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(1)

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Farm Budget Manual , Part 1 T ech nical 1977 '

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(2)

FM/RF/MM

MEMORANDUM FOR

SUBJECT

Heads of Department

Agricultural Engineering Agricultural Microbiology Animal Science

Entomology Horticulture N.Z.A.E.I.

Plant Science Soil Science / T.G. & M.L.I.

Veterinary Science Wool Science

R.D.E.C.

A.E.R.U.

Lincoln College Canterbury New Zealand

Lincoln College Farm Budget Manual - Part I 'Technical'

We are about to undertake the revision and updating required to enable publication of the 1979 Budget Manuals.

The Part 1 'Technical' Manual was last revised in late 1976 and as there are relatively few copies still available i t is proposed to publish a new edition in 1979.

Would you please bring this matter to the attention of all your departmental staff and ask if they could kindly assist with this task of updating the Technical Manual.

If any staff member has available current information which would assist in revising the Technical Manual would they please forward such to Mr R.J. Diprose, Farm Management Department.

In addition, if anyone has any comments or suggestions to make in relation to material which should be included or removed, or the format of such altered in any way in the Manual would they kindly put this in writing and forward to Mr Diprose.

It would be appreciated if all information and comments could be forwarded by the 17th November 1978.

For your information a copy of the existing Technical Manual is enclosed.

12 October 1978 R. Frizzell, Acting Head

Department of Farm Management

(3)

SECTION 1 - CAPITAL ..

Land and Buildings Stock ..

Plant

Working Capital ..

CONTENTS

Page

Working Capital Profiles 3

SECTION 2 - CHARACTERISTICS OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS.. 9

General Information .. 9

Telling the Age of Animals 11

Breeding Table 13

Table of Oestrum .. 14

Gestation Periods .. 14

SECTION 3 - SHEEP PERFORMANCE 15

New Zealand Sheep Statistics

Export Meat Grades - Lamb, Ewe, Wether, Hogget, Ram ..

Lambing Percentage Mortality

Lam bing Survival ..

Flock Replacements

Age Ear-Mark and Cast-foFAge Culling ..

Homekilling and Dog Tuckers Rams ..

Fat Lamb Standards Sheep Reconciliations ..

Sheep Reconciliation (Mathematical Technique) ..

SECTION 4 - WOOL PRODUCTION ..

Crutching

Main Classification BUdgeting Procedures ..

Wool Characteristics of Breeds Clean Wool Yields

SECTION 5 - BEEF CATTLE PERFORMANCE 5.1 Distribution of Beef Cattle in New Zealand ..

5.2 Factors Influencing Beef Cattle Performance

15 16 & 17

18 18 18 18 19 19 19 20 20 20 24 29 29 29 30 31 35 36 36 37

(4)

5.2.1 Physical Performance 5.2.2. Stock Sale Policy

5.3. Methods of Selling Cattle ..

5.3.1 . By Auction 5.3.2. By Private Treaty 5.3.3. On Schedule

S.4 Beef Carcase Grading 5.5 Dressing Out Percentages ..

S.6 Beef Stock Reconciliation

SECTION 6 - DAIRY CATTLE PERFORMANCE 6.1 Milk Products - Physical Date

6.2 Estimation of the Yield of Products from Milk Composition of the Milk

Basis of Payment for Milk

Yield and Composition of Cream and Skim Milk Yield of Products ..

Method of Calculating Payment for Milk Milkfat Basis v Formula Basis of Payment ..

Example of the Application of the Payout Formula 6.3 Butterfat Production

Town Milk Production ..

6.4 Herd Wastage ..

Vital Statistics of Dairy Cows Heifers for Replacements Bulls

37 38 39 39 39 39 40 41 42 44 44 44 44 46 47 48 50 50 53 55 55 55 56 57 57

Effective Milkers .. 58

Stock Reconciliation - Seasonal Supply 58

- Town Supply.. 59

Town Milk Production .. 59

Milk Sales and Calving Pattern 62

SECTION 7 - PIG PERFORMANCE .. 63

Pig Distribution in New Zealand .. 63

Pork, Bacon, Ham and Chopper Production 64

Number of Breeding Sows in Relation to Pigs Slaughtered .. 65

Nutrition 66

Estimated Average Levels of Nutrients in New Zealand Foodstuffs 68

(5)

Example Formulations for Porker Pigs . . . . . . . . Suggested Levels for Breeding Stock . . . . SECTION 8 - FEEDING STANDARDS FOR LIVESTOCK

Classification of Various Classes of Stock in Ewe Equivalents ... , Livestock Production from Pasture .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

8.1 Nutritive Value of Pasture . . . . 8.2 Evaluation of Pasture .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

8.3 Requirements of ruminants for Pasture

8.3.1 AdultSheep ... . . . . 8.3.2 Weaned Lambs

8.3.3 Beef Cattle ....

8.3.4 Lactating Dairy Cows . . . . 8.4 Profile of Annual Demand for Pasture by Ruminants ..

8.4.1 Sheep... . . . . 8.4.2 Beef Cattle .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . 8.4.3 Dairy Cows .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ., . . . .

8.5 Livestock Production from Pasture ..

8.6 Discussion... . . . . SECTION 9 - PASTURE PRODUCTION

Identification of Grasses .. ..

Identification of Clovers .. .. .. .. . . . . OECD Seed Certification . . . .

Varieties of New Zealand Herbage Seeds and their Characteristics New Pasture Plants . . . .

Seasonal Ranking, Ryegrass - Clover Swards Pasture Production in New Zealand ... .

Pasture Dry Matter Yields . . . > 0 SECTION 10 - CASH CROPS AND SMALL SEEDS PRODUCTION

Standards for Marketing Cash Crops and Small Seeds .. .. .. .. ..

