THREE DECADES OF
MÄORI DEVELOPMENT 1984 - 2013
Albany Campus, Massey University, Auckland 2 – 3 September 2014
TE PAE ROA, HE TIROHANGA WHAKAMUA THE DISTANT HORIZON,
REFLECTING ON THE PAST
Sir Mason Durie
Ko te pae tata, whakamaua kia tina Ko te pae täwhiti, whaia kia tata.
Te Pae Roa 2040 reflects both ‘te pae tata ‘and ‘te pae täwhiti’. On the one hand it is a commemoration of the Hui Taumata, the Mäori Economic Summit convened by Hon Koro Wetere in 1984. But on the other hand it is about readiness for the future and the challenges that Mäori will face over the decades to 2040.
There is little doubt that the Hui Taumata, as well as the Hui Whakaoranga and Hui mo Waitangi convened in the same year, laid the foundations for an era of positive development. They provided the impetus, the wisdom and the collective leadership, necessary to forge new pathways where state dependency would be replaced by tino rangätiratanga, self determination, and services for Mäori would give way to services by Mäori.
Amazing steps have been taken since then and this publication highlights many of the innovative and ground breaking milestones that have largely defined Mäori as determined voyagers in a new millennium. In the three decades since 1984 gains in the Mäori economy, health service delivery, te reo Mäori, Iwi development, Mäori education, sport and music, broadcasting, political engagement, and participation in business have transformed te ao Mäori and the nation as a whole.
Decade by decade this publication recalls the agents of transformation and reminds us of the cadre of Mäori leaders across a wide range of disciplines, communities, Iwi, talents, and political persuasions. They have laid strong foundations for a new generation of leaders to seek out the distant horizons so that Mäori will not only be secure in a rich heritage but also ready to manage change and to grasp new opportunities, in Aotearoa and across the globe.
‘Te Pae Roa, He Tirohanga Whakamua - The Distant Horizon, Reflecting on the Past’ paints a picture of commitment, courage, innovation, and hope. It is a fitting salute to leaders who have passed on and to those who continue to grapple with the challenges of today and tomorrow.
Kia maia Mason Durie Chair
MÄORI DEVELOPMENT DECADE ONE 1984-1993
1984 was a significant year for Mäori. There was a concerted effort to raise awareness regarding injustices relating to the Treaty of Waitangi with the hïkoi to Waitangi that protested against Waitangi Day celebrations and the National Hui on the Treaty of Waitangi at Türangawaewae Marae where it was recommended that the Waitangi Tribunal be granted retrospective jurisdiction to hear grievances dating back to 1840. There was also a strong desire by Mäori to address Mäori issues with Mäori initiatives. Hui Whakaoranga signalled the beginning of marae-based healthcare and the Hui Taumata, Mäori Economic Development Summit, had a particular focus on lifting Mäori economic growth to rectify escalating social issues. Among the objectives identified by the Minister of Mäori Affairs, Koro Wetere, the hui was to understand the problems faced by Mäori and to seek an endorsement of policies that would lead to Mäori having equal social and economic status. Mäori economic development during this decade centred on entrepreneurship. Two such ventures, Whale Watch and Tamaki Tours, became long-lasting successful business operations that resulted in employment opportunities for Mäori.
1984 also saw a change in government. As Labour embarked upon a programme of major economic reform, Mäori rights were recognised with three historic Acts of Parliament; the Treaty of Waitangi Amendment Act 1985 that granted the Waitangi Tribunal the ability to investigate injustices committed since 1840; the State Owned Enterprises Act 1986 in which Section 9 stated “Nothing in this Act shall permit the Crown to act in a manner that is inconsistent with the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi”;
and the Mäori Language Act 1987 that recognised te reo Mäori as an official language of New Zealand and established Te Taura Whiri i te reo Mäori. All three acts would lead to significant gains for Mäori in the areas of Treaty settlements, recognition of the Treaty within legislation, and efforts to keep te reo Mäori alive. The Waitangi Tribunal received further assistance with the creation of the Crown Forestry Rental Trust that directed funds raised from the interest of annual Crown forest rental license fees to claimants needing assistance.
Endeavours to preserve and maintain te reo Mäori were assisted with the flourishing of the Köhanga reo movement. With a cohort of early childhood te reo Mäori speakers unable to progress their mother tongue through further education, the first Kura Kaupapa Mäori was established at Hoani Waititi Marae. With the establishment of three whare wänanga, Mäori
The theme of Mäori initiatives continued in the areas where the need for Mäori was the greatest: the law, media and social development. 1988 was an important year for Mäori ingenuity involving the law; Te Huinga Röia Mäori o Aotearoa: The Mäori Law Society was established; the first Mäori legal service Nga Kaiwhakamarama i nga Ture was founded; and the report ‘Mäori and the Criminal Justice System’ advocated for a parallel Mäori justice system. In media, the first Iwi radio station, Te Üpoko o te Ika, was established after which came a number of Iwi radio stations. The importance of regularly being exposed to te reo Mäori on a daily basis underscored the establishment of Te Mängäi Päho, a funding body that supported te reo Mäori initiatives in the media. Numerous Iwi newspapers began production in the early 1990’s and the Mana magazine was first produced in 1992.
The release of two significant reports that focussed on social issues, Puao-te-ata-tu and the Royal Commission on Social Policy, saw major developments regarding the recognition of the Treaty of Waitangi within social policy and transformative Mäori models to combat social issues. In 1988 the Royal Commission on Social Policy released a four volume report.
Included in the recommendations to government was a clear argument for recognising the relevance of the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi to social policy including health, education, social services, and justice.
Previously, insofar as the Treaty had been acknowledged at all, it was usually in connection with the land. By 1993, among other initiatives, a wide range of Mäori provider organisations emerged to deliver health, education, and social services and within the Ministry of Health, the Mäori Health Branch was launched.
Sport where Mäori had previous excelled would see Mäori participation increase. Waka ama clubs and competitions became regular and well- attended events and the inaugural national Mäori hockey tournament was held in Napier. Again building on past strengths, Mäori also began to celebrate success with the advent of the Mäori Sport Awards and the Te Waka Toi Awards that recognised Mäori contributions to the arts.
