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Academic year: 2022



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D1.01 SCOPE ... 6

D1.02 OBJECTIVES ... 6






D1.07 URBAN GENERAL ... 10











D1.18 ROUNDABOUTS ... 29


D1.20 PARKING ... 31


D1.21 BUS ROUTES ... 31




D1.24 RURAL GENERAL ... 33











D1.34 LIGHTING ... 43

D1.35 FENCING... 44



This document is named “Tweed Shire Council, Development Design Specification D1 - Road Design”


This document was originally based on AUS-SPEC - Development Design Specification D1 - Road Design, January 2002 (Copyright SWR-TM). Substantial parts of the original AUS-SPEC document have been deleted and replaced in the production of this Tweed Shire Council Development Specification. The parts of the AUS-SPEC document that remain are still subject to the original copyright.




DATE ISSUED (The new version takes effect from this date)

Authorised by the Director of Engineering

1.1 Original Version 1 July 2003

1.2 Reference Standard Drawings and updated Cross Section tables to be consistant with drawings.

D1.03 (c) Table D1.7 Table D1.8

4 August 2003

1.3 Additions to referenced

standard drawings

D1.03 1 June 2004

1.4 Update referenced standards and RTA/RMS

Revision of maximum cul de sac length and number of serviced allotments to provide consistency with DCP-A5 Revised lot frontages to cul de sacs

Road upgrades for infill development

Revised road cross section elements, with additional notes. Industrial road cross section expanded to include commercial land use

Amended footpath allocations for street lights

Footpath and Cycleway design revised to reference updated standard drawing and D9

D1.03 and various




D1.14, Table D1.7 and notes

D1.15, Table D1.8

D1.16, Table D1.9 deleted

13 August 2014


Landscaping references to D14

Footpath crossfall corrected to 2.5% to reflect standard drawings, and revised handrail requirements for urban footpaths

Location of boundary retaining within private land

Tactile markers deleted Revised minimum kerb return radius for access street intersections

Delete repetition of road hierarchy requirements for bus routes

Require sealed shoulders on Class C and above Rural Roads to cater for cyclists;

Allow gravel road formation for subdivisions on low volume rural roads.

Updated Rural Property Access requirements

New fencing clause,

Update to reflect organisation structure

D1.16.11, D1.18.3



D1.16.7 D1.17.15


Table D1.11 and notes


D1.35 Various






1. This specification provides design criteria for the detailed geometric and structural design of subdivision roads. Road design is to include provision for all road/street users and stakeholders including vehicles, pedestrians, cycles, people with disabilities, public transport, services, utilities, drainage, where appropriate to support frontage development.

Subdivision design will determine the general lot layout; general road and intersection location and horizontal alignment; and is dealt with in DCPA5.

Prior to submitting a development application for subdivision, the proposed subdivision design and street layout must be checked to ensure they are physically able to satisfy the geometric requirements of this specification, given the topographical and fixed constraints of the site.

Road design criteria, subdivision design and street layout

2. Small lot rural residential subdivision is defined as

- Subdivisions where the average lot size, excluding residual and non residential lots is <5,000m2

Urban street design criteria shall be used for urban and small lot rural residential subdivisions.

Rural road design criteria shall be used for all other rural subdivisions (other than small lot rural residential) and for rural connecting roads to urban subdivisions.

Urban or rural road design

3. Good geometric road design satisfactorily resolves the inherent goal conflict embodied in the “Objectives” below.

D1.02 OBJECTIVES 1. Road design is to:

(a) Provide acceptable levels of safety, convenience and amenity for all street users and adjacent residents in accordance with the roads hierarchical status.


(b) Support frontage development, shops and commerce where appropriate.

(c) Ensure each road link properly reflects its role based on its status and role in the wider road network and that there is a clear distinction between functional classes of streets based on status, legibility, convenience, traffic volume, vehicle speed, public safety and amenity.

(d) Provide for public transport to a level consistent with potential future demand, ensuring associated infrastructure confers on all classes of users the dignity to which they are entitled, and which is accessible on foot from most dwellings


(e) Provide safe, convenient and legible cycleways

(f) Provide a safe, convenient and legible movement network for people with disabilities, including those using wheelchairs and similar aids

(g) Provide a safe convenient and legible movement network for pedestrians, between residences and to points of attraction in and outside the subdivision, and in particular optimise the walkable access to and into centres, schools, public transport stops, parks and other destinations (h) Provide attractive streetscapes which reinforce the diverse functions of a

street and enhance the amenity of residents, leading to a safe, distinct and pleasant environment, with tree planting, landscaping and street furniture that does not adversely impact on the movement of pedestrians and cyclists, street lighting or the integrity of services and drainage systems.

(i) Provide sufficient width of road and verge to allow streets to perform their designated functions within the street network, and provide a road edge that is appropriate for control of vehicle movements; performs any required function; and is structurally adequate and detailed to reflect pedestrian and cyclist “desire lines”.

(j) Provide street geometry which is safe and appropriate to the street function

(k) Provide on street parking where required, including parking for people with disabilities

(l) Allow access for special vehicles for building collection, utility servicing, commercial deliveries, furniture removal, fire fighting and other emergency services

(m) Minimise the total asset and ownership costs for the life of the road(s) (n) Accommodate public utility services and drainage systems.

(o) Provide adequate levels of street lighting in accordance with AS/NZS 1158.

The references in D1.03 pursue and elaborate these principles. They are commended to designers as Best Practice guides to follow when about to embark on major urban design projects.


In cases of conflict or contradiction, unless otherwise specified, the provisions of this Specification will prevail over all reference documents and prevail over all Tweed Shire Council Standard Drawings.


- Appendix B - Subdivision Works - Development Construction Specifications

West Australian Planning Commission,

- Liveable Neighbourhoods - Edition 2, 2000.

- Liveable Neighbourhoods - Street Layout, Design and Traffic Management Guidelines, June 2000.

(b) Secondary References Council Publications

• Tweed Shire 2000+ Strategic Plan 1997. Chapter 8.

• Tweed Shire LEP 2000 - Designated Roads.

• DCP Section A2 Site Access and Parking Code.