Cash Crop and Small Seed Varieties . . . , ..

Sowing Rates and Harvesting Times . . . . SECTION 11 - HORTICULTURAL AND PROCESS CROP PROD-

UCTION . . . , ..

Vegetable Seeding Rate .. ..

Average Yields . . . . SECTION 12 - ELECTRICITY

Electrical Terms Defined.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Electricity Consumption - Unit Performance Data.. .. .. 0 0 • • • • 69 71 72 73 74 75 77 79 80 80 81 82 84 84 85 86 87 91 93 93 96 99 100 105 107 108 109 III 1 11 116 118 123 123 124 126 126 127

(6)

SECTION 13 - FERTILIZERS ..

Essential Elements of Plants Fertilizer Information .. .. ..

Flowmaster Fertilizers.. .. .. ..

Granulated and General Fertilisers Nitrogen and Special Fertilizers .. ..

Imported Compound Fertilizers .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

SECTION 14 - IRRIGATION AND WATER SUPPLY Measurements .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Units for Water Supply

Metric and Imperial Equivalents ..

Average and Peak Water Requirements for Farm Water Supply Water Requirements for Irrigation .. .. .. .. .. ..

Factors Influencing Cost of Irrigation System.. ..

Establishing the Watering Cycle .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Sprin!der Irrigation Design Data .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . Mean Available Water-Holding Capacities of Soil Groups in N.Z.

Effective Crop Root Depths Under Irrigation . . . . Estimated Maximum Water Application Rates For Design Factors Affecting Pump Size .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Working Lives for Farm Water Supply Equipment SECTION 15 - WEED AND PEST CONTROL

Pest Control Guide .. .. .. .. .. ..

Weed Control Guide ...

SECTION 16 - FARM STRUCTURES Haybarns ... ..

Grain Storage Buildings ... ..

Metrication in Building ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Fencing Materials - Plain and Barbed Wire ..

Cattle Yards ... ... ..

Sheep Yards ... ..

SECTION 17 - FARM MACHINERY Notes on Farm Mechanization ...

Estimated Fuel and Oil Consumption of Tractors Work Capacity of Farm Machinery and Implements Field Capacity and Efficiency .. .. .. .. ..

Examples of Working Out Tractor Hours

129 129 130 130 132 133 134 136 136 138 139 141 147 148 148 149 150 152 155 156 158 160 161 169 176 176 176 177 184 185 185 187 187 188 190 190 192

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SECTION 18 - WEIGHTS AND MEASURES Measures of Length

Measures of Area

Measures of Volume ... .

Measures of Weight .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Conversion from British to Metric and Vice Versa .. .. .. .. .. ..

Useful Equivalents .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... ..

Metric Units for Power, Force and Energy ... ..

Miscellaneous Measures .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Standard Bushel Weights.. .. .. .. .... " ... ..

Average Bag Weights of Feeds .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Wool Metric Conversion Chart ... ..

Metric Notes Base Units Mass Force .. ..

Weight ... ..

Pressure .. .. .. .. .. ... ..

Energy.. .. .. ... ..

Power.. .. ... ..

Properties of Water

New Zealand Meteorological Service Climatological Tables - Canterbury CONSOLIDATED INDEX .. .. .. .. .. ..

195 195 196 196 197' 197 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 206 207 207 208 208 209 209 211 215 231

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Preface

This booklet, the first of a two part Lincoln College Fann Budget Manual is revised and published biennially. Whilst no claim is made that the contents are exhaustive, they are, we feel, quite comprehensive.

Users of this manual will note that it is fully metricated even though the agricultural sector has not yet reached that point, but the areas of dis- crepancy are few.

Acknowledgement must be made of the work of Mr B. Brook and Mr G. Bulmer for their conscientious work in revising this edition.

Neil G. Gow

Senior Lecturer in Farm Management EDITOR

March 1977

(9)

(1) CAPITAL

(a) Land and Buildings

Where a recent Government Valuation is available this is probably the best guide there is to the overall value of the property. If the Government Valuation is three or four years old then some adjustment of the figures may be necessary. This should be done in the light of the movement in land values since its release and include any major improvements made on the farm since the last Valuation.

For budget p~rposes this is split up between Land and Buildings. If varying grades of land are found on the property then the land value may be split up into several sections valued differently, the total of these summing to the overall Paddock Value. The Capital Value is usually also expressed as a figure per hectare of the farm, and per stock Unit carried on the farm or per unit of production (e.g. per kg butterfat) for comparative purposes.

(b) Stock

The numbers to be used in assessing capital tied up in stock should in- clude only the normal breeding animals and re],)lacements which will be carried. Thus fattening lambs or cull boner dairy cows still on hand when a property was visited in April would be included in Capital Stock. The value used per head should be autumn clearing sale or Ewe Fair values interpreted on a reasonably conservative basis. As stock numbers are written down the overall carrying capacity in stock units can also be determined.

(c) Plant

Valuations of plant should also be made on the basis oflocal clearing sales interpreted conservatively. The up-to-date price list'for new equipment is very useful in assisting with these assessments.

(d) Working Capital

This is a part of the necessary capital needed to run the property but is often forgotten by people when purchasing a property. On sheep farms and certain types of horticultural properties (e.g. tobacco) income is concentrated

(10)

in one part of the year but expenses must be met throughout the year and money for this purpose must either be set aside or borrowed. On dairy prop- erties incomes are fairly evenly spread and this difficulty is not met to the same extent.

There are two sources of working capital:

(1) Farmer's own cash.

(2) Borrowed money. In this case working capital is largely provided by stock firms and Banks. The amount of working capital needed for any one particular farm is a function of total expenditure and the time pat- tern of income.

