centres, in the suburbs adjoining the precinct,

• district level facilities, such as high schools, libraries, community health and welfare services in the wider LGA, and

• regional level services, such as tertiary education, hospitals and major entertainment and cultural facilities located outside Camden LGA in the Macarthur Region.

Existing services and facilities in the surrounding area are described in Appendix 3. In summary, the assessment of existing facilities and services has found:

• Local level facilities have been provided in adjoining areas to meet the needs of their local neighbourhood catchments, and have a local focus which does not extend to the Turner Road Precinct. They are generally already being used to capacity, or will be used to capacity as proposed development outside of the Growth Centre boundaries occurs (eg Harrington Grove,


Gledswood and Lakeside sites). There is no spare capacity in local level facilities that may be utilised by the Turner Road Precinct population.

• In particular, there is no available capacity in local childcare centres or pre-schools, and very little spare capacity in other family support and children’s services.

• District level facilities, including a district shopping centre, community centre, library, community health centre, medical services, youth service, aged care services and branches of welfare and support services are located in Narellan, with additional cultural and

commercial facilities in Camden Town Centre.

These services have been developed to meet the needs of the existing population and will not be able to service the Turner Road population without augmentation. In particular, health, welfare, aged care and youth support services are already stretched coping with the rapid population growth that has already occurred in the area.

• Primary schools in the surrounding area are either already at capacity, or will be once existing release areas are fully developed. In terms of high schools, Elizabeth Macarthur High School at Narellan Vale and Elderslie High School currently have some spare capacity, but this is expected to be fully utilised as proposed development in Harrington Grove, Spring Farm and Elderslie occurs. There is, however, some spare capacity in Mount Annan High and Eagle Vale High School in Campbelltown, although access to this will be dependent upon extension of Badgally Road.

• Catholic primary schools in Narellan Vale and Camden have already reached their maximum capacity and will be unable to absorb additional students. Similarly the Catholic high school, Magdalene College, in Narellan Vale, is already operating at capacity.

• The Turner Road Precinct has good access to two private schools: St Gregory’s College, a high school for boys only which adjoins the Precinct to the east, and Macarthur Anglican School, a co-educational kindergarten to Year 12 school on Cobbitty Road. Both these schools are likely to have some capacity to meet demand arising from the Turner Road Precinct.

• Camden has an existing identified shortfall in services, facilities and leisure and entertainment opportunities for young people.

• Camden Hospital is a small district level hospital administered under joint management with

Campbelltown Hospital. The services are closely networked with Campbelltown Hospital which is the major metropolitan hospital for the Macarthur region.

• Regional level facilities serving the Camden population are located in Campbelltown and include hospital, TAFE, university, government agency branches, major welfare services and major retail, commercial and entertainment facilities. While commercial services and tertiary facilities may benefit from the extra business generated by the growing population, health and welfare services will not be able to cope with growing demand without additional resources.

In summary, it is recognised that existing facilities and services will not have capacity to meet the very substantial needs generated by development within the South West Growth Centre, and that a range of new facilities and services will be required. The only exception to this for the Turner Road Precinct is the capacity that may exist in local public high schools, St Gregory’s College and Macarthur Anglican School.

3.4 Assessment of existing open space and recreation facilities

3.4.1 Regional open space

Existing regional parks and sporting facilities in proximity to the South West Growth Centre include:

Existing Regional Parks Western Sydney Regional Parklands Georges River Regional Park Kemps Creek Nature Reserve Mt Annan Botanic Gardens Leacock Regional Park William Howe Regional Park Bents Basin State Recreation Area Bicentennial Park (Camden Chipping Norton Lakes

Regional Standard Sport Facilities Kirkham Park Camden

Oran Motor Racing Circuit

Macarthur Regional Hockey Centre

Woodward Park and Whitlam Leisure Centre - Liverpool

Macarthur Regional Softball Centre


Campbelltown Stadium Campbelltown Showground Bicentennial Equestrian Park Ron Dine Memorial Reserve

NepeanRiver cycleway, skate park and bmx track Source: Based on desktop review of Sydway Edition 8 (2006), Council webpage, and Council’s Contributions Plan (2004)

Developed regional park opportunities for existing communities in South West Sydney are currently meeting demand, in terms of the quantum of open space provided. However an expanding population will place further stress on these existing parks and facilities. The South West Growth Centre urban footprint will decrease the current rural setting, and the resultant increased population will increase visitation to existing parks, detracting from the quality of the experience for existing residents.

