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Academic year: 2022



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1.1 Background to Review 1.2 Review Process


2.1 Planning Recommendations 2.2 Management Recommendations


3.1 Consultation Program to date 3.2 Recommended further consultation


4.1 hrtroduction

4.2 Heritage Management Strategies 4.2.1 Heritage Policy Development 4.2.2 Financial Incentives

4.2.3 Education, Promotion and Information Strategies 4.2.4 Community Participation in Heritage Management 4.3 hnplementation


5.2 Land and Settlement 5.3 Primary Production

5.4 Transport and Communications 5.5 People, Social Life and Organisations 5.6 Govenµnent

5.7 Work, Secondary Production and Service Industries 5.8 Events


6.1 Delineation of Historic Conservation Zones

6.2 Historic Conservation Zones or Character Areas Assessed 6.2.1 Early Village Development of Glenelg

6.2.2 Victorian Residential Development in Glenelg 6.2.3 Seafront Development

6.2.4 Civic Centre

6.2.5 Early Twentieth Centmy Residential Development 6.2.6 1920s Town Planning

6.2.7 Resetves


7.1 Places within Glenelg on the State Heritage Register 7.2 Places recommended for the State Heritage Register 8.0 INDIVIDUAL LOCAL HERITAGE PLACES

8.1 List of Local Heritage Places 8.2 Individual Assessment Sheets

8.3 Resetves & Natural Areas Assessment Sheets


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Chairman: Mr J Messenger (Glenelg National Trust) Alderman R Telfer

Councillor C Lush

Mr WE Kelly (Glenelg Residents' Association) Mr G Hayter (National Trust of SA)

Mr V Wessell (Glenelg Chamber of Commerce

Special acknowledgment is also made of the unstinting assistance of Rob Donaldson, Manager Planning and Development, Glenelg Council (now Holdfast Bay).

April 1997




1.1 Background to Review

The objective of the City of Glenelg Heritage Policies Review was to recommend a contemporary and appropriate set of Heritage Management Strategies and Policies. There were provided following the review and research of relevant sources material and consultation with the community.

1.2 Review Process

The Review was undertaken by an appointed consultant team. Heritage Consultants McDougall & Vines and Public Consultation Consultants from Rust PPK. The Heritage Policies Review was undertaken in stages as follows:

• The review of all material relevant to the Thematic History of Glenelg and the preparation of a current, succinct and clear history to demonstrate the historical periods of significance in the physical and social development of the City of Glenelg.

• The identification and preparation of a range of Heritage Management Strategies appropriate to the City of Glenelg.

• The promotion of the concept and philosophy of heritage conservation through appropriate public consultation with property owners and members of groups within the Glenelg community.

• The preparation and documentation of a list of places and areas within Glenelg which are of heritage value to the State of South Australia and the City of Glenelg.

• The preparation of this report, which is a collation of all material developed during the stages of the Review.



It is recommended that a Heritage Plan Amendment Report be prepared to incorporate the places and areas identified within this report as places of!ocal heritage value.

Five Historic Conservation Zones are recommended for delineation and inclusion in the Heritage PAR. Objectives and Principles of Development Control should be written to ensure the retention of the historic character of each of these zones.

These zones are as follows:

• Central Glenelg Village Historic Conservation Zone

• New Glenelg Historic Conservation Zone

• Moseley Square Historic Conservation Zone

• Maturiil Road Historic Conservation Zone

• Da Costa Park Historic Conservation Zone

Eighty six Local Heritage Places and four Reserves are recommended to be scheduled within the Heritage PAR as places of local heritage value, according to the criteria for assessment of local heritage places iiicluded in the Development Act 1993. These places are as follows:

• Pumping Station, Adelphi Terrace

• Railway Cottages, 1-3, 5-7, 9-11, 13- 15-17 Alison Street

• Dwelling, 44 Alison Street

• Grayleigh, 77 Alison Street

• Attached residences, 585-587, 589-591 Anzac Highway

• Houses (former shop and house) 619, 621 Anzac Highway

• Berkshire Court, 617 Anzac Highway

• St Peters Rectory, 10 Augusta Street

• Primitive Methodist Church, 40 Bath Street

• Telephone Exchange,33 Brighton Road ( cnr Jetty Road)