At the behest of Sir Hepi Te Heuheu, Dame Te Atairangikaahu, and Te Reo Hura, the National Mäori Congress was formed in 1990 and promoted Mäori initiatives, as well as acting as a body to give a voice to calls for tino rangätiratanga. The Congress focussed on a range of issues including employment, education, economic development and constitutional rearrangements. As Mäori initiatives gained traction within Mäori communities, the Department of Mäori Affairs was disestablished and in its wake came the Iwi Transition Agency and Manatü Mäori. The final
THE FIRST DECADE OF MÄORI DEVELOPMENT 1984 – 1993
Hui Taumata is held at Parliament
with a focus to develop a Mäori economy. Underlying the focus is a desire to achieve self-determination through Iwi development. The hui recommends the establishment of a Mäori Economic Commission that reports to the Department of Mäori
Hui Whakaoranga is held at Hoani Waititi Marae and discusses the
major issues confronting Mäori health. Subsequently marae-based health care begins under the mantra
“by Mäori, for Mäori”.
At Türangawaewae Marae, Ngäruawähia, the Treaty of Waitangi National Hui is held. It would result in Mäori recommending that the jurisdiction
of the Waitangi Tribunal be extended to investigate grievances
that occurred after the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840.
Te Mäori, an exhibition of historic traditional Mäori artwork, is exhibited in the United States.
The exhibition was shown in New York, St. Louis, Chicago and San Francisco. It was a great success
and two years later the exhibition
Mäori musician and comedian, Billy T James, features in the film “Came a Hot Friday” as the “Tainuia Kid”.
James would also star in a comedy series during the 1980’s and would become one of New Zealand’s best
The country’s first Kura Kaupapa Mäori, Te Kura Kaupapa o Hoani Waititi, is established. The need for
Mäori language primary schools occurs after parents of Köhanga Reo children express concern that
their children are becoming less proficient in te reo Mäori when
being exposed to mainstream schooling.
Sir Paul Reeves becomes the first Mäori Governor-General. Prior to his appointment Reeves was the Anglican Bishop of New Zealand.
In 2000 he was the inaugural Chancellor of Auckland’s University
of Technology, remaining in the post until his passing in 2011. Sir Jerry Mataparae would become the
country’s second Mäori Governor- General when appointed to the post
Retrospective jurisdiction is granted to the Waitangi Tribunal to
investigate claims dating back to 1840. Also the number of Tribunal members is extended from three to
Te Reo Mäori Report is released by the Waitangi Tribunal recommending that legislation enables the Mäori language to be used in the courts and when interacting with local and central
government. Also recommended was that a statutory body be
established to preserve the language; that the teaching of te reo
Mäori be protected; that te reo in broadcasting be investigated; and to ensure that some public service positions are required to be fluent in
both Mäori and English.
Te Waka Toi Awards are launched to celebrate Mäori excellence in all artforms. Past winners of the Exemplary Award include Te Aue Davis, Selwyn Murupaenga, Hone Tuwhare, Hekenukumai Busby and
The Report of the Royal Commission on the Electoral System is released.
The Commission recommends that the Mixed Member Proportional
Representation System would provide for optimal conditions for
the effective representation of Mäori interests.
The State-Owned Enterprises Act incorporates a reference to the Treaty of Waitangi that states
“Nothing in this act shall permit the Crown to act in a manner that is inconsistent with the principles
Mäori Council vs. Attorney-General is heard before the Court of Appeal
regarding the transfer of state assets. The Court ruled that specific
assets could not be transferred until a process was established to consider if the transference would be consistent with the principles of
Te Üpoko o te Ika, the country’s first Iwi Radio Station, begins broadcasting. The idea that te reo Mäori would be receiving its
own frequency was considered radical at the time. The Iwi of Ngäti
Raukawa, Ngäti Toa and Taranaki Whänui become involved with the
station over time.
The Mäori Language Act is passed in Parliament. Mäori is declared an
official language of New Zealand and Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Mäori is established and is charged with aiding the growth and maintenance
of te reo Mäori.
Whale Watch is formed. With high Mäori unemployment prevalent within the Kaikoura community, a Hapü of Ngäi Tahu, Kati Kuri, develop boat tours to view Sperm
Whales. Nowadays the highly successful tourism operator boasts
four modern catamarans and is a major employer in Kaikoura.
Puao-te-ata-tu Report is published.
The report finds that a culture of racism within the Department
of Social Welfare exists that contributes towards the high number of Mäori children and young people placed in state care
for minor misdemeanours. The Children, Young Persons and their Families Act 1989 is heavily
influenced by the report.
Mäori and the Criminal Justice System Report is released and
Mäori Legal Services: Nga Kaiwhakamarama i Nga Ture, in
Wellington, is established. The report, authored by Moana Jackson,
advocates for a parallel Mäori justice system after many hui with
Mäori over a three-year period.
Te Huinga Röia Mäori o Aotearoa, the Mäori Law Association, is established and hold their first hui at Tunohopu Marae, Rotorua. The kaupapa of the Association is Mä te
Ture, Mö te Iwi – By the Law, For the People.
The Royal Commission on Social Policy releases a four volume report. The Royal Commission develop The Three P’s” regarding
principles emanating from the Treaty of Waitangi: Partnership,
Protection and Participation.
The Government amends the Education Act to recognise Kura
Kaupapa Mäori and Wänanga.
Te Wänanga o Raukawa and Te Wänanga o Aotearoa are granted
tertiary status in 1993. Te Whare Wänanga o Awanuiärangi is granted tertiary status in 1997.
The Department of Mäori Affairs is disestablished and replaced by the Iwi Transition Agency, Te Tira Ahu Iwi, and the Ministry of Mäori Affairs, Manatü Mäori. The role of the Iwi Transition Agency was to devolve to Iwi roles that Mäori Affairs previously performed. The
role of the Ministry was to create policy and advise other government
The Mäori Fisheries Commission is formed under the Mäori Fisheries
Act 1989. It provided an interim solution to Mäori fishing claims and the Commission was to receive 10%
of the fishing quota and $10 million.
The Act also establishes Aotearoa Fisheries Limited.
Mäori tourist venture, Tamaki Tours, is established in 1990 by Mike and Doug Tamaki. Tamaki Tours offers a concert and hängi in a recreated Mäori village and becomes a highly successful Mäori tourist business.