The South West Sector Metropolitan Strategy Workshop discussion document1 identified gaps in the current provision of open space in South West Sydney, and in particular identified a lack of facilities or poorly developed facilities in the existing regional open space areas (for example along the Georges River and William Howe Regional Park). The lack of facilities and amenities within the regional parks limit their functionality as quality, usable recreation resources.

The implications of this are that while the existing quantum of open space may satisfy demand, there is a need to improve the facilities, access and amenities within existing areas. This option should be explored as a priority for improvement before more regional open space areas are designated.

Existing studies also note the lack of transport links across the area to provide access to existing and future regional open space.

Of particular significance for the South West Growth Centre is the Western Sydney Parklands.

The Parklands corridor comprises 5,500 ha of land stretching for 27 km from Blacktown, through Fairfield and Liverpool, to the northern edge of Leppington. It is intended to address regional open space, conservation and recreation needs in Western Sydney, and will contain a number of major metropolitan sporting facilities, public open space and recreation facilities for regional and local use and easements for a variety of public utilities. The Parklands will be divided into a 760 ha biodiversity corridor with fifty park areas in nine precincts that will provide passive recreation, tourism and heritage interpretation opportunities.

1 Metro Open Space Team, DIPNR December 2004

3.4.2 District and local open space

Existing open space and recreation opportunities in the area surrounding the Turner Road Precinct have been identified and examined to assess their availability and accessibility for the incoming population.

In summary, this assessment of has shown that:

• The quantum of open space available in the Camden local government area is considered to be reasonably high based on current population levels. This is due in part to recreation

resources provided on land prone to flooding, and on ecologically significant areas. However while the quantum of open space is adequate for the current population, much of it has not been embellished to provide quality functional spaces to meet the sporting and recreation needs of the population. There is an identified shortage of sporting facilities to satisfy current demand.

• The current supply of recreation facilities is largely located in the southern parts of the Camden local government area in line with the urban growth of Camden. It is not anticipated that the existing district facilities would be able to accommodate the increased in demand from the projected population of Oran Park and Turner Road Precincts.

• Any existing capacity will be taken by other new release area developments currently under construction or planned in Camden.

• Council staff have indicated that there is increasing demand for more, well drained and appropriately located sporting fields, providing for a range of sports and with floodlighting and higher standard amenities.

• Services in the area for young people are already inadequate and the development may further contribute to this situation.

• There is an existing gap for a district level standard indoor sports venue to accommodate spectator events.

• Local level open space within existing release areas has been provided to meet local level needs only, and so will not have capacity or be readily accessible for the future Growth Centre population.


4 The Regional Context

Before community facility and open space requirements for the Turner Road Precinct can be identified, it is necessary to understand how the needs of the South West Growth Centre as a whole for facilities, services and open space will be met, and how the Turner Road Precinct might contribute to and complement the social infrastructure to be provided in the wider area.

A regional community facilities, human services and open space strategy which would identify regional requirements and the broad distribution of social infrastructure among the hierarchy of centres and the precincts has not yet been undertaken for the South West Growth Centre.

Such a strategy needs to be prepared, based on sound population forecasts and development timeframes.

The study brief required that this study identify facilities of regional or metropolitan scale which may be suitable for delivery within either Oran Park or Turner Road Precincts. Strategies for facilitating the delivery of such facilities were also required to be briefly identified. Where regional level facilities are required but not proposed to be located within the Oran Park or Turner Road Precincts, the study was required to recommend their location elsewhere in the Growth Centre or wider region.

However, it has been beyond the scope of this study to prepare a comprehensive regional strategy for social infrastructure. This will require extensive involvement of and partnership amongst responsible agencies, including:

– both Camden and Liverpool Councils, – adjacent LGA’s (Campbelltown and

Wollondilly) – the GCC

– relevant state government agencies

responsible for human services as well as art, sport, recreation and conservation

– state and regional sporting organisations – major non-government service providers.

Importantly, the development of a regional social infrastructure and open space strategy in partnership with these agencies would help engender a sense of ownership and commitment to the co-ordinated planning and delivery of social infrastructure and open space across the Growth Centre.

4.1 The South West Growth Centre and Structure Plan

Planning for the South West Growth Centre has envisaged 100,000 dwellings to be delivered over the next 25-30 years, resulting in a new population of about 250,000 to 300,000 residents. In

addition, designated employment lands, together with commercial development within centres, are expected to generate substantial regional employment opportunities.

The structure plan for the South West Growth Centre proposes a hierarchy of centres to include:

• A major regional centre to be developed at Leppington;

• Eight secondary town centres, of which Oran Park is one;

• A number of precinct and neighbourhood centres, based on the creation of walkable neighbourhoods, the area within a 400 metre radius from local shops or another community focus. Walkable neighbourhoods are to be clustered around mixed use main street retail centres.