• Holdfast Rote~ 83 Brighton Road

• Dwelling, 104 Brighton Road

• Glenelg Oval, Brighton Road

• Dwelling, 10 Bristol Street

• Dwellings, 30-32 Broadway

• Broadway Rote~ 61 Broadway

• Dwelling, 24 Byron Street

• Dwelling, 26 Byron Street

• Dwelling, 2 College Street

• Coach House (Offices), 2A College Street

• Bowling Alley, 18 Colley Terrace

• Motel (Former residence), 22 Colley Terrace

• Dwelling, 25 Colley Terrace

• Dwelling, 2 Darwin Street

• Glenelg Primary Schoo~ Diagonal Road

• Shops, (Former Residences), 2 Durham Street

• Dwelling, 1 Edison Street

• Glenelg Community Hospital, 5 Farrell Street

• Dwelling, 15 Fulton Street

· • Dwelling 14-16 Gordon Street

• Dwelling, 18-20 Gordon Street

• Former Rechabite Meeting Hall, 22 Gordon Street

• F orrner Fire Station, 26 Gordon Street

• Garage, 28 Gordon Street

• Dwelling, 36 Gordon Street

• MacDonnell Lodge Hall, 9 High Street

• Murphy House, 11 High Street

• Our Lady of Victories, 15 High Street

• St Dominic's Community Centre, 17 High Street

• St Mary's Hall, 19 High Street

• Dwelling, 28 High Street



• St Leonards Schoo~ 158-168 Jervois Street

• Shops, 25-39 Jetty Road

• Shop, 42 Jetty Road

• Office/Shops, 79 Jetty Road

• Uniting Church & H~ 92 Jetty Road

• Office/Shops, 97 Jetty Road

• Office/Shops, 118 Jetty Road

• Cinema, 119 Jetty Road

• Dwelling, 4 Kent Street

• Murray Mudge House, 5 Maturin Road

• Dwelling and Stables, 18 Maturin Road

• Glenelg Jetty, Moseley Square

• Court House, Moseley Square

• Police Station, Moseley Square

• Alexandra Terrace, 1-7 Moseley Street

• Art Gallery, 15 Moseley Street

• Trinity Church, 21 Moseley Street

• Dwelling, 33 Moseley Street

• Dwelling, 37 Moseley Street

• Dwelling, 39 Moseley Street

• Dwelling, 42 Moseley Street

• Dwelling, 51 Moseley Street

• Shop, 71 Moseley Street

• Kapara Nursing Home, 80 Moseley Street

2.2 Management Recommendations

• Dwelling, 29 Partridge Street

• Community Centre, 38 Partridge Street

• Woodlands School, 39 Partridge Street

• St Margaret of Scotland Church, Woodlands School, 39 Partridge Street

• Dwelling, 50 Partridge Street

• Shop, 88 Partridge Street

• Attached residences, 1-3, 5-7 Pasquin Street

• Dwelling, 9 Pier Street

• Dwelling, 16 Ramsgate Street

Restorrne~ 15 Robert Street

• Dwellings, 14-15 St Johns Row

• Dwellings, 16-17 St Johns Row

• Dwelling, 18 St Johns Row

• Dwellings, 3-4 South Esplanade

• Seawall Apartments, 22-23 South Esplanade

• Rothesay, 17 Sussex Street

• Terrace Houses, 22-28 Sussex Street

• St Peters School - 10, 12 Waterloo Street


• Colley Reserve & Wigley Reserve

• Patawilya Reserve

• Patawalonga Reserve

• South Esplanade Foreshore Reserve

The Management Strategies are set out in Section 4 of this report and the appropriate action to be followed should be considered by Council. If adopted, a time table should be prepared for their implementation.

In summary the following strategies are recommended:

• the establishment of a Heritage Advisory Committee and a Local Heritage Fund

• waiving of Development Application fees for Local Heritage Places and contributory places within Historic Conservation Zones

• provision of architectural advice on Development Applications

• careful consideration of works to Council owned places and reserves

• education of all relevant Council staff on heritage issues

• promotional and public education programs including guidelines, seminars, heritage walks

• the continuation of the Character Restoration Awards program

• the creation of a Historical Resources and Heritage Interpretive Centre.



In the early stages of the Review an intensive program of public consultation was undertaken, which included:

• Consultation with the National Trust of South Australia, Glenelg Branch.

• Article in Messenger newspaper and an interview and photographs associated with the article.

• The running of Heritage Workshops at Partridge House during June 1996.

• Meeting with local community groups.

• Discussions with Main Street Manager for Glenelg.

• Preparation of a special Heritage edition of the Bay News.