• DCP Section A9 Energy Smart Homes Policy

• Development Design Specification D3 - Structures, Bridge Design

• Development Design Specification D5 - Stormwater Drainage Design

• Development Design Specification D6 - Site Regrading

• Development Design Specification D9 - Cycleway and Pathway Design

• Development Design Specification D13 - Engineering Plans (Subdivisions)

• Development Design Specification D14 - Landscaping Public Space

Australian Standards

• AS 1742.(1 –15) Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices

• AS/NZS 1158 Lighting for Roads and Public Spaces

• AS/NZS 4586 Slip Resistance Classification of New Pedestrian Surface Materials

Federal Authorities

• Commonwealth Department of Housing and Regional Development, 1995, AMCORD - A National Resource Document for Residential Development Parts 1 & 2 and Practice Notes AGPS, Canberra


- Guide to Road Design - Guide to Traffic Management

- Design Vehicles and Turning Path Templates

• Australian Road Rules (Australian Transport Council and National Road Transport Commission) 1999

• Disability Discrimination Act (Australian Human Rights Commission) 1992 State Authorities

• Roads and Maritime Services (previously Roads and Traffic Authority NSW)

- Supplement to Austroads Guide to Road Design.

- Guide to Traffic Generating Developments - Guide to Signs and Markings Reference List

- Sharing the Main Street - A Practitioners’ Guide to Managing the Road Environment of Traffic Routes Through Commercial Centres, 2nd Edition

• Queensland Department of Communication and Information, Local Government and Planning, 1999, Shaping Up - A Guide to the Better Practice and Integration of Transport, Land Use and Urban Design Techniques QDCILGP Brisbane.

• Queensland Department of Local Government and Planning, 1997 Queensland Residential Design Guidelines

• NSW Department of Housing - Managing Urban Stormwater - Soils and



• The Institute of Municipal Engineering Australia, Qld Division - 1993:

Queensland Streets: Design Guidelines for Subdivisional Streetworks.

Water Services Association of Australia’s Water and Sewer Guidelines (WSAA)

(c) Tweed Shire Council Standard Drawings that apply to this Section:

S.D. 001 Urban Road Cross Sections – Sheet 1 S.D. 002 Urban Road Cross Sections – Sheet 2 S.D. 003 Urban Road Cross Sections – Sheet 3

S.D. 004 Urban Road Cross Sections (Water Sensitive Urban Design) – Sheet 1

S.D. 005 Urban Road Cross Sections (Water Sensitive Urban Design) – Sheet 2

S.D. 006 Service Locations in Roadways – Sheet 1 S.D. 007 Service Locations in Roadways – Sheet 2 S.D. 008 Standard Kerb Details

S.D. 009 Rural Road Cross Sections – Sheet 1 S.D. 010 Rural Road Cross Sections – Sheet 2

S.D. 011 Driveway Access to Properties Fronting Unkerbed Roads S.D. 012 Subsoil Drainage Details

S.D. 013 Footpath & Cycleway Details S.D. 014 Standard Kerb Ramp Details S.D. 015 Flat Top Road Hump Detail

S.D. 016 Bike Path Slowdown Control –‘Z’ Chicane

S.D. 017 Driveway Access To Properties Fronting Roads With Kerb &


S.D. 401 Standard Street Name Sign S.D. 403 Regulatory Sign Erection Details S.D. 701 Tree & Shrub Planting Details S.D. 707 Tubular Steel Fencing


1. Council’s Local Environmental Plan and various locality related Development Control Plans and Section 94 Contribution Plans may already specify network layout, geometric standards and/or access limitations for roads in particular locations. These normally prevail over other considerations.

Statutory Planning

2. Neighbourhood planning and determination of the road network is addressed in DCP A5, Chapter 3 - Planning and Designing a Subdivision and Chapter 4 - Urban Subdivision Design Guidelines and Development Standards.

Neighbourhood planning, road network 3. A traffic study is required to determine expected subdivision traffic volumes and

impact on the surrounding road network. It is to include recommended internal hierarchical classifications and intersection treatments; plus necessary upgrading of existing roads, intersections and connecting roads to accommodate increased traffic. A traffic study is not necessary for subdivisions which create no more than 15 new lots and do not create new intersections. The level of detail of the traffic study will be dependent on the scale of the development.

Traffic study




1. Roads are normally crowned at the centre and shall have the following crossfalls on straight alignment:

a. Asphaltic Concrete 0.030 (1 in 33)

b. Concrete 0.020 (1 in 50)

c. Bitumen flush seal 0.040 (1 in 25)

d. Bitumen sealed shoulders 0.040 (1 in 25)

e. Gravel shoulders (adjacent asphalt) 0.040 (1 in 25)

f. (adjacent flush seal) 0.050 (1 in 20)


2. There are many factors affecting levels in urban areas which may force departures from these crossfalls. Differences in level between kerb alignments can be taken up by offsetting crown lines or adopting one-way crossfalls.


Where steeper or flatter crossfalls than normal are required, for example at intersections, or turning circles of cul-de-sacs, the maximum and minimum permissible pavement crossfalls shall be 1 in 20 and 1 in 50 respectively. The minimum grade shall always be obtained in at least one (1) direction on the pavement surface.

See also D1.13 (Superelevation)



1. This section does not address general lot layout, road and intersection locations.

This is addressed in DCP A5 Chapter 3 - Planning and Designing a Subdivision.


2. The primary reference document for urban area street design and layout for DCP A5 is West Australian Planning Commission - Liveable Neighbourhoods, Edition 2, 2000 and its accompanying document Liveable Neighbourhoods - Street Layout, Design and Traffic Management Guidelines. Urban and rural residential street design shall be designed in accordance with DCP A5 and its references unless otherwise directed by this specification.



3. Note that urban street design generally does not require the provision of superelevation, curve transitions or constant radii as applicable to rural road design.

4. Street block layout should limit street length to 350m for access streets and speed may become an issue with Neighbourhood Connectors at uninterrupted lengths above 600m. Where street block layout cannot be adjusted to limit street length or when additional speed control is needed speed control devices are to be used to break up the interrupted length. Examples of these devices are: Horizontal deflection devices (e.g. Elliptical slow point, chicane, one-lane slow point *);

Vertical deflection devices (not generally favoured); Roundabouts.

*must be restricted to roads with volumes less than 3,000 vpd.

Street Length



local residents and non-motorised traffic diminishes as design speed increases, so that higher design speeds are only contemplated where traffic efficiency is considered of over-riding importance compared to its adverse environmental effects. The priority of vehicles over pedestrians will be progressively reversed as the designer proceeds down the road hierarchy from arterial/distributor roads to access streets.


2. Where lower traffic speeds are desirable a combination of a low design speed, speed control devices placed in the road, and prioritised intersections should be adopted. Good design assists drivers to interpret perceived hazards, available sight distance, and other visual cues as setting the speed environment, rather than relying on regulatory signage or police enforcement. Any changes in the prevailing speed environment should be signalled, legible and progressive.