© Copyright, Te Wānanga o Raukawa 2014
Sesquicentenary celebrations of the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi
are held. Queen Elizabeth II attends Waitangi Day celebrations and the Anglican Bishop of Aotearoa, Whakahuihui Vercoe, spoke of the Crown’s failure to honour the Treaty.
Following a hui convened by the Paramount Chief of Tüwharetoa, Sir Hepi Te Heuheu, National Mäori
Congress is formed. Congress focused on Mäori employment, education, Iwi development banks,
a Mäori international identity, and constitutional rearrangements.
Crown Forestry Rental Trust is established. The Trust receives annual rental fees for licences to use certain Crown forest licensed
lands and directs the interest earned to help Mäori claimants prepare, present and negotiate claims that could involve Crown
forest licensed lands.
The First Waka Ama Sprint Championships are held at Lake Karapiro. Waka Ama has grown in
popularity to enjoy just fewer than 4000 members with a number of
clubs throughout the country.
The Öräkei Act is passed that returns to Ngäti Whätua Öräkei the 60 hectare Bastion Point Reserve and an endowment fund of $3 million. In
2011 Ngäti Whätua Öräkei signs a settlement with the Crown worth $18
million including the $2 million that went to Ngäti Whätua as part of the
Railway Settlements Act 1993.
The inaugural Mäori Sports Awards are held. Hall of Fame members include All Black Captain Wayne
“Buck” Shelford, Silver Fern Captain Waimarama Taumaunu, and Wimbledon tennis player Ruia Morrison. The Mäori Sports Awards is now an annual event on the Mäori
Resource Management Act is passed and incorporates Mäori beliefs and values as well as providing provisions
for Mäori interests regarding the environment. Recognition of the Treaty of Waitangi is provided for in Section 8 that all persons exercising function and powers of the Act shall take into account the principles of the
Treaty of Waitangi.
Kia Hiwa Ra, a Mäori newspaper, commences production. Other Mäori newspapers include Te Iwi o Aotearoa
and Te Mäori News.
Sealord Deal is agreed to with the Treaty of Waitangi Fisheries Commission receiving $150 million enabling it to acquire a 50% share in the Sealord Company. The deal was struck following court action initiated by several Iwi to block the
quota management system.
The Iwi Transition Agency and the Ministry of Mäori Affairs are
replaced by Te Puni Kökiri, the Ministry of Mäori Development.
The role of Te Puni Kökiri is to provide policy advice and to monitor
First edition of Mana Magazine is produced. In 2011 Mana celebrated
its 100th edition after which founding editor Derek Fox remarked
“There is an amazing body of work and thousands of stories, many of them in time will be seen as the first
cut of the modern Mäori history of this country”.
The inaugural National Mäori Hockey Tournament is held
in Napier with teams from Taitokerau, Tämaki Makaurau, Waikato-Maniapoto, Tairäwhiti, Waiariki, Takitimu, Aotea and Te Waipounamu. The tournament celebrates the high involvement of Mäori in the sport and past hockey
tournaments that were held at marae.
Te Ture Whenua Mäori Act is passed. The Act makes it more
difficult to sell Mäori land and attempts to stop the fragmentation of Mäori land by providing a variety
of trust options.
Te Mängäi Päho is established to promote Mäori language and culture by allocating funding for broadcasting as it sees fit. It currently funds 21 Iwi radio stations,
Mäori Television and manages a contestable pool of funding for the production of Mäori language
The Labour Member of Parliament for Eastern Mäori, Sir Peter Tapsell,
becomes the first Mäori Speaker of the House. Prior to entering Parliament Sir Tapsell was a Mäori
All Black captain and orthopaedic surgeon.
Following an internal review that focussed on services to Mäori and the insertion within legislation
that Mäori should enjoy the same level of health as non-Mäori, the Ministry of Health establishes the Mäori Health Branch. The branch has grown in size over the years and is now a directorate under the
leadership of the Deputy Director- General.
MÄORI DEVELOPMENT DECADE TWO 1994-2003
1994 saw another significant gathering for Mäori with Hui Whakapuamau.
Upon reflecting on the previous decade of Mäori development, Mason Durie wrote of six underlying themes: the Treaty of Waitangi, tino rangätiratanga, Iwi development, economic self-reliance, social equity and cultural
advancement. The most influential development of the second decade of Mäori development would be the settlements reached between the Crown and Iwi. To some extent, the template for settling historical grievances was developed through the fisheries settlements of 1989 and 1992. The controversial policy of the fiscal envelope was announced in late 1994 and Waikato-Tainui was the first Iwi to settle with the Crown in 1995, followed by Ngäi Tahu in 1998. Identity would become a focal point with the introduction of the settlement process. In 2003 the National Urban Mäori Authority was established by key urban Mäori representatives from Auckland, Hamilton, Porirua and Christchurch, and that same year Tühono was formed to assist urban Mäori reconnect with their tribal roots.
In the spirit of recognising Mäori rights, taonga were being handed back to their rightful owners. In 1997 Ngäi Tahu had their rights in pounamu recognised and Pukaki was returned from the Auckland War Memorial Museum to Ngäti Whakaue. The opening of Te Papa Tongarewa provided a new space for taonga to be housed and displayed and the institution undertook a leadership role in the return of köiwi tangata from foreign museums and collections. Mäori economic growth continued to be
supported by Mäori entrepreneurship. The first Mäori charted accountancy firm, Pareärau, was established and was operated solely by Mäori women.
The success of Mäori women in business was celebrated with the annual Mäori Women’s Business Awards that were organised by the Mäori Women’s Development Incorporation. The first Mäori business network, Wellington-based Te Awe, was also established.