• Discussions with individual residents of Glenelg who responded to the various publicity approaches and also discussions with individual major property owners and other groups such as Real Estate Agents.

A summary report was prepared for the Heritage Review Reference Group in July 1996 and further public consultation has occurred with interested individuals since that date.

3.2 Recommended Further Consultation

It is recommended that with the preparation of the draft Local Heritage Places List:

• individual property owners be contacted with a letter which indicates the scope of the Review and its recommendations. (Owners should also be invited to attend an Information Day to be held on an appropriate date.)

• an Information Day should be held to provide the opportunity for individuals to obtain details of the review process and information on the implications for them as property owners of Local Heritage Places.

• conduct further Heritage Workshops, particularly on a zone-by-zone basis

• any further consultation on pla:nning and development and tourism issues within the Council area should also include elements of discussion of heritage conservation.




4.1 Introduction

The management of heritage in an area consists of several elements which include legal processes and general council strategies and policies. There is a wide spectrum of possible approaches to heritage management and this document provides Glenelg Council with a full range of appropriate strategies which could be followed in order to encourage the care of Glenelg'


heritage assets.

Long term heritage management needs to incorporate the i.ntroduction of heritage policies which introduce both legal controls over heritage places and the long term strategies which ensure care of heritage places in the future.

If Glenelg Council is to introduce heritage policies in its Development Plan, it is fundamental that the controls implicit in this delineation oflocal heritage are balanced by a set of incentives and strategies which create a positive framework for the management of Local Heritage Places and areas. Financial incentives for conservation were strongly supported during the community consultation process.

A series of potential management strategies were presented to the Reference Group in May 1996. These strategies have been reconsidered in the light of the consultation undertaken and the realities ofimplementation in Glenelg and the following report prepared.

The strategies are grouped into four classifications:

• Heritage policy development

• Financial incentives

• Education, promotion and information

• Community participation.

If adopted by Council, these strategies can then form the basis of a Heritage Management Program to be implemented by Council over a period oftime. Most of these strategies will be achievable within a three year program.

4.2 Heritage Management Strategies

This section covers a wide range of heritage management strategies. The elements of heritage planning include both legislative protection measures and community and management based strategies. This approach focuses on setting the framework for community involvement in the development of heritage identification and management policies.

4.2.1 Heritage Policy Development Introduction

Council policies which relate to heritage are in the main implemented through the Development Plan although some Council policies do not necessarily lie within this area of development control.



(PAR). The main opportunity for heritage conservation through the Development Plan is the establishment of a schedule of Local Heritage Places, and delineation of areas known as Historic Conservation Zones. The preparation of objectives and principles of development control which will relate to the ongoing management of places of heritage value also forms part of a Heritage PAR.

Action Required

• approve the schedule of proposed State Heritage Places, Local Heritage Places and Historic Conservation Zones with full documentation, which have been determined in this review.

• prepare objectives and principles of development control for individual places of Local Heritage Value and also for any Historic Conservation Zones delineated to achieve the retention of significant places and allow appropriate development.

• prepare a Heritage Plan Amendment Report for Glenelg Council area which will incorporate a carefully considered balance between retention and development objectives.

4.2.2 Financial Incentives

Government Grants Programs

Conservation Funds are available through the National Estate Grants Program and the State Heritage Fund for places which are included on the National and State Registers.

There is also possibility of financial reimbursement for owners through the Commonwealth Tax Rebate on approved conservation works to buildings included on the Register of the National Estate and the State Heritage Register.

Action Required

• disseminate information on the Commonwealth Tax Rebates Scheme and provide assistance for individuals in filling out these forms through Council, with liaison with the appropriate officer at the State Heritage Branch.

• encourage applications to these funds on a regular basis to ensure that some return is received. Consistent and persistent application eventually reaps rewards.

Glenelg Local Heritage Fund

Many Local Government Authorities around Australia are finding that the provision of a Local Heritage Fund is an important strategy in the maintenance of heritage assets within their area. Councils such as Port Adelaide and the City of Adelaide have developed Heritage Incentive Schemes based on a local heritage fund. This is also a common practice in New South Wales, and Broken Hill administers a $20,000 Local Heritage Fund to excellent effect.

There are several ways of distributing the monies from a Local Heritage Fund for conservation works. Grants are appropriate in small amounts for activities such as fencing, painting, roof repairs and verandah repairs which can be considered external works in the public domain. Low interest loans for larger amounts of funding are an alternative method and have the advantage of recycling fund monies. However, the



administration cost of loans should be kept to a minimum. An alternative means of distributing this fund is to use a rate rebate/concession system to reimburse the owner for a proportion of the cost of the approved conservation works on a local heritage place.