Low Speeds

3. The maximum speed limit on urban local roads in Tweed Shire is 50kph, which may sometimes be appropriate for design of streets (see 5.), although street type, safety & topography issues will frequently dictate lower values. The RMS will not approve speed zones lower than 50kph without concurrent installation of appropriate physical speed control devices.

Speed Limits

4. Vehicle speed on local streets can be limited by several design techniques including:

(a) road width being appropriate to traffic volume and parking demand, so traffic is impeded and slowed by parked and opposing vehicles, but, capacity is not unduly constrained;

Control of vehicle speed

(b) short leg lengths between street junctions and/or slow points (tight corners, bends or traffic calming devices) to encourage speeds of 30 to 40 km/hr or less;

(c) visually and physically tight intersections (small kerb radii); trees near road or in parking lane (by using parking indents) to narrow the road appearance

(d) intersection controls including stop signs, narrowed throats and raised pavements, mini roundabouts, or more complex traffic management devices

5. The local street network should be designed to normally produce the target maximum speeds shown in Table D1.1, but, lower design speeds are to be adopted approaching intersections, when local conditions, adjacent land use, safety, road geometry or topography indicate that lower design speeds are appropriate.

Maximum speeds

Slow points are to be introduced in accordance with Table D1.1, D1.2 and D1.3.

Where bends, slow points or intersections which allow speeds greater than 20 km/h are used, the length of street between two bends or slow points is to be as specified in Table D1.3.

Slow points including either horizontal or vertical deflection or constrictions are designed to slow traffic to a desired speed. (Vertical deflection devices will not be approved on roads designed for volumes greater than 1,000 vpd due to noise generation issues at night.)


Street type Target Maximum street speed

Maximum Leg length between 20km/h slow points *

If parked cars are likely to be on street

No parked cars likely to help achieve speed control

Access Street (5.5 - 6 m road width) Access street (7 - 7.5 m road width) Neighbourhood connector

40 km/h

50 km/h

60 km/h

200 m

250 m

600 m




Table D1.1: Street Length and Design Speed

* Leg length is distance between intersections or junctions, or points and locations where vehicles must slow to a maximum of 20 km/h. End conditions that reduce vehicle speed to 20 km/h may include; T intersections, roundabouts; and devices in Table D1.2.

Bend type Road width (m)*

3.5 m 5 - 5.5 m 7 - 7.5 m

Single bend

Chicane - two reverse bends

60o 30o - 30o

70o 5o - 45o

90o 60o - 60o

Table D1.2 Minimum road deflection angles for speed control to 20 km/h

* Raised medians must be incorporated in above bends to prevent cutting of corners. Wider pavements may be reduced to 3.5m carriageways at bends, provided they are still negotiable by waste collection trucks.

Speed at slow/

point/bend (km/h)

Max leg length of street between slow points/bends (parked cars likely on street) to limit target maximum street speed to:

40 km/h 50 km/h

Parked cars likely to be on


Parked cars unlikely to be

on street

Parked cars likely to be on


Parked cars unlikely to be on

street 20

25 30 35 40 45

200m 130 m 110 m 80 m

- -

140m 80m 65m 50m

250m 210 m 180 m 160m 125m 95m

180m 135m 115m 100m 80m 60m

Table D1.3 Maximum length of street between slow points with speed greater than 20km/hr

Note: The installation of speed control devices often restricts on street parking, property access, and the safe passage of bicycles. Device positioning is therefore intimately connected with lot layout.



1. Drivers react to restrictive horizontal alignment by slowing to an appropriate speed.

The desired maximum speed is maintained by designing a restrictive horizontal alignment

Horizontal alignment restricts speed 2. Sharp curves. The following requirements allow for safe passing and the occasional

heavy vehicle.

Minimum curve radius on carriageway centreline

Access street 10 m

Neighbourhood connector 15 m

Curve radii, widening

Carriageway widening.

(Apply to inside kerb line by using a larger radius for inner kerb) Radius less than 20 m 1.0 m

Radius 20 m to 30 m 0.5 m

3. The minimum radii applying to various design speeds are shown in Table D1.4 Minimum curve radii

Horizontal Curve Radii

Design Speed (kph) Minimum Radius (m)

10 10 (and check turning


20 13

30 20

40 30

50 50

60 90

70 150

Table D1.4

For local access roads curve radii should preferably range only between the minimum and the next highest ranking in the above table, in order to limit vehicle travel speeds to appropriate levels.


4. The minimum horizontal sight distance is measured along the vehicle path and shall be in accordance with Table D1.5.

Sight Distance

Horizontal target speed (km/h)

Sight distance required (m)

20 20

25 30

30 40

35 50

40 60

50 80

60 110

Table D1.5 Minimum Horizontal Sight Distance (1.15m to 1.15m)

5. Cul-de-sac maximum length is 100 m, servicing no more than 12 dwellings or lots, and with no more than 15% of lots in a neighbourhood on cul-de-sacs. Where constrained by landforming limits, the maximum length may be increased to 200m and serving no more than 24 lots, if it can be demonstrated that this leads to better urban design outcomes. Cul-de-sacs are to be placed in a through street reserve, so that pedestrians and cyclists have continuous access and longer-term connection for other traffic is possible. Cul-de-sacs should be located so that they do not impede the overall interconnectivity of the system. A cul-de-sac is to be designed on the basis that it will connect in future if traffic volumes rise. If the cul- de-sac head is onto a foreshore or other reserve where no future road is contemplated, the public road reserve shall be continued full width until meeting the reserve in order to preserve street vistas and a sense of public ownership.

Cul de sacs

The minimum radius of kerb and gutter, both within the turning circle and in the approaches to the turning circle shall be 9.0m in residential/rural residential subdivisions and 12.5m in industrial subdivisions. Verge width shall not be less than 3.0m at any point in or approaching the turning circle.

A minimum lot frontage of 12.5m, or 9.0m of kerb frontage (whichever is the greater) is required for each lot in a cul-de-sac.


1. The minimum centreline gradient may be 0% however the minimum kerb and gutter gradient at any point shall not be less than 0.3% except at crests. Roads with flat longitudinal gradients may require variable cross falls to maintain minimum kerb

and gutter gradient. Maximum gradients are shown in Table D1.6.

For grades greater than 12% the requirements for pedestrians, cyclists, waste collection vehicles and transverse access are to be addressed explicitly in the design. Grades on the inside of curves and the grade for turning vehicles at T- intersections require special design consideration.