Mäori continued to dominate in areas where Mäori had been historically strong: the arts and sport. A decade after the number one single, Poi E, the Patea Mäori Club created a musical based on their success. In 1996 Che Fu in conjunction with DLT released a single ‘Chains’ that reached the top spot on the musical charts. Hinewehi Mohi sang the national anthem in te reo Mäori during the 1999 Rugby World Cup when the All Blacks played England, resulting in the national convention to sing the first two verses in both Mäori and English. Te Uhi a Mataora, the national committee on Tä Moko, was formed and the Mäori Literature Trust was established to
Within sport Leanne Baker won the first of her seven national women’s tennis titles and in 2001 the Aotearoa Mäori Tennis Association celebrated their 75th anniversary. In 1998 NZ Touch was formed and the following year, soccer great Wynton Rufer was named as FIFA’s Player of the Century for Oceania. For the 2000 Rugby League World Cup, the Aotearoa Mäori Rugby League side was permitted to enter under their own auspices.
1996 welcomed a new political system with Mixed Member Proportional Representation (MMP). The number of Mäori Members of Parliament increased from seven in 1993 to seventeen in 1996. The 2005 election would see the number of Mäori Members of Parliament rise to an all-time high of twenty-two. In local body politics, the Bay of Plenty (Mäori Constituency Empowering Bill) was passed in 2001 that allowed for the election of representatives of three designated Mäori wards. Efforts in education would see five Hui Taumata Mätauranga hosted by Sir Tumu Te Heuheu and Tüwharetoa. Mäori success in tertiary education would result in the Te Amorangi National Mäori Academic Excellence Awards that celebrated the growing number of Mäori who graduate with a doctorate. The growing number of Mäori academic researchers also results in a Mäori Centre of Research Excellence, Nga Pae o te Märamatanga, being established that focuses on fostering Mäori research capacity and excellence.
Several Hui Taumata Te Reo Mäori were also held since the first in 1995, the same year that He Taonga Te Reo was celebrated to provide impetus for promoting the learning and the use of te reo Mäori. The need to revitalise te reo Mäori was highlighted with a national survey to assess the health of the Mäori language revealing that the number of very fluent te reo speakers had fallen to 10,000. One such measure introduced to combat the decline of te reo Mäori speakers was the beginning of the children’s Mäori language programme, Pukana. Another development that assisted with preserving the Mäori language occurred when Mäori were allocated one of the four 3G spectrum radio licenses after the Waitangi Tribunal ruled the spectrum a taonga. This led to the creation of Te Huarahi Tika Trust that became major shareholders in 2degrees Mobile.
The second decade of Mäori development was marked with the advent of Treaty settlements that focussed upon addressing Article Two rights within the Treaty of Waitangi. Mäori involvement in the arts and sport continued to grow from strength to strength and Mäori continued to make strides in education and towards preserving and increasing the number of te reo Mäori speakers. Mäori were also beginning to have a major impact upon national politics with a new political system that resulted in more Mäori being elected to office. The developments made by Mäori however would
THE SECOND DECADE OF MÄORI DEVELOPMENT 1994 – 2003
Hui Whakapumau is hosted by Massey University and explores
future directions for Mäori development in the coming decade.
Participants noted the strides made in economic development but warned that Mäori identity and the expression of Mäori culture needed
to remain strong.
The number of Köhanga Reo reaches 800 and caters for 14,000
children. Te Köhanga Reo begun in 1981 under the auspices of the Department of Mäori Affairs in response to Mäori concern about
the survival and revival of te reo Mäori.
Mäori population exceeds half a million. This is in stark contrast to
the all-time low Mäori population of 42,000 in 1896 where it was predicted that Mäori would not
survive as a people.
“Poi E”, the musical, debuts and tours the provinces of New Zealand.
The musical focuses on the closure of the Patea Freezing Works and is named after the song produced
a decade earlier that spent four weeks at number one and became
the biggest single in 1984.
The inaugural Mäori Women’s Business Awards are held by the
Mäori Women’s Development Incorporation. A decade later, men are included in the awards.
The Mäori Women’s Development Incorporation provides loans and development training programmes
for Mäori women who attempt to establish a business.
The Waikato-Tainui Raupatu Settlement is signed. It is the first contemporary settlement reached with Mäori regarding historical land grievances. The amount of the settlement is valued at $170 million.
South Africa’s newly elected President, Nelson Mandela, is welcomed at Türangawaewae Marae. He selects the visit as the highlight of his tour and explained that his delegation felt “...truly welcome among our brothers and
He Taonga Te Reo Mäori is celebrated nationwide and Hui
Taumata Reo Mäori is held in Wellington. A national Mäori language survey records the number of very fluent Mäori speakers at 10,000. Subsequently
further Hui Taumata Reo Mäori are held by Te Taura Whiri i te reo
Mixed Member Proportional Representation becomes New Zealand’s new electoral system and
results in more Mäori Members of Parliament including a gradual rise
in the number of Mäori seats. The lowest number of Mäori Members of
Parliament since the introduction of MMP is 17 (1996, 1999 and 2008) and
the highest is 22 (2005).
Che Fu features in a New Zealand number one single, “Chains”, with DLT. Two years later Fu released his debut album “2b S.Pacific”
which featured another New Zealand number one single titled
“Without a Doubt”/”Machine Talk”.
Pareärau Group is established by Mäori women. It is the first Mäori owned charted accountancy firm and specialises in governance frameworks and Mäori economic
and community development.
Te Awe, the first Mäori business network in the country, is formed.
The purpose of the Wellington network is to promote, assist and
encourage Mäori in business through regular network hui where
Mäori business owners meet and share their business successes and
Ngäi Tahu (Pounamu Vesting) Act is passed. The legislation recognises
that in selling land to the Crown, Ngäi Tahu never intended to relinquish ownership of pounamu.
The act returns ownership of the resource to Ngäi Tahu.
Pukaki is returned to Te Papaiouru Marae, Rotorua, after having spent
120 years at the Auckland War Memorial Museum. After being returned, Pukaki was taken to the Rotorua District Council until 2011 when Pukaki was relocated at the Rotorua Museum of Art and History.
Leanne Baker wins the first of her seven New Zealand Women Tennis Championship titles. Mäori women have a proud record in winning New Zealand Tennis Championships with Rewa Hudson and Shelly Stephens
having also claimed the title in recent times.
The first Waitangi Tribunal hearing is held for Wai 262 (Flora and Fauna). In 2011 the Tribunal release
their findings in the “Ko Aotearoa Tënei” Report that recommends wide ranging reforms to laws and
policies affecting Mäori culture and identity and calls for the Crown-Mäori relationship to move
beyond grievance to a new era of partnership.