With stock firm and bank advances interest is charged on the day to day balance of the account hence the average of level of the advance is the working capital figure required for budget purposes. It should not be forgotten how- ever that some farming enterprises reach a peak of advances at certain times of the year much greater than their average level. This may well present fin- ancial problems which are not immediately obvious when the average figure is assessed.

Working capital requirements are difficult to assess accurately. Each property and each farming type tend to have their own individual character- istics. The table below presents a rough guide only to student use. It is con- structed by considering the working capital requirements as a percentage of the value of land, buildings, stock and plant.

Table I Working Capital Requirements of Various Farm Types

Farm Type

Dairying (Intensive) Dairying and Mixed Sheep and Cropping

Percentage of Value of Land, Build- ing Stock and Plant

2%

3%-4% depending on comparative size of dairy enterprise

4%-5% depending on amount of crop and small seeds.

2

(11)

Table I (Continued)

Farm Type Percen tage of Value of Land" Building, Stock and Plant

Sheep (Intensive Fat Lamb) 5%

Sheep (Hill Country Store) 6%

Poultry 5%

Market Gardening 5%-10% depending on spread of sales Orchard or Nursery 10%--15% depending on spread of sales Tobacco and Hops, etc. 10%-15% depending on spread of sales At the end of the set out of capital a summary is usually made showing the total capital involved in the farm. This figure isused later to as~ess

efficiency and it is a very useful guide for later work on farm finance.

(e) Working Capital Profile

I

Thls is the term used to describe the way a farmer's net monthly balance of income and expenditure moves over the period of a year. It is important for students to realize that although two farms may have the same average working capital requirements the monthly patterns of these may be entirely different. Some examples of different working capital profiles are given over page.

(12)

Farm A

Town Supply Dairy Farm - 170 cows, 220 acres (Buying in Feed October and December)

Working

Month Income Expenditure Monthly Capital

Balance Profile

0

July $ 3,401 $ 1,497 $ 1,904 $ 1,904

August 2,349 1,506 843 2,747

September 2,645 1,423 1,222 3,969

October 2,921 5,776 - 2,855 1,114

November 4,016 3,097 919 2,033

December 4,057 7,177 - 3,120 - 1,087

January 2,028 713 1,315 228

February 2,855 3,176 - 321 93

March 2,355 2,596 - 241 334

April 3,635 1,328 2,307 1,973

May 2,915 2,301 614 2,587

June 4,477 4,566 89 2,498

TOTAL 37,654 35,156

4

(13)

Farm B

Hill country sheep farm - 1200 acres, 2300 ewe, 900 hoggets 50 breeding cows, pre lamb shearing

Working

Month Income Expenditure Monthly Capital

Balance Profilp 0

July 1,257 - 1,257 -1,257

August 745 - 745 - 2,002

September 5,385 1,235 4,150 2,148

October 1,706 - 1,706 442

November 3,816 1,936 1,880 2,322

December 986 4,395 - 3,409 - 1,087

January 55 1,665 - 1,610 - 2,697

February 4,186 1,298 2,888 191

March 1,976 - 1,976 - 1,785

April 6,544 1,009 5,535 3,750

May 1,288 4,968 - 3,680 70

June 1,357 662 695 765

TOTAL 23,617 22,852

5

(14)

FannC

Light land Sheep farm - 950 acres, 2200 Ewes, 600 ewe hoggets July and October Shearing

Working

Month Income Expenditure Monthly Capital

Balance Profile 0

July 60 751 691 691

August 729 1,029 300 991

September 3,190 1,550 1,640 649

October 1,836 870 966 1,615

November 5,723 2,115 3,608 5,223

December 3,818 2,767 1,051 6,274

January 1,563 1,563 4,711

February 1,040 1,695 655 4,056

March 2,418 1,594 824 4,880

April 2,570 2,049 521 5,401

May 1,604 1,604 3,797

June 620 2,259 1,639 2,158

TOTAL 22,004 19,846

6

(15)

FarmD

Mixed cropping farm - 340 acres, 150 acres grain, 50 acres peas 50 acres ryegrass seed, 50 acres white clover, 500 ewes

Working

Month Income Expenditure Monthly Capital

Balance Profile

July 541 1,513 972 972

°

August 44 2,063 - 2,019 - 2,991

September 437 1,465 1,028 - 4,019

October 1,182 1,182 - 5,201

November 4,686 3,627 1,059 - 4,142

December 790 1,309 519 - 4,661

January 1,086 1,387 301 - 4,962

February 1,670 1,335 335 - 4,627

March 8,070 2,165 5,905 1,278

April 4,943 3,192 1,751 3,029

May 2,512 5,533 - 3,021 8

June 1,713 2,236 523 515

TOTAL 26,492 27,007

(16)

$ WORKING

600Q CAPITAL PROFILES

/ '

5000

.

I

400

"'-

300 200.0

I

.

0 AUG SElf~

/1 / D.

DO I

/ -3000

-4000 -5QQO -6000

$

(17)

(2) CHARACTERISTICS OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS

(Source-Farm Management Handbook, Qsld Dept of Primary Industries) General Informationt

When caring for livestock, the following information concerning normal temperature, pulse and respiration rates, breeding cycles and age determina- tion, may be required, particularly in the case of disease problems.

Normal and Expected Range of Temperature, Pulse and Respiration

Body Temperature Pulse Respiration

Deg.