Flat and Steep Terrain


Road type Desirable maximum grade


Absolute maximum grade


Arterial / Distributor 6 8

Neighbourhood connector 8 12

Access street (urban or rural residential) 10 16

Access lane 8 12

Cul-de-sac head 5 5

Industrial 6 10

Table D1.6

2. Longitudinal grade through intersections should not exceed 4 per cent, the actual gradient being dependent on the type of terrain. Generally grades will be maintained on the priority road, with the side roads adopting the priority road cross-fall where they join the priority road carriageways. (Adjusting with a rate of change of grade of two per cent in the kerb line of the side street relative to the centre line grading is acceptable.)



1. A vertical curve, of parabolic form, shall be provided at every crest and at other changes of grade of more than 1%. Vertical curves should generally be as long as possible for improved appearance; but surface drainage must be maintained in proximity to summit and sag points. Irrespective of road centreline grading at sag vertical curves, the kerb and gutter grade shall not fall below 0.3% at any point. For crest grade changes of <1%, the length of vertical curve in the gutter shall be 15m only; accommodating the road grade variance in the parking lane crossfall.

Vertical Curve placement, drainage must be maintained

2. Minimum Length of Vertical Curves (a) Crest Curves:

The minimum length of a crest curve is governed by sight distance requirements for the adopted design speed.

Minimum length of vertical curves

(b) Sag Curves:

(i) desirable minimum to be based on providing minimum headlight sight distance

(ii) absolute minimum to be such that vertical acceleration does not exceed 0.10G.

(c) Minimum Length for Appearance

Except for crest changes of grade of <1% the minimum length of a vertical curve shall not be less than:

Access Road 25m

Neighbourhood connector 30m except at intersections

3. (a) Vertical curve length in side roads at T intersections can be reduced Vertical curves at intersections (b) The minimum length of such vertical curves shall be not less than 10m or

on a local access road L = 0.7A


(c) The tangent point of the vertical curve in the side road shall be located at, or behind the kerb line of the through road.


1. The absolute minimum sight distance is that required for a driver to perceive an object 0.15m high on the road ahead, and stop before reaching that object. This distance shall be available at every point on every road, using the approved design speed.

Vertical sight distance

2. The desirable minimum sight distance for two-way roads is that required for the drivers of two opposing vehicles to perceive the other, and to stop both vehicles before meeting.

This sight distance is to be provided at intersections and wherever possible.

Two way roads

3. The minimum sight distance at intersections shall be

(a) Sufficient distance for an approaching vehicle to stop before an obstruction in the road at an intersection (see table D1.5)


intersection sight distance (SISD)

(b) Sufficient distance for a vehicle stopped in a side road, at the alignment of the through road, to start and turn safely onto the through road (see Table D1.5)


1. Superelevation will not be required in the majority of urban streets, which have design speeds less than 60 kph. Access streets which are designed for speeds of 40 km/h or less and with curves of 60 m radius or less generally have the pavement crowned on a curve instead of superelevation. Design standards for such curves have little meaning as drivers usually cut the corners and rely on friction to hold them on a curved path. Adverse cross-fall should be limited to 3%.

When to use superelevation

2. The maximum superelevation for urban roads of higher design speeds should be 6 per cent. Any increase in the longitudinal grade leading to excessive crossfall at intersections should be considered with caution. While it is desirable to Superelevate all curves on high-speed roads, negative crossfall should be limited to 3 per cent.

Negative Crossfall

3. The minimum radius of curves is determined by the design speed; the minimum superelevation (or maximum adverse crossfall) at any point on the circular portion of the curve depends on the maximum coefficient of side friction. Table D1.4 incorporates a maximum coefficient of side friction of 0.15 where there is assisting cross fall. This should be recalculated for a coefficient of 0.12 where there is adverse crossfall.

Coefficient of Side Friction

4. Recommendations for minimum curve radii (in metres) on major urban roads under varying superelevation / crossfall are found in AUSTROADS


5. Superelevation of urban roads reduces high side gutter hydraulic capacity to zero, and can lead to dangerous sheet flow across the pavement during storm events. In these locations special interception provisions are required to eliminate the risk of such sheet flow.

Sheet flow


1. The cross section of the road reserve must cater for all functions that the road is expected to fulfil, including the safe and efficient movement of all users, provision for parked vehicles, acting as a buffer from traffic nuisance for residents, the provision of public utilities, streetscaping and tree planting. Table D1.7 details carriageways and footway widths and road reserve widths.



2. Cross-section element specifications in Table D1.7 are strongly influenced by Council’s statutory obligation to pursue Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD), with particular relevance to ecologically sustainable transport – this presently being confined to self powered walking and cycling. It is also widely held that public transport is more sustainable than use of the private automobile. In addition, the elements are framed on the presumption of compliance with Council’s ESD expectation of designs embodying neighbourhood self-containment to the highest degree possible. An identified small local neighbourhood commercial centre and/or transport node should be within 400 metres walk of 90% of dwellings. For this concept to gain effective community acceptance, all pedestrian and cycle paths must have high levels of safety, efficiency, security and amenity. They must also enjoy a micro-climate advantage over the rest of the street. In sub-tropical Australia this implies efforts to maximise shade, shelter, and wind breaks.

Higher usage routes should also provide access to respite (seating), refreshment (bubblers), and relief (public toilets). Section D1.16.11 specifies criteria for verge landscaping.

Ecologically Sustainable Development

3. All urban and rural residential roads shall have kerb and gutter on both sides. Where Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) is adopted, kerb and gutter may be substituted with flush kerbs and associated bollards or castellated kerbs to prevent vehicle egress onto the verge. WSUD will generally involve conveying street drainage (formerly conveyed in kerb and gutter) in grass swale drains located on the road verge, with the verge being widened to accommodate the swale.

Kerb and gutter.

For Water Sensitive Urban Design, adopt flush kerb with bollards Kerb and gutter shall have a vertical face to prevent vehicles encroaching on footpaths as

prescribed in the Australian Road Rules, 2000.

Pram ramps shall be provided at all footpath/road crossings

4. In industrial subdivisions all road junctions and cul-de-sac bulbs shall be concrete paved as far as the tangent points of kerb returns.

Industrial areas

5. Standard Cross-section elements, for use in any special cases where standard road types are inapplicable, shall be:

Travel Lane absolute minimum 3.0 m

slow speed 3.4 m

standard 3.7 m

one-way 4.0 m

Parking access street 2.6 m

Major road 3.0 m

Turn Lane minimum 3.0 m

Standard 3.4 m

Lane widths

6. Cross section gradients must comply with criteria in this specification; cut/fill batters are not permitted within the road reserve. Council may consider low maintenance retaining structures (eg. in median of a divided road) to accommodate level differences across a road reserve.