W A I T A N G I T R I B U N A L R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 A Report into C
laims Concerning New Zealand Law aMāori Culture and Policy Affecting nd Identity Te Taumata Tuatahi
Mäori Touch NZ is formed. The purpose of the Trust is to support
individuals, Hapü, Iwi, and urban Mäori to empower and strengthen Mäori in tikanga, te reo, whänaungatanga and hauora through the sport. A decade later 16% of Mäori women and 35%
of Mäori men who play sport, participate in touch rugby.
The Museum of New Zealand, Te Papa Tongarewa, opens on the Wellington waterfront. Te Papa is host to many Mäori historic taonga including the waharoa from the 1906 New Zealand Exhibition, a wharenui built by Raharuhi Rukupo titled Te Hau ki Turanga, and a famous waka
taua named Teremoe.
Sir Edward Taihakurei Durie is the first Mäori jurist appointed to the High Court. Sir Durie was the Chief Judge of the Mäori Land Court from 1980 until 1998, and Chairman of the Waitangi Tribunal from 1980 until 2004. When he retired he was the longest serving member of the New
The Ngäi Tahu Settlement Act is passed. The amount of the
settlement is valued at $170 million, despite economic losses to
Ngäi Tahu from the Crown’s land purchases of the last century being valued at more than $20 billion. The settlement offer was considered
Mäori are allocated one of the four 3G spectrum radio licences after the Waitangi Tribunal upheld that the radio spectrum is a taonga. Te
Huarahi Tika Trust is formed to receive government funding which
eventually enables the Trust to be shareholders in 2degrees Mobile.
Hinewehi Mohi sings the national anthem in te reo Mäori at the Rugby
World Cup. The ensuing debate results in the convention that the anthem is sung in both Mäori and
Soccer player Wynton Rufer is named the FIFA Oceania Player of the Century. Rufer spent most of his
career playing for Werder Bremen in Germany, assisting the club to six
“Tumeke” begins broadcasting on Television 4. The following year the
show switches to Television 3, is called “Pukana” and becomes the
longest running Mäori language youth programme. The award-
winning programme is now broadcast on Mäori Television.
God Defend New Zealand E Ihowā Atua, O ngā iwi mātou rā Āta whakarangona;
Me aroha noa Kia hua ko te pai;
Kia tau tō atawhai;
Manaakitia mai Aotearoa
God of Nations at Thy feet, In the bonds of love we meet,
Hear our voices, we entreat, God defend our free land.
Guard Pacific's triple star From the shafts of strife and w
Make her praises heard afar, God defend New Zealand.
As the first place in the world that sees the new day, the millennium is welcomed from Hikurangi by Ngäti Porou. Nine whakairo, carved
under the tutelage of Derek Lardelli detailing the story of Maui, were erected as part of the celebrations.
A decade earlier, the Crown recognised the mana Ngäti Porou
have regarding Hikurangi.
New Zealand Mäori Rugby League Team is allowed to participate in the 2000 World Cup as “Aotearoa Mäori”. The squad defeats Scotland
during their pool matches.
The first Tä Moko national committee titled “Te Uhi a Mataora”
is formed following a hui of 50 artists at Waipapa Marae, Auckland, and a National hui at Apumoana Marae,
Rotorua. The mission statement of Te Uhi a Mataora is to preserve, enhance, and develop Tä Moko as a
living art form.
Mäori Literature Trust is established to promote and foster the development of Mäori literature.
The primary function of the Trust is to oversee the organisation of awards for Mäori writers known as
the Pikihuia Awards.
Mäori Womens Welfare League, te Roopu Wahine Mäori Toko i te Ora, commemorates 50 years since it was established. The primary work
of the league has been concerned for the welfare of Mäori. Past Presidents include Dames Whina Cooper, Mira Szaszy and Georgina
Bay of Plenty (Mäori Constituency Empowering) Bill is passed. It provides for the establishment of three Mäori seats on the Regional
Council: Mauäo (the west of the Bay of Plenty), Köhi (the east of the Bay of Plenty) and Ökurei (the central/south of the Bay of Plenty).
Aotearoa Mäori Tennis Association celebrates 75 years. During the Mäori Championships in 1926, Sir
Apirana Ngata, Tai Mitchell, Pei Te Hurinui Jones, and Tukere Te Anga, wrote the founding
constitution of the Association.
Celebrating Matariki enjoys a modern revival. Matariki is also
promoted to become a national holiday as more communities commemorate the Mäori New Year. Matariki (the Pleiades) is a time for remembering the dead and
celebrating new life.
Nga Pae o te Märamatanga is established as the Mäori Centre of Research Excellence and provides
research on a range of issues affecting Mäori. Also this year is the inaugural Te Amorangi National Mäori Academic Excellence Awards that recognises Mäori who graduate
with a doctorate.
Witi Ihimaera’s “The Whale Rider”
is adapted into a feature movie and is filmed at Whangara. The plot centres upon a young wahine being accepted as a leader by her koro. “Boy”, a film directed by Taika Waititi in 2010 that became the highest grossing New Zealand film at the New Zealand box office, is also filmed on the East Coast at
The Mäori Merchant of Venice is produced by He Taonga Films as a drama film. The play was translated
by Pei Te Hurinui Jones in 1945 and is the first Mäori language film adaptation of any of William
Toi Iho – Mäori Made Mark, a registered trade mark, is developed
by Creative New Zealand and Te Waka Toi. The purpose of the trade
mark is to signify that the product made has been produced by a Mäori artist and of a high quality.
Products may include carving, weaving, visual arts or musical
The repatriation of köiwi tangata Mäori commences by Te Papa
Tongarewa from international museums, institutions and collections. Objectives of the programme include bringing köiwi
tangata home from overseas institutions and museums and facilitating their final resting place
through engagement with Iwi.
National Urban Mäori Authority is formed to represent Mäori living
in five cities. The organisations include Te Whänau o Waipareira,
the Manukau Urban Mäori Authority, Te Rünanga o Kirikiriroa, Te Roopu Awhina ki Porirua and Te Rünanga o Nga Maata Waka. They provide educational, health and
social services to urban Mäori.