°c

Daytime (Beats/Min) (Breaths/Min) (Rectal Average)

Sheep 38.9 (37.2 - 40.5) 75 (60-120) 12-20

Cattle 38.6 (37.8 - 39.3) 70 (40-100) 31 (27-40)

Pig 39.3 (38.8 - 40.3) (55-86) 8-18

Horse 37.8 (37.2 - 38.1) 44 (23-70) 11.9 (10.6-13

Dog 38.9 (36.7 - 405)

I

(100-130)* 18 (11-38)

Goat 39.3 (37.8 - 40.5) 90 (70-135) 19

* Heart rate varies in all these animals according to body weight, but the very great range of size in breeds of dog make this difference more marked. Thus, a Great Dane has a resting pulse of about 80, while toy breeds have a resting rate of about 130.

The temperature will vary considerably fOf each animal within a certain range. Thus, it is highest in the afternoon and lowest soon after midnight. In cattle under paddock conditions, for instance, this range may cover 4 deg.

Fahrenheit. The range is not so marked in housed cattle, or where the climate is temperate.

Exercise, feeding and excitement, will raise the temperature. Drinking cold water and bleak conditions will lower the temperature.

The increase in temperature outside the normal range is of the utmost importance generally indicating some infectious condition. A subnormal temperature may be of great importance as indicating the nature of the disease. For example, a cow after calving may go down and become semi- comatose; if the temperature is high, it points to the possibility of

6)

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septicaemia. If the temperature is low, it points to the possibility of a meta- bolic disease such as milk fever.

The temperature should always be taken if, for example, symptons are being noted in order to telephone a veterinarian for advice. It is often the most important single piece of information. It should be taken in the rectum, with an ordinary human clinical thermometer, a half-minute thermometer being left in a minute and a half, to obtain an accurate reading.

The pulse and respiration should also be taken in conjunction with the temperature, as they often give most valuable evidence. The simplest way to count the pulse is to hold the hand'over the heart area (under the elbow) and count the impulses of the heart beat.

The pulse and respiration will vary widely with exercise, excitement, or weather conditions, quite apart from the effect of disease.

Pubertyt

(Age at Which Animals Will Breed) Normal Time (Age in months)

Ewe 8 - 12

Cow 12 - 18

Sow 4-5

Mare 12 - 24

Bitch 7 - 10

Nanny 8 - 12

Puberty varies widely with feeding, breed, strain and climate. For exam- ple, a Jersey heifer has been known to mate successfully at under 3 months of age having a calf while under 12 months.

10

(19)

Telling The Age of Animals Age of Horses

Ages at

Location of teeth eruption of

permanent teeth First pair of middle incisors 2Yz years Second pair of incisors (Located at either

side of "nippers") 3Yz years Third pair of corner incisors 4Yz years

"Cups" disappear from wearing surfaces of perma- ment teeth lower

jaw 6 years 7 years 8 years The age of older horses is more difficult to determine but, in general, the shape of the wearing surface of the teeth gradually changes from oval to triangular, the forward pitch becomes more marked, and the neck of the teeth at the gums becomes narrower. At 10 years, a groove, known as Gal- vayne's Groove, appears on the Upper Corner Incisor. At 15 years this groove is halfway down the tooth, and at 20 years it is the fun length of the tooth.

Age of Cattle

The age of cattle is usually determined by general appearance. However, the time that the teeth erupt can be used as a guide to age. During the first few weeks of life, four pairs of temporary incisors in the lower jaw usually appear. These are replaced by the same number of permanent ones as follows:-

Teeth

First or middle pair of incisors Second pair of incisors Third pair of incisors Fourth pair of incisors

Age at Eruption 22 to 34 months 27 to 41 months 33 to 42 months

41 - months

.. _ _ -==~~=_ - =_~_---'-=7~

The state of dentition, taken alone, is not a reliable guide to the age of cattle.

(20)

Age of Sheep

The age of sheep can be gauged by the time of the appearance of perma- ment incisors, there being four pairs, all in the lower jaw. They erupt as follows:-

Teeth

First or middle pair of incisors Second pair of incisors Third pair of incisors Fourth pair of incisors

2 tooth 4 tooth 6 tooth 8 tooth

Age at Eruption 12 to 18 months 21 to 24 months 30 to 36 months 42 to 48 months Type of feed and pasture have a good deal of influence on the age at which teeth of a sheep begin to wear and fallout, but normally a sheep is cast for age at 6 years.

12

(21)

Breeding T::ble

Time of Service Calving Date Lambing Date Farrowing Date

July 9 April l7 December 5 October 31

July 23 May 1 December 19 November 14

August 6 May 15 January 2 November 28

August 20 May 29 January 16 Dec~mber 12

September 3 June 12 January 30 December 26

September 17 June 26 February 13 January 9

October 1 July 10 February 27 January 23

October 15 July 24 March 13 February 6

October 29 August 7 March 27 February 20

November 12 August 21 April 10 March 6

November 26 September 4 April 24 March 20

December 10 September 18 May 8 April 3

December 24 October 2 May 22 April 17

January 8 October 17 June 6 May 2

January 22 October 31 June 20 May 16

February 5 November 14 July 4 May 30

February 19 November 28 July 18 June 13

March 5 December 12 August 1 . June. 27

March 19 December 26 August 15 July 11

April 2 January 9 August 29 July 25

April 16 January 23 September 12 August 8

April 30 February 6 September 26 August 22

May 14 February 20 October 10 September 5

May 28 March 6 October 24 September 19

June 11 March 20 November 7 October 3

l!~ne - _ . - 25

I

April

_l __ J

November 21 October 17

Sheep: 5 months less 4 days. Cows: 9 months plus 9 days.

(22)

Table of Oestrum

Duration of Return after Recurrence if

Oestrum Parturition not impregnated

Ewe (Merino) 36-48 hrs 60-150 days if no 17 (12-19) days suckling, otherwise,

4-6 months.