Cut/fill batters

7. Where infill development requires upgrades to existing road cross-sectional elements (including pavement, and road surface) due to increased traffic generation, these upgrades shall extend to the nearest external intersection with a higher order road.

In Fill



Table D.1.7 Function and characteristics of roads - Urban Cross Section Elements

Street type and function

Street characteristics Target design speed km/h(2)

Indicative max volume (vpd)(1)

Indicative street reserve width (m)


Indicative road pavement width (3) min (m)

Verge width min each side (m)(5)

Parking provision within street reserve

Kerb type Footpath

(10) Cycles

URBAN AREAS Laneways Provide access to the side or rear of lots principally for access to garages. Must be provided behind all properties in commercial zones or retail shopping strip precinct.

Laneways may incorporate services and provide rubbish collection. Used when smaller lot layouts justify rear access to garages and where alternative vehicle access is needed for lots fronting major streets, parkland or conservation areas.

15 300 6+ (4) 6 nil No Barrier or flush

edge strip depending on surface stormwater containment

No Share

with vehicles

Access Streets To accommodate shared pedestrian, bike and vehicular movements.

The requirements of adjacent land uses to be supported by street design

Narrower access streets Appropriate in locations further away from centres and activity centres, where there is a low demand for on street parking.

Max travel distance before connecting to wider access street 200m.

40 1,000 13+ (3)

17+ for WSUD (3)

6 3.5

see (9) for WSUD

Yes Barrier or see (9) for WSUD

1 x 1.2 Share with vehicles

Standard access streets To cater for higher traffic volumes over longer distances, closer to neighbourhood centres, more intensive land and higher density land use or where flexibility is required for future land uses

50 3,000 14.5+ (3)

18.5+ for WSUD (3))

7.5 3.5

see (9)

for WSUD

Yes Barrier or see (9) for WSUD

1 x 1.2 Share with vehicles

Wider access street with bus route (including school buses).

Refer D1.21 for bus route provision.

50 3,000 16+

20+ for WSUD

9 3.5(11)

see (9)

for WSUD

Yes Barrier or see (9) for WSUD

1 x 1.2 Share with vehicles


Street type and function

Street characteristics Target design speed(2)

Indicative max volume (vpd)(1)

Indicative street reserve width

Indicative road pavement width

Verge width min each side

Parking provision within street reserve

Kerb type

Footpath Cycles

Access Streets (Continued)

Industrial access streets For use in industrial or commercial areas and/or where regular use by heavy or articulated vehicles is anticipated

50 8,000 20+

24+ for WSUD

13 min 3.5

see (9) for WSUD

Yes Barrier

or see

(9) for WSUD

2 x 1.2 Share with vehicles

Shopping strip access street For use where shops are adjacent to a street. If shops one side only adjust appropriately

30 10,000 30+ 21

includes 11m carriageway and 5m each side for angle parking

4.5 on side with shops may be 3.5 on side with no shops

Angle parking adjacent to carriageway Bus bays to be provided each way

Barrier Full width adjacent to shops(12), may be 1x1.2 on other side of road if shops on one side only

Share with vehicles

Neighbourhood connectors Streets with predominantly residential frontage, typically provide lower order sub arterial network. Service and link neighbourhoods and towns.

Low volume neighbourhood connector. To cater for higher volumes than wider access streets. Undivided road with two traffic lanes and two parking lanes.

60 5,000 18+

22+ for WSUD

11 3.5 or

4 min if accommo dating 2.5 footpath or cycleway see (9) for WSUD

Yes Barrier

or see

(9) for WSUD

<3,000 vpd, 2x1.2

>3,000 vpd 1x2.5 (6)


Share with vehicles


Shared footpath

Normal neighbourhood connector. 2 lane undivided or may have median for reasons of access, character or pedestrian safety, Design with regard to context, function and adjacent land use. Where densities >15 dwellings per hectare, and/or

60 7,000 20.9+

24.4+ for WSUD

Additional width required for

13.4 (2 lanes) or

2x6.8 lanes with median

1 x 3.5 &

1 x 4.0 to accommo date 2.5 footpath / cycleway

Parking indents or on carriageway

Barrier or see

(9) for WSUD

1x1.2 + 1x2.5 (6)

Shared footpath


Street type and function

Street characteristics Target design speed(2)

Indicative max volume (vpd)(1)

Indicative street reserve width

Indicative road pavement width

Verge width min each side

Parking provision within street reserve

Kerb type

Footpath Cycles

Neighbourhood connectors (Continued)

Shopping strip neighbourhood connector

For use where shops adjacent to a connector. If shops one side only adjust appropriately

30 10,000 30 21

includes 11m carriageway and 5m each side for angle parking

4.5 on side with shops may be 3.5 on side with no shops

Angle parking adjacent to carriageway Bus bays to be provided each way

Barrier 2.5 adjacent to shops, may be 1x1.2 on other side of road if no shops that side

Share with vehicles


Arterial or Distributor Roads

Will be designated as such in Tweed Road Contributions Plan

Design based on performance criteria and designated in Tweed Road Contributions Plan or use values to the right as a default minimum

>10,000 30+

34+ for WSUD

2x10 + 3 median

3.5 or 4 if accommo- dating 2.5 footpath or cycleway

see (9) for WSUD

1x2.5 (6)


Shared footpath

Table D.1.7 Function and characteristics of roads - Urban Cross Section Elements (Continued)

Notes to Table D1.7

1. Traffic volumes are to be derived using approved advanced computer cumulation techniques from the trip generation rates of the Tweed Road

Development Strategy. For single dwelling allotments apply a traffic generation rate of 10 vehicles per day (vpd)/allotment (equivalent to approximately one vehicle per hour (vph) in the peak hour) unless a lower rate can be demonstrated. For multi-unit dwellings apply a traffic generation rate of 6 vpd or a rate based upon local data.

2. Streets are to be designed to achieve the target speed, and sight distances to accord with the design speed.

3. Widening is required at bends to allow for wider vehicle paths (using AUSTROADS Turning Templates, refer also to D1.09.2). Wider reserves may be needed to cater for varied service requirements, lane widths or intersections.

4. Access (service) lanes are required to be incorporated behind all properties in 3(c) Commercial Zones, or any other retail strip shopping precinct. A flush pavement edge treatment is be used in residential applications.


5. Verge width must accommodate relevant services, landscaping and noise attenuation methods. Ensure the total setback is sufficient to satisfy the prescribed traffic noise exposure levels at the facade of residential dwellings.