Charles Royal is named as New Zealand’s Innovative Chef. Royal
owns Kinaki Wild Herbs that produces Mäori herbs and plant
products and also operates Mäorifood Tours.
Tühono is established. The purpose of Tühono is to connect Mäori with
their Iwi as well as collate and supply electoral information for Iwi.
The principles underlying Tühono include tuakiri (identity), oranga (wellbeing) and pitomata (potential).
MÄORI DEVELOPMENT DECADE THREE 2004 – 2013
2004 began with National Leader Dr Don Brash addressing the Orewa Rotary Club with his ‘Nationhood’ speech. Brash claimed that Mäori received special privileges and he criticised what he saw as the ‘entrenched Treaty grievance industry’. The speech heightened tensions between Mäori and Päkehä and any suggestion that Mäori rights to the foreshore and seabed could be recognised by the courts was removed, resulting in the largest modern day protest as Mäori assembled outside Parliament. Paradoxically it was within this climate that the most significant development for Mäori media took place; the commencement of Mäori Television Service. The following year Hui Taumata was held to expand economic pathways for current and future generations. Areas of focus included workforce development, entrepreneurship, governance training and collating the opinion of rangatahi. It recognised that the Mäori population was growing at a rapid rate and that the Mäori population was relatively young.
Treaty settlements again dominated the relationship between Mäori and the Crown. Iwi began to receive their share of the fisheries settlement that was attained over a decade prior with the passing of the Mäori Fisheries Act 2004. Settlements were also being reached that focussed on natural resources; in 2006 Te Arawa reached an agreement with regard to thirteen lakebeds in their region; in 2008 the Treelords settlement was agreed to that saw the settlement valued at $500 million being released to a collective of central North Island Iwi and Hapü; and Waikato-Tainui had their rights to the Waikato River recognised in joint-governance arrangements with the Crown. The historic wharenui, Mataatua, was returned to Ngäti Awa, and Ngäti Toa had their rights to the internationally-famous haka, Ka Mate, protected when used for commercial purposes. Also individual Iwi members begin to directly realise the benefit of Treaty settlements with Te Rünanga o Ngäi Tahu launching Whai Rawa, an innovative approach to assist Ngäi Tahu people with savings towards education, home
ownership and retirement. In 2011 the Waitangi Tribunal released another historic and ground-breaking report on flora and fauna. The report made a number of recommendations relating to Mäori culture and proposed what the relationship between Mäori and the Crown may look like once all historic grievances had been settled. Mäori wanting to establish stronger connections to their identity were aided with the start of Mäori Maps, a service that provided details on marae throughout the country.
A number of Mäori institutions came of age; Turakina Mäori Girls College
Developments continued to occur in areas where Mäori had succeeded in the past, namely within the military, sport, food, and art. Sergeant Haane Manahi was posthumously recognised for his efforts in battle during World War II before the decision was made to wind-up the Mäori Battalion with only twenty-five living members. Willie Apiata would follow in the footsteps of Manahi and was awarded a Victoria Cross for bravery exhibited in Afghanistan. Mäori continued to seek a career in the military with 20% of the army consisting of Mäori soldiers. In sport, the Mäori All Blacks enjoyed a historic first by defeating the British Lions in 2005 and by defeating both Ireland and England in their centenary series. Lisa Carrington won a gold medal in the Women’s K-1 200 Metres at the 2012 London Olympic Games and Ironmäori that begun in 2009 saw large numbers of Mäori participating in the seven organised events operated by Te Timatanga Ararau Trust.
Mäori chefs including Charles Royal, Peter Gordon, Anne Thorp, Peter Peeti, and the Bird sisters from Maketu, Kasey and Karina, begin to be recognised nationally and internationally. Within the arts, the biennial Mäori Market provides another opportunity for the growing number of Mäori artists to showcase their work.
Mäori attempts to realise tino rangätiratanga are assisted when the New Zealand government agree to sign the United Nations Declaration of Indigenous Rights and recognise the Tino Rangätiratanga flag design as a symbol to represent Mäori. Te Tumu Paeroa becomes the new name of the Mäori Trustee and has a renewed focus on the future in caring for the land interests it is entrusted with. The government also supports the Mäori initiative of Whänau Ora that looks to address issues affecting Mäori through the societal unit of whänau. The relationship between Iwi and the Crown was greatly enhanced with the establishment of the Iwi Leaders Forum in 2005. Iwi chairs from throughout the country meet together on a regular basis and are afforded an audience with the Prime Minister and Ministers of the Crown to discuss issues of concern and interest. With the majority of Iwi having settled their grievances with the Crown, or alternatively being in the process of settling with the Crown, in 2010 the Mäori economy was valued at $37 billion. The main sectors of the Mäori economy were identified as fishing, farming and forestry. Two such contributors to the Mäori economy are Tohu Wines and Te Raukura Wharewaka. Tohu Wines produces 150,000 cases of wine and earns up to $15 million per annum and Te Raukura Wharewaka now dominates the Wellington waterfront as one of the country’s premium venues.
Thirty years has now passed since the 1984 Hui Taumata and Mäori have benefited from the developments that have emerged. Great advances
THE THIRD DECADE OF MÄORI DEVELOPMENT 2004 – 2014 2004
Mäori Television begins broadcasting. Since that time, Mäori Television has produced shows such as Kai Time on the Road, Marae DIY, Code and Homai Te Pakipaki. In 2008 Mäori
Television launches a second channel titled Te Reo.
Mäori Fisheries Act is passed. It establishes Te Ohu Kaimoana to allocate and transfer settlement assets and requires Aotearoa Fisheries to be formed with its sole voting shareholder, Te Ohu Kaimoana. Iwi received quota, cash
or shares valued in excess of $750 million.
Te Matatini replaces the Aotearoa Traditional Mäori Performing Arts
Society. The annual festival now attracts over 30,000 performers, supporters and visitors with a strong
The largest modern day protest is assembled in Wellington with Mäori coming together to oppose legislation that placed the foreshore
and seabed in public ownership.
The decision overrode a Court of Appeal ruling that the Mäori Land Court could consider tribal claims to
the foreshore and seabed.
The second Hui Taumata was held with 450 people in attendance and set the direction for the next phase of Mäori economic growth
over a twenty year period. It canvassed opinion on a number of
topics including Mäori workforce development, Mäori in tertiary
education, and demographic projections.