Cow 14 hrs (10-18 hrs) 41-60 days 21 (18-24) days

Mare 471-9 days 9-14 days 21 (13-25) days

Sow 2-3 days 7 days after weaning 21 (14-26) days

Bitch 4-13 days 5-6 months 5-6 months

Periods of Gestation

Shortest Usual Longest Period Period Period I

Days Days Days

Mare .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 322 347 419

I

Ass .. .. .. .. .. .. . . 365 380 391

Cow .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. 240 283 321

Ewe .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 146 154 161 ,

Sow .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 109 115 143

Goat .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 150 156 163

Bitch .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 55 60 63

Cat .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 48 50 56

Rabbit .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 20 28 35

Turkey sitting) Hen .. .. .. .. 27 24 28

on the eggs ) Duck .. .. .. .. 24 27 30

of the .. ) Turkey .. .. .. .. 24 26 30

Hen sitting on ) Duck .. .. .. .. 26 30 34

the eggs of the ) Hen .. .. .. .. 19 21 24

Duck .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 28 30 32

Goose .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 27 30 33

Pigeon .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 16 18 20

' - - - , - - - - -

14

(23)

(3) SHEEP PERFORMANCE New Zealand Sheep Statistics

Sheep Numbers by Statistical Areas as at 30 June 1974 and actualtailing percentages (1973/74 season)

(Source: Annual Review of Sheep Industry 1974/75 N.Z. Meat & Wool Boards Economic Service).

Numbers (000) % Tailing %

Northland 1,382 2.5 89.6

Central Auckland 788 1.4 83.1

South Auckland/Bay of Plenty 7,655 13.7 85.3

East Coast 2,500 4.5 83.7

Hawkes Bay 6,824 12.2 87.2

Taranaki 1,420 2.5 82.1

Wellington 8,827 15.8 87.5

North Island 29,396 52.6 86.2

Marlborough 1,290 2.3 86.5

Nelson/Westland 836 1.5 80.7

Canterbury 9,318 16.7 88.7

Otago 7,215 12.9 95.4

Southland 7,828 14.0 100.4

South Island 26,487 47.4 96.0

New Zealand 55,883 100.0 90.9

(24)

NEW ZEALAND EXPORT MEAT GRADES

Source: N.Z. MEAT PRODUCERS BOARD OCT. 1975

LAMB

Lamb is divided into 4 ranges of fat cover as shown in the table below with those car- cases devoid of fat, known as grade A, while at the other end of the fat cover range are those carcases with excess fat cover represented by the grade symbol F.

The carcases with a P type fat cover are broken into two grades on the basis of confor- mation. These two grades are known as P and O.

Devoid Fat Cover

A

Conformation

P grade lamb has an adequate, but not excessive fat cover over the carcase. The carcase has well muscled legs and is fully fleshed in the loin so that there is no sign of the backbone.

Weight Range 8.0 - 12.5 13.0 - 16.0 16_5 - 25.5

Grade Symbol

PL PM PH

Y grade lamb has less fat cover than P grade carcases, but while fat cover is light it is not deficient. Muscle development is variable in the legs and loin.

Weight Range 8.0 - 12.5 13.0 - 16.0 16.5 - 25.5

Grade Symbol YL YM YH

A grade is a light weight lamb that is deficient in fat cover.

Weight Range To 12.5 kg (no min. wt.)

Grade Symbol A

·0 grade lamb has a similar fat cover to the P grade, but the legs are elongated and weakly muscled.

Weight Range 8.0 - 12.5 13.0 - 16.0

Grade Symbol OL

OM

F grade lamb comprises carcases that have an excessive fat cover especially evident over the loin and rib areas.

Weight Range 8.0 - 25.5

SUMMARY

Grade Symbol F

Carcases that are not eligible for export due to trimming or mutilation are graded Cutter 1 or Cutter 2. Cuts from these carcases may be exported.

Cutter 1 grade comprises carcases not eligible for export due to trimming, but where all primal cuts are intact.

Cutter 2 grade is where the trimming deemed necessary to remove a defective portion of the carcase results in the damage or removal of one or more of the primal cuts.

For schedule purposes the Cutter 1 grade is broken into two weight ranges namely 8.0-12.5 kg.

There is only one schedule payment for Cutter 2 carcases.

Manufacturing grade comprises lambs that are too lean or thin for export in either carcase or cuts form, as well as lambs having yellow carcases.

Weight Range Allwts.

EWE

Grade Symbol M

Ewe carcases are divided into 4 grades principally on the basis of fat cover.

Grade MM

X E·.

FM

Fat Cover Devoid Light Medium-Heavy Excess

E grade ewes have a complete, but not excessive cover of fat. The carcases are medium to well muscled.

16

Weight Range To 22.0 22.5 - 26.0 26.5 - 30.0 30.5 - 36.0

Grade Symbol EL EM EH 1 EH 2

(25)

X

grade ewe carcases have only a I ight external fat cover with the muscling generally weaker than E grade ewes especially in the loin.

WEIGHT RANGES AND GRADE SYMBOLS

Weight Range Grade Symbol 1 - 1 . : . . ' ·:....-:....·=-=-~---+---''-''---t-~fT--J

To 2.6.0 kg EX

FM grade carcases are devoid of fat cover, with the backbone and ribs being visibly prominent.

Weight Range Grade Symbol 1...1_3_0_.5_-3_6_._0 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

All wts. MM

MM grade carcases have an excessive fat cover especially on the loin, ribs and shoulders.

Weight Range Grade Symbol

All wts. FM

Car cases not eligible for export in the carcase form due to trimming to remove some defect are graded either Processing 1 or Processing 2.

Processing 1 grade to include trimmed EL, EM or EX carcases where all primal cuts are intact.