6. Where two 1.5m wide cycle lanes are marked on carriageway a minimum 1.2m footpath is required. Refer to Section 94 Contributions Plan No 22


7. In accordance with AustRoads “Guide to Traffic Engineering Practice, Bicycles” Part 14.

8. Where a CP22 – Cycleways route occurs in a subdivision road reserve, that road reserve (and the road pavement width if a shared cycleway) is to be widened by 2m.

9. Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) principles are encouraged. Where road longitudinal gradients are >1% and <5%, grass swale drains may be substituted for kerb and gutter. In such cases flush kerbs are to be used on road edges with either bollards or castellated kerbs used to exclude traffic from the verge. The verge width is to be increased to a minimum 5.5m to accommodate the swale drain without interfering with other utility service allocations. Road Reserves to be adjusted accordingly.

Unless otherwise approved by Council, driveway surface levels are to be flush with the verge/swale surface and designed to accommodate a standard vehicle without bottoming.

10. Refer S.D.013 Footpath and Cycleway Details for design requirements.

11. Localised verge widening may be required to accommodate bus shelters and other public transport infrastructure along bus routes.

12. Full width footpath required along shop frontages, unless otherwise specified in Council endorsed landscaping plan.

13. Wider reserve may be required for intersections, lane widths or service requirements



Utilities and services shall be in accordance with Table D1.8 Utilities Verge


Corridor (all distances in metres)

Distance from property boundary Distance from

back of kerb towards property boundary

Distance from kerb face towards road centreline Spare

(Retro fit gas, telco)

Shared Trench Arrangement for Telecommunications Electricity and Gas

Water, Sewer Rising Main *

Footpath Trees Grass Swale Drain

Underground Stormwater

3.5 Verge too narrow

0.9 - 1.8 1.8 -


0.8 - 2.0 0.6 to trunk centre, 1.05 clear zone

Verge too narrow

0 - 2.4+

Lids located to avoid wheel paths 4.0 0.75 -


1.2 - 2.1 2.1 -


1.1- 2.3 or 0.3-2.8 for cycleway 4.5

5.5 1.1- 2.3

or 0.6-1.8 for WSUD

See Std Drawing

0 - 2.4+

or may be located under swale

TABLE D1.8 Verge Utility Location


Shared trench arrangements are to be in accordance with the above allocations and the general provisions of “Shared Trench Agreement – Country Region of NSW” between ActewAGL, AGL, Essential Energy, Optus, Origin Energy and Telstra.

Street light poles to be placed in accordance with AS/NZS 1158.1.2:2010. Minimum pole setback 0.7m from face of kerb.

Where 3.5m wide verges are proposed, streetlights are to be located on the opposite side of the road to water mains and sewer rising mains where ever practical. If this cannot be achieved, the verge width is to be increased to 4.0m, unless arrangements to accommodate all services are deemed satisfactory by Council.

In the corridor nominated for water and sewer, separations as per the Water Services Association of Australia’s Water and Sewer Guidelines (WSA03-2002-2.3 Section 4.10 and WSA 02 -002-2.3 Section 4.4) must be adhered to. In some circumstances this may result in the need to place water mains on one side of the street and sewer on the other side.


WSUD = Water Sensitive Urban Design

Refer to Standard Drawing S.D.006 and S.D.007 Service Locations in Roadways (Sheet 1 and 2)

Longitudinal placement of services must take into account likely future driveway locations for each allotment. In order to comply with urban design and energy efficiency requirements of DCP-A1 and BASIX, residential driveways will generally be located close to the southern / western property boundary (depending on lot orientation). As such, each allotment should be provided with a zone 8.0m long from the southern / western boundary clear of street trees, light poles, footpath pram ramps, kerb inlet pits, and the like.

* Gravity sewer may be located in this corridor (e.g. industrial subdivisions) provided:

• The landform in adjacent private allotments is unsuitable for sewer location

• Water supply can be located in the verge on the other side of the road

• The water and sewer corridor is widened to 1.6m with complimentary widening of the verge to accommodate the widened corridor

• The depth to sewer invert does not exceed 2.5m


1. Following the national adoption of the Australian Road Rules, vehicles are now prohibited from parking or standing on the road verge or footpath. The historical practice of providing layback kerbs invited drivers to partially or totally mount the footpath when undertaking on-street parking. Table D.1.7 nominates vertical face (barrier) kerb in most applications henceforth in order to deter drivers from obstructing the footpath in this way. Garage door setbacks to a minimum of 5 metres are proposed elsewhere in Council’s development control framework to assist similarly in protecting footpaths from illegal obstruction. (Note this does not apply to garages & carports without doors or gates.)

Where layback kerbing is already installed, paved footpaths should be rendered inaccessible to parking vehicles by physical barriers or prohibitive planting.

Footpath Protection

2. Suburban street footways should be set back from the face of kerbs to allow sufficient room for safe door opening for passengers alighting at the kerb, grading of entry driveways from gutter up to footpath level, planting of shade trees, erection of street lighting poles, and provision of turf filter strips to intercept the nutrients in surface runoff. Table D1.8 specifies verge footpath location.

Footpath location

3. Following the adoption of the Australian Road Rules, juveniles are permitted to ride cycles on all footpaths. Design clearances to obstructions as specified in the ‘Guide to Traffic Engineering Practice – Bicycles’ should therefore be observed on all footpaths for safety reasons.


4. Crossfalls in footway paving should not exceed the 2.5% required by the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA). Longitudinal grade usually parallels that of the road and this may inevitably be steeper than the seven per cent (1 in 14) specified in the DDA . Handrails may be provided in limited locations where it is justified by topography, surrounding landuses, and where the handrails do not provide a hazard to traffic or pedestrian safety.

Grades and Crossfall


5. Local adjustments to the above standards may be acceptable for the preservation of trees, or accommodation of various existing objects. Special finishes may be required when longitudinal grades are unavoidably excessive. Designers should be able to demonstrate that such variances do not compromise safety.

Paths below kerb level are undesirable but may be used if normal crossfalls are impracticable. Effective drainage and alighting passenger safety must then be demonstrated.


6. Differences in level across the road between alignments may be accommodated by:

(a) Widening the road reserve sufficiently to enable all standard road cross- section elements to be fully developed.

Level differences.

(b) Addition of retaining walls and batters. Handrails, pedestrian barriers and ramps may then be needed to satisfy DDA provisions.

Level differences between the road reserve and private allotments must be taken up by batters or retaining walls located wholly within private land and in accordance with Development Design Specification D6 - Site Regrading.