Golfer Michael Campbell wins the US Open. That same year he also wins golf’s richest prize, £1,000,000,
from the HSBC World Match Play Championship. Campbell has established a foundation to ensure
that more young New Zealanders dominate their field on the
Mäori All Blacks defeat the British Lions in Hamilton for the first time since the two teams met in 1930.
Mäori players that performed well included captain Jonno Gibbes, Corey Flynn, Marty Holah, Carlos
Spencer, Luke McAllister, and Leon McDonald.
Turakina Mäori Girls College celebrates a centenary. Over 200
past pupils and staff attend the event. 26 carved poupou made by present students of the school were
unveiled and line the driveway of the college.
Te Arawa Lakes Settlement is signed between the Crown and
Te Arawa, vesting 13 central North Island lakebeds with Te
Arawa. The Te Arawa Lakes Trust administers the funds
received under the Trust.
Te Rünanga o Ngäi Tahu establishes the Whai Rawa
service. The operation supports Ngäi Tahu Whänui by encouraging and assisting savings for tertiary education, home purchase and retirement.
The first Parihaka International Peace Festival is held. The festival features Mäori musicians
such as Katchafire, Moana and the Tribe, and Kora. The festival promotes the message of peace that the settlement is known for.
Te Potiki National Trust is founded by Paul Tapsell and
Rereata Makiha. The Trust establishes Mäori Maps, a website that looks to link urban Mäori to their ancestral marae.
On the website is information on some 800 marae throughout the
Lance Corporal Willie Apiata becomes the first solider from New
Zealand to be awarded a Victoria Cross for “Bravery under Fire” in Afghanistan. Mäori now constitute more than 20% of the New Zealand
Following Mäori Art Meets America in San Francisco, the first biennial
Mäori Art Market is held. Artists such as Diane Prince, June Grant, Manos Nathan, Para Machitt, Robyn
Kahukiwa and Sandy Adsett exhibit and sell their work.
Sergeant Haane Manahi is posthumously recognised for his efforts at Takrouna, Tunisia, during World War Two for leading a small group of Mäori Battalion members and capturing an enemy stronghold
held by 300 Italian and German troops. At the time, Manahi was recommended for a Victoria Cross
but the recommendation was overturned and he was awarded a
Distinguished Conduct Medal.
The Federation of Mäori Authorities (FoMA) turns 20 years old. The strategic aim of FoMA is to facilitate
Mäori economic growth. FoMA now represent 150 members that constitute an $8 billion dollar asset
A collective of Central North Island Iwi including Ngäi Tühoe, Ngäti
Tüwharetoa, Ngäti Whakaue, Ngäti Whare, Ngäti Manawa, Ngäti
Raukawa and Te Arawa Iwi and Hapü sign the Treelords Settlement
valued at nearly $500 million.
The inaugural Waiata Mäori Music Awards are held at the Hastings
Opera House. Winners have included Maisey Rika, Te Awanui Reeder, and Ria Hall. There are 13
categories in total including ‘Best Mäori Traditional Album (te reo Mäori) and ‘Keeper of Traditions
Google Mäori is launched, translating the Google Home Page
into te reo Mäori. Three years earlier versions of the Windows Operating System and Microsoft Office are provided in the Mäori
Waikato River Settlement is signed between Waikato-Tainui and the Crown. The accord allows for the country’s longest river to be jointly governed, restored and protected.
The inaugural Ngä Kupu Ora Mäori Book Awards are hosted by Massey University.
Winners have included Emeritus Professor Ranginui Walker for ‘Tohunga Whakairo: Paki
Harrison’, Dame Katarina Mataira for ‘Ngä Waituhi o Rëhua’ and Patricia Grace for
‘Ned and Katina: A True Love Story’.
Government recognises the Tino Rangätiratanga Flag as the preferred flag to represent Mäori following consultation hui held by Te Puni Kökiri. The flag now flies alongside the New Zealand Flag
on Waitangi Day.
Local Government (Auckland City) Council Act 2009 establishes
the Independent Mäori Statutory Board to promote important
issues regarding Mäori in Auckland under the new ‘super
New Zealand Geographic Board adjudicates that Whanganui should be the official spelling of
the North Island, West Coast, city. The same year the Minister
for Land Information announces
that both Wanganui and
Whanganui will be gazetted.
Whänau ora collectives representing 150 health and social service providers from throughout the country are selected to develop
whänau-centred services. The policy of Whänau Ora focusses on empowering the whänau as a
whole by providing services and opportunities to all whänau in need.
Mäori All Blacks celebrate a centenary and Mäori are apologised to for being excluded from historical successive rugby tours to Apartheid South Africa from the New Zealand
Rugby Union, the South African Rugby Union and the South African
Mäori Economy is valued at $37 billion with the three main sectors being fishing, farming and forestry.
It is estimated that the real growth of the Mäori economy is 18% over
the 2006-2010 period.
New Zealand Government endorses the United Nations Declaration on
the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
The Declaration recognises the rights of indigenous peoples to self- determination, to maintain their own
languages and cultures, to protect their natural and cultural heritage, and to manage their own affairs.
THE ASSET BASE, INCOME, EXPENDITURE AND GDP OF THE 2010 MÄORI ECONOMY
KIWI HUSBANDS AND WIVES HOOK INTO CHEATING WEBSITE P8
SUNDAYNEWS.CO.NZ 9 MAY 2010 ESTABLISHED 1963
Lotto’s yummy mummy Sonia Gray MY STYLE P58 PHIL GOULD ON THE KIWIS:
‘Where was your game plan?’ P31
EXCLUSIVE BY DAVID LONG
These are the brutal images of a New Zealand torn apart by the stain of race-based rugby tours.
But fi nally South Africa’s government says ...
OFFICIAL APOLOGY TO MAORI
SOUTH Africa’s Sport and Recreation Minister has offi cially apologised to Maori players left out of All Blacks’ tours to the republic because of the colour of their skin.
“An apology to those who were victims of racial discrimination is in order,” Rev Makhenkesi Arnold Stofi le said in a letter to Sunday News.The minister has urged the NZRU and South African Rugby Union to say sorry too. He has brand- ed his homeland and New Zealand as historically the nations most guilty of racism in rugby.