Processing 2 grade to include any trimmed EH 1, EH 2, FM or MM carcase as well as EL, EM or EX carcases that have a damaged primal cut.

Processing 1 Processing 2

Weight Range All wts.

Grade Symbol Pl

All wts. P2

Ewe carcases over 36.0 kg are graded FM.

X grade carcases over 26.0 kg are graded FM

WETHER

There are two grades -

W grade of a similar type to E grade ewe.

X grade of a similar type to X grade ewe.

• Wether X grade carcases over 26.0 kg are graded FM

• Wethers with qualities of MM grade ewe are graded MM

• Wethers with qualities of FM ewes are graded FM.

.Carcase not eligible for export as a carcase due to trimming or mutilation will grade either Pl or P2 as defined for ewes.

HOGGET

As with wether, there are two grades H and X - grade being similar in type to E grade ewes.

grade being similar in type to X grade ewes.

WEIGHT RANGES AND GRADES SYMBOLS

Wt. Range kg To 22.0 22.0-26.0

X grade carcases over 22.0 kg grade WX.

Hoggets with qualities of MM grade ewe are graded MM.

Hoggets with excess fat will grade FM.

Carcases not el igible for export as a carcase due to trimming or mutilation grade either P1 or P2.

dS 2hiNnli&~~f

RAM

There is only one ram grade covering all weights.

(26)

Lambing Percentage

There are two common methods of calculation 1.

2

Number of Lambs Docked Number of Ewes Put to Ram Number of Lambs Docked Number of Ewes alive at Docking

x

x

100 1 100

1

The first method is the more usual but the second method is used by some farmers. The firstis the only true basis and students should be careful to obtain and calculate the correct figure on each property.

Mortality

An average figure for a ewe flock on low country is 4 to 5 per cent (usually 5 per cent for budget work). In hard country death rates become much higher and less regular from season to season. Deaths in lambs are irregular. Evidence suggests that they are of the order of 15 per cent of the total ewe flock on Plains land between dropping and docking and there is an opportunity here for better farm management. In budget work this loss is neg- lected and death rates are considered from docking to sale. Store lambs are normally sold at weaning and fats partly off mothers and partly off feed.

Average death allowances are 2-3% for stores and 3-4% for fats.

Lambing Survival

A useful budget approach is to include deaths from docking to sale in a blanket calculation of a lambing survival percentage known as "Percentage Survival to Sale or Flock." This figure will usually be 2-3% less than a farm- ers tailing percentage.

Flock Replacements

The useful life of a breeding ewe varies considerably depending on the type of country on which it is being carried. Eventually ewes must be culled to breed on easier country, or (apart from a few used for dog tucker) sent to

18

(27)

the freezing works. It is necessary to make provision for replacement of the total annual loss from the flock (which includes death as well as culls) if static flock numbers are to be maintained.

Age Ear-Mark and Cast-for-Age

On many hill properties an age ear-mark is applied at docking as well as the registered ear-mark. Such properties usually set cast ewes as "guaranteed F our Year OIds" or "guaranteed Five Year Olds" meaning they have

produced 3 and 4 crops of lambs respectively and these sheep command a premium at ewe fairs. Other hill properties discard solely on an inspection of the mouths in the autumn and these lines command prices in direct relation to their mouths and general appearance. In many cases there is doubt as to the genuineness of the title "Four Year Old" or "Five Year Old" given to these lines at ewe fairs or main saleyards.

Culling

It is usual to cull to some extent in hill breeding ewe flocks using Rom- ney, Corriedale or Half-Bred rams and unusual to cull much in fat lamb flocks using the Down type of ram. Culling is heavy in ewe lambs and 2 tooth ewes. Usually total numbers of ewe lambs are::sufficient to allow fairly heavy culling in selection of ewe lambs to go into winter and culls will have a ready sale as ewe lambs to Plains buyers. Even so it is normal to take at least

110% of 2 tooth ewes plus deaths into the winter as ewe hoggets and often 120 to 125%. Ewe lambs winter differently and for this reason it is desirable to be able to cull to some extent as 2 tooth ewes the following autumn.

These cull 2 tooths are sold in truck lots at ewe fairs and often bring high prices.

In large ewe flocks on hill country it is the practice to cull in the autumn at the 4, 6 and 8T stage for such things as bearing trouble, bad udders, poor constitution etc., and small lines of 4, 6 and 8T ewes may be offered at ewe fairs. Usually these are a particularly bad buy for Plains farmers.

Home Killing and Dog Tucker

On sheep properties an allowance of V2 a sheep per household per week is an approximate guide. Where single men are employed this allowance should be stepped up. It is usual to carryover cull lambs for house meat but

(28)

wether hoggets may be bought. On small properties dogs will be fed on house- hold scraps, offals from home killings and an occasional old ram or ewe. On larger holdings more dogs are needed and a proportion of old ewes will be killed for dog tucker.

Rams

It is usual to purchase rams as "one-shear" at local ram fairs. Ram fairs are stud or flock and the average farmer purchases at "flock" fairs. Rams will last "on average" 4 breeding season and are usually disposed of by killing for dogs. The usual allowance is 5 per 200 ewes with more rams on harder country and perhaps as low as 1 per 100 ewes on the best flats and lowlands where the country is good and rams are tested by a veterinary surgeon before the season starts.

Fat Lamb Standards

Fat lambs should be 14-16 kg dressed weight at 3-4 months Dressed Weight = (liveweight + 1) kg

2

Sheep Reconciliation and Methods of Calculating Numbers Necessary to Maintain the Ewe Flock

Example 1:

It is essential in any budgetary estimate to state the class, number and performance of the sheep flock on the property and to tie this up in a stock reconciliation covering a twelve month period. An example is given here of a store sheep unit carrying 2,000 ewes and breeding own replacements. Ewes last 5 seasons and 100 per cent oflambs survive to weaning. Mortality in the ewe flock is 5 per cent and approximately 5 per cent of the 4, 6 and 8 tooth ewes and the 5 years ewes are culled each year. Twenty per cent of the 2 tooth ewes are culled before going into the ewe flock.