The fund could also be used to pay for additional professional involvement in design work for conservation as well as for actual physical works to buildings. Note that architectural assessment of Development Applications for heritage places should lie outside the fund and be covered by current Council budgeting for this service.

Action Required

• budget to create a Local Heritage Fund. An initial amount of around $10, 000 is a realistic start for the financing of long term management strategies for heritage conservation.

• establish an appropriate process of distribution of fund money.

Development Application Fees on Heritage Places

Fees for Development Applications on listed Heritage Places could be waived or reduced. The positive results for such a process would outweigh the small reduction in fee income.

Action Required

• determine process for waiving of fees.

• negotiate with State Heritage Branch to waive referral fee on Development Ppplications for State Heritage Places.


Council should consider arranging sponsorship in the area of heritage pamtmg programs and attracting local companies to provide discount rates for products to residents. Owners of heritage properties appreciate the availability of such discounts.

Appropriate acknowledgment will need to be made of the sponsorship. Sponsorship for various conservation works is an appropriate financial incentive.

Action Required

• investigate t4e possibility of heritage painting programs and involvement of local companies in the provision of discount rates for products to residents.

• investigate other similar sponsorship arrangements with stonemasons, fencing contactors and other relevant tradespersons.

• ensure appropriate acknowledgment is made of any sponsorship involvement.

• investigate extending existing National Trust sponsorship/discount scheme available to National Trust members.

Provision of Architectural Advice

Glenelg Council has had a program of providing architectural advice on Development Applications which relate to commercial buildings with some identified historic character. This is an extremely positive promotional tool for heritage conservation and is cost effective in both terms of time required for reviewing and processing Development Applications. It is also appropriate to extend this service to residential



Action Required

• extend the current program of assessment and advice to include residential advice as well as commercial as required.

• provide architectural concept advice at design stage prior to lodging of Development Application where required.

• publicise availability of early advice.

Flexibility in Building and Planning Requirements

The Development Act Section 36(3) provides that "where inconsistency exists between the building rules and the Development Plan in relation to a Local Heritage Place, the Development Plan prevails." This allows for flexibility in building and planning requirements which can lead to a better conservation approach to the project. Also Development Plan Standards such as lot size, car parking, set back, open space and land use requirements need to be dealt with flexibly, in order to achieve conservation aims and assist in ensuring the viability of new development associated with conservation.

Action Required

• ensure that planning staff are fully conversant with the implications of this Development Plan Section.

• as part of the Heritage PAR incorporate a principle of development control which provides for the flexibility in building and planning requirements necessary to achieve heritage conservation objectives.

4.2.3 Educational, Promotion and Information Strategies Positive Action in the Public Environment

Council is responsible for a considerable number of places of historic interest which the community values, such as the Town Hall, Colley Reserve, Partridge House and other parks and public areas. Council should demonstrate care and good heritage practice which will be an example for the community.

Action Required

• as part of asset maintenance programs assess Council owned property to determine conservation works required, particularly the Town Hall.

• develop a program of works in these areas and places which demonstrates Councils commitment to the careful management ofG!enelg's heritage assets.

• allocate budgeted funds for appropriate ongoing maintenance and building works.

• apply for available State and National Heritage funding for listed council owned buildings.

Council is involved in works in the public areas such as streets and parks. Public works in conservation zones should involve the use of appropriate street furniture, paving surfaces, interpretive signs and other urban design issues. It is important that careful and considered decisions be made for a consistent approach to the public environment before any action is undertaken by Council officers, at all levels.



Action Required

• institute a program of briefing sessions for infrastructure staff to ensure full understanding of the important elements of conseivation zones and the need for

care and sensitivity in historic areas.

• develop a manual to which staff can easily refer to ensure consistent handling of detailed public area design issues within specific heritage areas.

Many enquiries are directed to Council counter staff who need to be able to provide preliminary information with regard to Council policies and strategies.

Action Required

• inform and educate Counter Staff in Council Offices on the Heritage Management Program and development control processes so that any over the counter enquiries can be handled effectively providing full and correct information.

Use of Heritage Advisors

It is unlikely that there will be State government funding for a Heritage Advisor for Glenelg in the near future given the financial pressure on the program due to Commonwealth budget cuts. Glenelg Council has previously unsuccessfully applied for a State Heritage Advisor. Nevertheless the provision of architectural advice at an appropriate point, as is currently provided at Glenelg, is particularly beneficial and has been discussed in Section 2.2.5 under Financial Incentives.