And Stofi le – tortured by the apartheid regime – has praised Kiwi demonstrators “who sacrifi ced their peace and limb” to protest against the 1981 Springboks tour. Those “heroes and heroines”
helped bring equality and democracy to South Africa, he said.
FULL STORY PAGES 2,3 & 5 Taine Randell: ‘Our turn now’ P25
The historic wharenui of Ngäti Awa, Mataatua, returns to Whakatane.
The wharenui had been absent from Ngäti Awa for over 130 years
after the government acquired the wharenui for a number of
Te Raukura Wharewaka Function Centre opens on the Wellington waterfront. The centre features the Karaka Cafe and a number of different spaces for various functions. The building holds special significance for the Iwi of
Internationally renowned chef Peter Gordon celebrates a decade since opening his first restaurant in
London, The Providores and Tapa Room. He has a second London restaurant, Kopapa (2010), and in Auckland, Bellota (2006), and The
Sugar Club (2013).
Ngäti Toa signs a Memorandum of Understanding with the New Zealand Rugby Union acknowledging the relationship
between the Iwi and the New Zealand Rugby Union. In 2013 the
Haka Ka Mate Attribution Act is passed. The legislation recognises Ngäti Toa as the kaitiaki of the haka and that should the haka be used for commercial purposes then the
Haka Ka Mate Attribution Act 2014 Guidelines
With 25 living members, the decision is made to wind-up the Mäori Battalion before the last living member passes. The respected reputation of the Battalion on the battlefields of Greece, Crete, North
Africa, and Italy continues today.
Lisa Carrington wins a gold medal in the Women’s K-1 200 Metres at the
2012 London Olympic Games. The year before, Carrington had won the same event at the Canoe Sprint
Huia Publishers celebrate their 21st birthday. Authors of fiction who have published with the first and
only Mäori publishing company include James George, Keri Hulme
and Patricia Grace.
Mäori Affairs Trade Training Celebration Dinner is held to honour
Mäori involvement in the trades.
The first ten Mäori trade trainees are taught under the Department of Mäori Affairs in 1959. By the 1970’s there were 1100 trainees which grew by 1000 every year in the 1980’s before the scheme was ended. In 2011 the scheme was reintroduced and included Pasifika.
Taki Rua, a Mäori theatre company, turns 30 years old. The four strands
that underpin the company are Te Reo Mäori (Community), Te Wai Paapaku (Development), Te
Wai Höhonu (Main Stage), and Te Wai Rangimärie (International
Presentation & Relationship).
The first Mäori-owned wine company, Tohu Wines, produces 150,000 cases of wine and earns up to $15 million per annum. Varieties include Sauvignon Blanc, Riesling, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Merlot and
Mäori Trustee adopts a new name, Te Tumu Paeroa – The New Mäori
Trustee. It administers 100,000 hectares of Mäori owned land on
behalf of almost 100,000 owners.
The name reflects the commitment of the Mäori Trustee to stand alongside owners of this generation and look towards a future of growth
Ironmäori Taranaki Event is held for the first time. Other events offered
by Ironmäori include Ironmäori Gold Coast, Ironmäori Kaumatua/
Rangatahi, Ironmäori ¼ and ½, and Ironmäori Whakatu Nelson. Since the event’s inception in 2009, the annual events are fully subscribed.
National Archives of New Zealand, Alexander Turnbull Library, Ngata Whänau, Dr Rose Pere, Waikato Times, Te Mäori Trust,
Te Kura Kaupapa o Hoani Waititi, TVNZ, Puke Ariki, Government House, Te Awe, Neil Mackenzie, Toi Mäori Aotearoa, Parliamentary Library, Massey University, John Clarke, Te Üpoko o te Ika,
Te Taura Whiri i te reo Mäori, Whale Watch, Basil Keane,
Te Huinga Röia Mäori o Aotearoa, Te Whare Wänanga o Awanuiärangi, Te Whare Wänanga o Raukawa, Te Wänanga o Aotearoa,
Wira Gardiner Archives, Ngäi Tahu Archives, Tamaki Tours, Northern Advocate, Crown Forestry Rental Trust, Waka Ama NZ, Ngäti Whätua ki Öräkei, Te Tohu Taakaro o Aotearoa Charitable Trust, Rachael Selby, Mäori Land Court, Derek Fox, NZ Mäori Hockey, Te Mängai Päho, Tony Ruakere, Kim Workman, Teresa Wall, Ria Earp, John Waldon, Fairfax Media, South Taranaki District Council,
Mäori Women’s Development Incorporation, Waikato Times, Ross Setford, Pareärau, Mäori Touch NZ, Te Papa Tongarewa, Waitangi Tribunal, Te Rünanga o Ngäi Tahu, Te Huarahi Tika Trust, Hinewehi Mohi, Cinco Cine Productions, Te Rünanga o Ngati Porou, Bell Whänau, NZ Mäori Rugby League, Huia Publishers,
Mäori Womens Welfare League, Bay of Plenty Regional Council, Aotearoa Mäori Tennis Association, Auckland City Council, Nga Pae o te Märamatanga, Whenua Films, Unison Films, He Taonga Films, Te Waka Toi, Paul Tapsell, Piripi Moore, South Pacific Pictures, Te Whänau o Waipareira,
Manukau Urban Mäori Authority, Te Rünanga o Nga Maata Waka, Tühono Trust, Te Ohu Kaimoana, Robin Hapi, Mäori Television Service, Te Matatini, Clayton Tume, NZRU, Turakina Mäori Girls College, Daily Post, Ruakere Hond, Mäori Maps, NZ Army,
Federation of Mäori Authorities, Waiata Mäori Music Awards, Potaua Tule, Mei Mere, Linda Munn, Lisa McNabb,
Mäori Statutory Board, Malcolm Mulholland,
Office of the Hon. Tariana Turia, Sunday News, Tohu Wines,
Office of the Hon. Dr Pita Sharples, Te Raukura Wharewaka Function Centre, Peter Gordon, Ngäti Toa Rangätira, Michael Bradley, Taki Rua,
Te Tumu Paeroa, Te Timatanga Ararau Trust, Eliza Tepania-Carter.