7. Footpath and cycleway pavements shall be constructed in Grade N25 concrete to the standards in Standard Drawing S.D.013 Footpath and Cycleway Details. Paving blocks and other treatments will be considered on their merits, but, must have the same load carrying capacity as the standard concrete pavement. Footpaths and dual use paths must have a durable, non-skid surface in accordance with AS/NZS 4586. Tactile marking is no longer to be provided, on advice from the RMS.

Pavements, surfaces, tactile marking

TABLE D1.9 DELETED (Version 1.4)

8. Footpaths and cycleways shall be designed in accordance with D9 - Cycleway and Pathway Design, and Austroads "Guide to Road Design Part 6A: Pedestrian and Cyclist Paths"

Design - D9, AUSTROADS

9. Pedestrian laneways shall be provided with 1.5m minimum width pathways or 2.5m width if part of the cycleway network with the pavement designed in accordance with S.D.013). Designers shall submit proposals for low maintenance landscaping for the balance of the area whilst providing sufficient cross-section area for any overland flow path for stormwater.

Pedestrian laneways

10. No roads, driveways, footpath, kerb and gutter, drainage or any other structures may be placed or constructed on an existing road reserve unless prior consent has been obtained from Council under s138 of the Roads Act 1993. S138 application forms and fee schedule are available from Council.

Consent under s138 Roads Act required

11. Road verges shall be landscaped in accordance with D14 - Landscaping Public Space and Standard Drawing S.D.701. All plantings must provide for adequate sight distances at intersections, pedestrian access, and space for door opening with minimal maintenance. Plantings shall be selected and located to ensure they do not adversely affect drainage or other utility services.

Verge landscaping


D1.17 URBAN INTERSECTIONS 1. See also section on design speed.

Note: Warrants in this section refer to those in AUSTROADS, Guide to Road Design Part 4: Intersections and Crossings - General.


2. Normally intersections will be at-grade uncontrolled, channelised, or a roundabout (see D1.18). Traffic signals will very rarely be required. The design of intersections or junctions should allow all movements of vehicles, cyclists and pedestrians to occur safely without undue delay. Projected traffic volumes should be used in designing all intersections or junctions on local arterial/distributor roads.

Traffic Volumes

3. Intersection design for the junction of subdivision roads with existing main rural, main urban and state highways should generally be designed in accordance with the publication AUSTROADS Guide to Road Design Part 4. In urban areas this will require raised concrete medians.

Main Roads

4. Intersections with main roads, regional roads or state highways are to be designed and constructed in accordance with the requirements of the Roads and Maritime Services and the Director of Engineering.

Regional Roads, State Highways 5. Where major intersections are required to serve a development complete

reconstruction of the existing road pavements will be necessary where the speed environment and irregularity of the existing road pavement may endanger the safety of traffic in the locality.


6. The safety of pedestrian and cyclist users will be a paramount consideration in the selection of intersection type.

Pedestrians and cyclists

7. Intersections should be generally located in such a way that:

(a) The streets intersect at right angles.

Intersection location criteria (b) The landform and parking controls allow clear sight distance on each of the

approach leg of the intersection.

(c) The minor street intersects the convex side of the major street, if on a curve.

(d) Two side streets intersecting another street in a staggered pattern should have a minimum centre-line spacing of the design speed in metres (e.g.

40kph = 40m).

Other criteria are in the AUSTROADS Guide to Road Design Part 4.

8. All vehicle turning movements are to be accommodated utilising AUSTROADS Design Vehicles and Turning Path Templates, as follows:

(a) For turning movements involving distributor roads, the "design semi-trailer"

with turning path radius 15.0 m.

Turning Movements

(b) For turning movements involving neighbourhood connectors or bus routes, but not arterial/distributor roads, design for the AUSTROADS 14.5 metre long rigid bus with a minimum turning path radius of 15.0 m.


(c) For turning movements on access streets but not involving arterial/distributor roads or neighbourhood connectors, design for the AUSTROADS 12.5 metre long single unit truck/bus with an absolute minimum turning radius of 12.5 metres.

(d) For turning movements at the head of cul-de-sac streets a minimum 9m radius is required

9. On bus routes 3-centred curves with radii 7.0 m, 10.0 m, 7.0 m are used at junctions and intersections.

Bus Routes

10. Channelisation is required (unless grade separation or roundabouts provided) at:

(a) arterial/distributor with arterial/distributor intersections


(b) arterial/distributor with neighbourhood connector intersections

(c) neighbourhood connector with neighbourhood connector connections (if warranted)

Channelisation should:

(a) provide separate and clearly defined paths for each traffic movement, and provide passage for cyclists and pedestrians

(b) minimise the general area of conflict by causing opposing traffic streams to intersect at (or near) right angles

(c) maximise separation of conflict points (d) merge traffic at small angles

(e) control approach and crossing speed by funnelling or bending traffic paths (f) provide refuge for turning or crossing vehicles at signalised intersections as


(g) prohibit certain turns

(h) provide pedestrian protection and pram ramps where appropriate (i) improve the efficiency and layout of signalised intersections (j) provide sites for signs and traffic signals

(k) be lit at night (mandatory if kerbs or other rigid obstructions are introduced to the carriageway) to AS/NZS 1158 requirements

(l) improve and define alignment of major movements (m) not obstruct pavement drainage

Channelisation is to accommodate a design semi-trailer of 19m in length, providing


11. Traffic Control at 4 - Way Intersections shall be in accordance with the following:

(a) Arterial/Arterial 4-way intersections to be signal (where warranted) or high capacity roundabout controlled (roundabouts may be inappropriate in high pedestrian/cyclist activity areas).

4 way


(b) Arterial/Neighbourhood Connector 4-way intersections to be signal (where warranted) or roundabout controlled (roundabouts may be inappropriate in high pedestrian/cyclist activity areas).

(c) NC/NC 4-way intersections to, be roundabout controlled (10-12 m inner island diameter) with adequate vehicle path deflection (refer to AUSTROADS Guide to Road Design Part 4B: Roundabouts) to keep speeds low.

(d) NC/Access Street 4-way intersections should be minimised by altering street block layout. Roundabouts are to be used for speed control and intersection safety.

(e) AS/AS 4-way intersections (should also be minimised as above) to be controlled by small roundabouts (mountable are acceptable).

12. Traffic Control at T-Junctions shall be:

(a) Arterial/arterial T-Junctions to be signal (where warranted) or high capacity roundabout controlled (roundabouts may be inappropriate in high pedestrian/cyclist activity areas).