Procedure is as follows:

1. Establish the total10ss from the ewe flock annually which is 5% deaths and 5% culling or approximately 200.

2. Ewes are kept 5 seasons so divide this total loss by 5 to get the approxi- mate loss in each age group of the flock 200 -;- 5 = 40. There are more sheep in the younger age groups but stock losses tend to increase with age after the 2T year so equal annual losses have been allowed.

20

(29)

3. In a flock being kept for 5 season, more than 1/5th of the sheep are 2T, more than 1/5th are 4T, approximately 1/5th 6T, less than 1/5th are 8T and less again are 5 year oids because of deaths. The flock composition is found by taking 1/5th of the total flock and calling this 6T ewes, e.g. 2,000 xl/5th:::: 400 6T ewes

The number of sheep in each other age group is then found by adding or subtracting the appropriate number of annual losses per age group.

e.g. number of 2T ewes ::::

400 + (2 x 40) = 480 2T

4. Plock Composition: 480 2T ewes

440 4T ewes

5.

6.

400 6T ewes 360 8T ewes 320 5 year ewes 2,000

Cull mixed age ewes for sale. These make up half of the annual loss per . 40

age group, e.g.

2 20 4T ewes 20 6T ewes 20 8T ewes 20 5 year ewes 80 for sale annually

Cast for age ewes for sale are 320 less half the annual loss per age group (deaths only, as they are all being culled.)

e.g. 320 - 40 2

:= 300 less say 20 for dog tucker 280 c.P.A. ewes to sell

7. Two tooth ewes required are sufficient for 20% culling.

480 x 120 :::: 576 of which 96 will be culled.

100

Ewe lambs to be kept at weaning to ensure this number of 2T ewes allowing 5% death rate in ewe hoggets.

576 x

-Wf ::::

607, say 610 and cull 99 2T

(30)

8. Lamb disposal: 100% survival to sale or flock 1,000 wether lambs to sell less 50 killers

1,000 ewe lambs less 610 to flock gives 390 to sell Less 20 culls for house mutton and dog tucker

= 370 ewe lambs to sell

9. This stock performance will now be formally summarized in a stock reconciliation. (over page).

10. Summary of Sales:

Wether Lambs: Prime fat off the mothers Second fat off the mothers Prime fat off Feed

Ewe Lambs 2T Ewes

Seconds fat off Feed

Mixed Age Ewes (Culls) Cast for Age Ewes

Summary of Sheep Killed:

9% = 90 1% = 10 50% = 500 35% = 350

49 Wether hoggets and 2T wethers for the houses 20 Ewe hoggets (some for the house, rest for the dogs) 20 Old thin ewes for dogs

10 Old rams for dogs

22

950

= 370 99

= 80

280

(31)

Sheep Reconciliation (For Example 1) Class On hand

Bought Natural

Transfer Sold Deaths Killed On hand

1st July Increase 30 June

Wether

1000 50 950

Lambs I

I

Ewe I

1000 630 370

Lambs

Vi

Ewe 630

631

,480 1 90 31 29 630

Hoggets

/i

481 I

2 tooth I

Ewes 480 I 440 20 20 480

A

440

1

I

4 tooth I

440 400 20 20 440

Ewes I

IY

6 tooth 400/ I

400 360 20 20 400

Ewes

V

8 tooth 360

36il

320 20 20 360

Ewes

1 / 5 year

320 320? 280 20 20 320

Ewes I

I I

Rams 50 13 I 3 10 50

I

Killers 60

~

1 49 60

Totals 2740 13 4680 2680 1770 135 108 2740

-

2740 + 13 + 4680 2680 + 1770 + 135 + 108 + 2740 I

i I

7433 7433

(32)

MATHEMATICAL TECHNIQUE

This simple accurate method can be adopted to fit any situation.

Example 1:

Flock of 1900 ewes.

5% death rate. 5% culling rate.

Ewes bought as 5 yr. c.f.a. and last 2 years.

Problem:

How many 5 yr. ewes to be bought each year?

We know that we have two age groups - 5-year ewes and 6-year ewes.

We know that the number of 6 yr. ewes is the number of 5 yr. ewes less 10% (5% deaths + 5% culls).

We know that the 5 yr. ewes + 6 yr. ewes = 1900.

Therefore mathematically the number of 5 yr. ewes + 90% of the 5 yr.

ewes = 1900.

So let the number of 5 yr. ewes required = x.

Therefore x + .9x = 1900 1.9x = 1900 x = 1900 1.9 x = 1000 .

... the number of 5-year ewes to be bought is 1000.

The number of 6-year ewes in the flock will be .9 x 1000 = 900.

Example 2:

From example one assume that instead of ewes lasting 2 years that half will in fact produce 3 crops of lambs. Now have 5 yr., 6 yr., and 7 yr.

ewes.

Death rate still 5%.

Culling rate of 5% for rising 6 yr. ewes and 50% for rising 7 yr. ewes.

Let number of 5 yr. ewes required == x number of 6 yr. ewes = .9x

number of 7 yr. ewes will be the number of 6 yr. ewes less 5%

deaths, less 50%.

24

(33)

e.g. .95 (.9x) 2

x + .9x + .4275x 2.3275x x

x

=

= =

=

=

.4275x.