In addition, the structure plan has identified:

– land zoned for environment conservation – land zoned for regional public recreation – land zoned for local public recreation.

Consistent with its status as the major centre for the South West Growth Centre and its proposed high accessibility by bus and rail services, it is understood that Leppington is the preferred site for higher order facilities that will serve the whole Growth Centre population. Leppington will also need to contain district level facilities for its surrounding district catchment.

Oran Park will become the key secondary centre in the southern part of the Growth Centre. All of the other secondary centres identified in the Structure Plan will be much closer to Leppington, and will more readily complement it. Oran Park, by virtue of its distance from Leppington (about 10 kms), will become the anchor for services and facilities serving the whole southern third or so of the Growth Centre. In this way, while the future population of the Oran Park precinct itself will be about 23,000, the Oran Park Town Centre will need to contain facilities for the broader district catchment of up to about 90,000 people (although it is recognised it may take 20-30 years for this population to be reached).


4.2 Strategic and locational issues

It is simplistic to assume that the South West Growth Centre will be entirely self-contained in terms of social infrastructure provision, and that planning can occur in isolation from the

surrounding area. The planning of social infrastructure needs to recognise the broader regional context, and in particular the roles to be played by Liverpool city centre, Campbelltown city centre and the Camden / Narellan town centres, where major facilities serving the region and each of the local government area populations are already located. Issues for consideration and consultation with the three Councils and government agency stakeholders in considering regional social infrastructure needs include:

• What is Camden Council’s preferred strategy for the distribution of major facilities and resources between Leppington, Oran Park and Camden / Narellan, particularly with regard to major civic, cultural and sporting facilities? Should major facilities serving the whole Camden population be concentrated in and around Camden town centre, as the identified civic “heart” of the LGA, or should they be divided between the two major centres? Such facilities have to date not been warranted by the relatively small population of Camden, but the anticipated development in the South West Growth Centre will trigger demand for a variety of higher level facilities. The extent to which these should be provided to meet the needs of the Camden population as a whole, or separately for the current and Growth Centre release areas, requires consideration. A related issue is whether existing facilities in Camden should be upgraded and augmented to serve the whole LGA, or new ones established in the Growth Centre precincts.

• More generally this raises the issue of Camden Council’s approach to the development of a hierarchy of centres and its vision for the existing Camden and Narellan town centres.

Should they be further developed as major centres to serve the Growth Centre population with sub-regional level facilities, or should such facilities be concentrated within Oran Park and Leppington, with the potential to undermine the role of the existing centres?

• Given that the Camden population in 25-30 years is expected to approach about 240,000 people, similar to Blacktown currently which is one of the largest local government areas in Australia (and not too different from Canberra, with its vast array of facilities and services), there would appear to be a need for an overall strategy for the LGA that could provide

guidance to the development and distribution of

major facilities, services and open space resources for the Camden population as a whole.

• Similar issues arise for Liverpool Council, in relation to the potential for augmenting its civic and cultural facilities located within the city centre to serve the whole LGA and to reinforce its role as the “capital” of the Liverpool LGA, rather than distributing them between Liverpool and Leppington. This issue is particularly significant given the role of Liverpool as one of the five designated “cities” that make up the metropolitan area, and its associated need to develop the facilities and services associated with its “city” status.

• The location of the major centre at Leppington straddling the Camden / Liverpool LGA boundary further adds to these issues, as the two Councils may be reluctant to locate major facilities on the periphery of their area,

particularly if these could undermine the growth and vitality of their established city centres. As outlined above, a process for the joint planning and delivery of social infrastructure within Leppington, involving both Councils, will be required.

• Campbelltown city centre has to date been the location for regional social and recreational facilities and services serving the Camden population. While this role may continue with regard to the southern established parts of Camden in the short term, in the longer term Camden will be large enough o justify its own services. The overall growth of the Camden population will have implications for the current arrangement of services delivered from Campbelltown.

These issues point to a need for consideration of

‘centres strategies’ within and between each of the affected councils, and for clarification of the proposed role of Leppington vis-à-vis the

established centres in the wider Macarthur Region, before a comprehensive regional social

infrastructure strategy for the South West Growth Centre can be developed.

Development of an overall strategy will be particularly important to avoid a pattern of incremental growth where significant needs beyond the immediate needs of individual

precincts are ignored and opportunities lost for the creation of a hierarchy of centres with social infrastructure which are sustainable, vibrant and adequately meet the needs of their surrounding populations.

Development of an overall strategy will also need to take account of the fact that regional facilities in


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