T junctions

(b) Arterial/Neighbourhood Connector T-Junctions to be signal (only occasional where warranted) or roundabout controlled (roundabouts may be inappropriate in high pedestrian/cyclist activity areas). Side road may be controlled by stop/give way/median permitting left turn only depending on volumes and nearby signals as alternative access.

(c) NC/NC T-Junctions to be provided with roundabouts (10-12 m inner island diameter, refer to AUSTROADS Guide to Road Design Part 4B:

Roundabouts) for speed control benefits even if volumes are acceptable.

(d) NC/Access Street T-Junctions may require roundabouts for speed control and intersection safety. Normal control by T Junction rule favouring the NC.

(e) AS/AS T-Junctions, control by T-junction rule.

13. The access street network is to be configured to manage traffic volumes, traffic speeds and run up length at Access Street/Access Street 4-way intersections to enable safe application of a priority (give way) controls.

Managing speed, volume

14. Corner 3 x 3 metre truncations are to be provided as a default in the local street network, provided a minimum of 3m verge is available between kerb face and property boundary. The truncation must be increased above 3m to ensure there is a minimum of 3m between kerb face and property boundary where the geometry of the corner or demands for road widening would otherwise encroach on the verge, Exceptions to the default:

(a) Intersection treatments that require more space

Corner truncations

(b) Acute angle intersections and intersections on the inside of a small radius


(c) Narrow frontage lots may warrant reduction of truncation provided adequate accommodation is provided for 3m footpath at corner, services, and sight distance from stop/giveway lines.

15. Default minimum kerb return radius requirements

AS/AS 10m

AS/NC 10m, increase if median on NC

NC/NC Will depend on roundabout design requirements, but minimum


Industrial areas and to any higher order road 12m

Arterial/distributor routes must be designed to cater for articulated vehicles, and have minimum kerb return radius 15m

Kerb return radius


1. Roundabout designs are to be approved by the Director of Engineering. Approval 2. Roundabouts should be designed in accordance with the requirements of the

publication AUSTROADS Guide to Road Design Part 4B: Roundabouts.

Roundabout design should always provide for safe passage of pedestrians and cyclists.


3. Landscaping requirements for the centre island will be determined in accordance with D14.


4. Roundabouts are required at:

(a) Neighbourhood connector and access street intersections where this option is needed to reduce street lengths to those nominated in Table D1.1 (b) 4-way intersections identified in D1.17.11

(c) T-intersections identified in D1.17.12

AUSTROADS Guide to Traffic Management Part 6: Intersections, Interchanges and Crossings identifies appropriate and inappropriate sites for roundabouts (Table 2.3 and 2.4).


1. Calming devices such as thresholds, slowpoints, speed humps, chicanes and splitter islands should be designed in accordance with AUSTROADS Guide to Traffic Management - Part 8: Local Area Traffic Management, and “Sharing the Main Street" (RMS 2000). These will require Local Traffic Committee approval.

Device designs should generally comply with AS 1742 - Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices




(iii) enhance existing landscape character

(iv) maximise continuity between existing and new landscape areas.

(b) Location of Devices/Changes

(i) devices other than at intersections should be located to be generally consistent with streetscape requirements


(ii) existing and future street lighting, drainage pits, driveways, parking needs, and utility services will control the exact location of devices

(iii) slowing devices are generally located in accordance with D1.07 Design Speed.

(c) Design Vehicles

(i) emergency vehicles must be able to reach all residences and properties

Design Vehicles

(ii) bicycles should not have to move into the path of motor vehicles to negotiate devices.

(iii) local streets with a 'feeding' function between arterial roads and access streets should be designed for an AUSTROADS 14.5 metre long rigid truck/bus. See Standard Drawing S.D.015. Note that platform is to be 6m long on bus routes.

(iv) raised platforms are not permitted where they are likely to be used as pedestrian crossings by pedestrians. (see RMS Technical Direction), and vertical deflection devices are generally discouraged in suburban and retail areas, due to impacts and problems with emergency vehicles and public transport.

(d) Control of Vehicle Speeds

(i) maximum vehicle speeds can only be reduced by deviation of the travelled path. Pavement narrowings may have only minor impact on average speeds, and usually little or no effect on maximum speeds in circumstances where there is good forward visibility, unless the carriageway is reduced to a single path (even then, only if a vehicle is approaching from the opposite direction).

Vehicle Speeds

(ii) speed reduction can be achieved using devices which shift vehicle paths laterally (slow points, roundabouts, corners) or vertically (humps, platform intersections, platform pedestrian/school/bicycle crossings)

(iii) speed reduction can be helped by creating a visual environment conducive to lower speeds. This can be achieved by 'segmenting' streets into relatively short lengths (less than 300m), using appropriate devices, streetscapes, or street alignment to create short sight lines. Increasing access activity by (say) provision of angle parking is also effective.

(e) Visibility Requirements (sight distance)

(i) adequate critical sight distances should be provided such that evasive action may be taken by either party in a potential conflict situation. Sight distances should relate to likely operating speeds



(ii) sight distance to be considered include those of and for pedestrians and cyclists, as well as for drivers

(iii) night-time visibility of street features must be adequate. Speed control devices particularly should be located near existing street lighting and if not existing then lighting is to be installed as per AS/NZS 1158, and all street features/furniture is to be delineated for night time operation.

(f) Critical Dimensions

Many devices will be designed for their normal use by motor cars, but with provision (such as mountable kerbs) for larger vehicles. Some typical dimensions include:

(i) pavement narrowings

- single lane 3.50 m between kerbs 3.75 m between obstructions

- two lane 5.50 m minimum between kerbs

Critical dimensions

(iii) bicycle lanes (included adjacent to pavement narrowings) - 1.35m minimum

(iii) plateau or platform areas

- 75 mm to 150 mm height maximum, with 1 in 15 ramp slope (iv) width of clear sight path through slowing devices

- 1.0 m maximum

(i.e. the width of the portion of carriageway which does not have its line of sight through the device blocked by streetscape materials, usually vegetation)

(v) dimensions of mountable areas required for the passage of large vehicles to be determined by appropriate turning templates.


1. All off-street parking shall be in accordance with Council’s DCP A2 - Site Access and Parking Code


2. Adequate on-street parking should be provided within the road reserve for visitors, service vehicles and any excess resident parking since a particular dwelling may generate a high demand for parking. Such parking is to be convenient to dwellings.

Bearing in mind driveway crossovers are 4.5m minimum, an average of at least one on-street carpark per single (or dual occupancy) frontage lot should be provided, except for battle-axe blocks with “handles” longer than 20m. Visitor parking for other higher density developments is prescribed in DCP A2.

Resident &

Visitor Parking



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