1900 1900 1900 2.3275 816 ... Number of 5 yr. ewes required is 816 ... Number of 6 yr. ewes is .9(816)

=

735

... Number of 7 yr. ewes is .95(735) = 349 2

1900 ewes Example 3

The method is equally well applied to any mixed age flock.

Take 1000 ewe flock. Buy 2 tooth replacements. Take 4 crops of lambs - 5% death and 5% cull rate. Sell 5 yr. ewes.

Let Ix = number of 2 tooths required.

.9x

=

number of 4 tooths

(.9) (.9x)

=

.8Ix

=

number of 6 tooths (.9) (.8Ix)

=

.729x

=

number of 4 yr. ewes

3.439x

=

1000

x

=

1000

3.439

=

290.7

=

say 291

Say number 2 ths.

=

291

4 ths.

=

262

6 ths.

=

235

4 yr.

=

212

1000

(34)

Example 4:

A two-flock system of 2000 Corriedale ewes. Aim is to breed own re- placements from part of flock - balance to the fat lamb sire.

We require a 20% culling margin in ewe hoggets, i.e. cull 1 in 5 of the ewe hoggets.

Take 5% crops of lambs, and build in a 5% death rate + 5% culling rate in age groups.

Then let 1.0x .9x .9 (.9x) = .81x .9(.81x)= .729x .9 (.729x) = .656x .9 (.656x) = .295x

2

4.39x x Flock Structure:

456 2 tooths 410 4 tooths 369 6 tooths 332 8 tooths 299 5 yr. ewes 134 6 yr. ewes 2000

=

=

=

=

= =

=

=

number of 2 tooths required.

number of 4 tooths number of 6 tooths number of 8 tooths number of 5 yr. ewes number of 6 yr. ewes 2000 ewes

2000

= 4562 tooth ewes.

4.39

Given that we need 456 2 tooths then with a 115% lambing and 4%

hogget death rate, what number of ewes do we need to put to the Corriedale ram?

4562 tooths represent 80% or .8 of the ewe hoggets . ... Number of ewe hoggets required = ~ 570

.8

and to allow for the 4% death rate 570 ewe hoggets represent .96 or 96% of the ewe lambs at weaning.

- -570

... Ewe lambs at weaning 594

.96 26

(35)

Assuming that ewe lambs represent Vz or 50% of lambs born to Corriedale ram then total Corriedale lambs required to obtain 594 weaned ewe lambs = 594 x 2

=

1188.

Given a lambing % of 115 then the number of ewes required to pro- duce 11881ambs = 1188

=

1033.

1.15

In summary then, of the 2000 ewes 1033 go to the Corriedale ram and 967 go to the fat lamb sire.

(36)

(B) Stock Reconciliation

On Hand 1/7/74 Nat. Incr. Killed Deaths Sold Purchased On Hand 30/6/75

Wth. LAMBS

- ~

1150 10 1090

~ ~

Wth. Hgts 50

28 50 Wth. Hgts.

Wethers 20

~

19 2 1 20 Wethers

"-""'~

Total

"'" "" "" "'" ,,"'"

'\ ~ Total

Wethers 70 70 Wethers

Ewe Lambs

~

1150 ~

~

Ewe Hoggets

~

14 556 lwel~oggets

(Total) 580 580 Total

10 114 2th Ewes 456

~

23 23 456 2th Ewes

4th Ewes 6th Ewes 410 369

~ ~

20 19 21 18 410 369 4th Ewes 6th Ewes 4yr Ewes 332

~

16 17 332 4yr Ewes

5yr Ewes 299

~

15 150 299 5yr Ewes

6yr Ewes 134

~

13 121 134 6yr Ewes

Aged Ewes

~

Aged

~ ~

Ewes

Total Ewes 2000 2000 Total Ewes

Ram Lambs

~

~ ~

Ram Hgts.

~

Ram Hgts.

2th Rams 12

~~

1 12 12 2th Rams

M.A. Rams 38 ~~ 9 11 M.A.

~~ ~ 2 27 Rams

TOTAL Rams 50 50 TOTAL Rams

TOTALS 2700 2300 57 145 2110 12 2700 TOTALS

' - '

A B c D E F

TOTALS A 2700 + B 2300 + F 12 = 5012 (1) Totall must TOTALS G 2700 + C 57 + D 145 + E 2100 5012 (2) equal Total 2

28

(37)

(4) WOOL PRODUCTION

Adult sheep are usually shorn once per year, dry sheep in September October and wet sheep after the dry shearing. Wet ewes may also be shorn pre-lambing (usually August). The practise of shearing 3 times every 2 years (pre-lambing every second year) is also used by some farmers. In the South Island most sheep are first shorn as hoggets 13 months after birth although a proportion are shorn in January. This practice is more common in the damper districts and particularly in the North Island.

Crutching

Lambs which are not shorn are crutched in January-February. Ewes are crutched in June-July and may also be lightly crutched or "ring-crutched"

before rams go out.

Main Oassification

The trend today in shed preparation is towards simplification, particularly with average and low grade wools, where little skirting is being done.

The main types of wool considered for budgeting purposes include fleece, necks, pieces, bellies and locks at main shearing and lambswool, crutch- ings and deadwool at other times.

Where skirting is carried out at main shearing the following proportions are likely to occur.

Type Weight (kg) %

Fleece 3040 75

Necks .13 3

Pieces 040 9

Bellies .30 7

2nd PC's/Locks .27 6

4.50 100

Ewe crutchings amount to .2 to .3 kg, making a total clip of 4.75 kg per year, for well fed sheep.

The range in annual clip per sheep as a guide is approx. 5.5 kg to 3.0 kg.

X-bred hoggets not shorn as lambs average the same as or slightly more than ewes, whereas the slower maturing finer wool breeds average slightly less than ewes.

References

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