Conservation Guidelines

Public knowledge about conseivation would be enhanced by the production of a series of leaflets which provide guidelines for conseivation and renovation of particular building types. This could be run over a three year period with preparation of a number of leaflets over a period of time, released at regular intervals. It is recommended that the first leaflet be one relating to the appropriate conseivation and renovation works on Victorian houses, using individual Glenelg houses as an example.

The format would be a double sided A4 sheet with a recognisable logo panel at the top which would be used on later leaflets. Other topics could include 1920s houses, fences, small commercial buildings and shop fronts, signage and other relevant issues.

It is also recommended that this first leaflet be produced prior to any Heritage PAR being put on public exhibition, and generally distributed. This will be important in better informing the community as to the level of control which is implied in the words

"i:etain and conseive", or similar phrases which may be used in the Development Plan.

Action Required

• budget for a series of Conseivation Guidelines Leaflets.

• distribute first leaflet of series - "Residential Conseivation Guidelines".



cost of attendance by interested local residents as an incentive for appropriate conservation and renovation works on residences. The Adelaide City Council has already done this and plans to run another course in the near future. Council would be required to provide a venue and facilities. Partridge House would be an appropriate location. The seminars and workshops should probably be run on a two yearly program, general course one year and possibly specific topic lectures in the next year.

Currently the cost of the six week course is around $150 per person.

Action Required

• determine level of community interest.

• obtain further information from the National Trust, and program seminars over three or four years dependent on demand.

• determine whether Council will subsidise fee cost as an incentive.

Cultural Heritage Tourism

The tourist/visitor to Glenelg is, or can be encouraged to be, interested in the heritage of Glenelg through appropriate publications and information distributed through tourism outlets. The current Welcome to Glenelg booklet contains a wide range of information ineluding several walks which are based on a National Trust (Glenelg Branch) heritage brochure.

Action Required

• upgrade the quality of the current Walking Trail booklet distributed for tourist use. A set ofleaflets or booklet relating specifically to historic walks should be prepared and carefully designed.

• integrate Walks booklet production where possible with Council's Tourism Strategy Plan and approach Tourism SA for some assistance in this process.

• institute a program of installation of interpretive signs and marking methods for significant places and areas.

• distribute Walks booklets through established tourist outlets.

• consider a range of heritage based publications including reproduction of early photographs, postcards, records and other material for sale at tourist outlets.

Bay News and Media Articles

The Bay News was an effective way of reaching all Glenelg residents and property owners and was the subject of many favourable comments during consultation.

Positive and informative publicity for heritage conservation issues and related topics is important.

Action Required

• continue to use the Holdfast Bay View to provide information about heritage issues.

• program a series of articles in Holdfast Bay View during the next three years.

• provide frequent appropriate articles and news releases to other media.



Heritage Conservation Awards

Glenelg Council currently runs a successful and much appreciated "character restoration" award scheme, and many people consulted noted the positive value of such recognition.

Action Required

• continue the Character Restoration Awards expanding categories to incorporate a full range of conservation activities throughout the Holdfast Bay Council area.

The Main Street Program

The Main Street Program in Jetty Road and Moseley Square should reinforce heritage elements where this is possible. Any further urban design studies or building works for Jetty Road should refer to heritage resource material prepared for the area.

Coordination of advice and work on buildings should be through close liaison between Council and Main Street participants.

Action Required

• reinforce urban design and conservation objective of Jetty Road Structure Plan.

• ensure heritage considerations are taken into account and reinforced where relevant in Main Street program decision making.

4.2.4 Community Participation in Heritage Management Local Heritage Advisory Committee

In many local government areas Local Heritage Advisory Committees have been set up with the support of the council. Their role is to provide advice to councils on heritage matters. This can range from advice on heritage strategies and projects to advice on Development Applications. A Local Heritage Advisory Committee is likely to take some time to assume the role of interpreting Council policy on heritage, however, it could have a role to play eventually in the consideration of heritage places and overseeing the implementation of management strategies. The make up of the current Reference Group for the review is an appropriate mix of representatives, however Council may require a change in the format of the committee over time, including for instance, a member with expertise in tourism, local history or architecture.

Action Required

• investigate the establishment of a Heritage Advisory Committee.

• determine appropriate role for Committee.

Local History Interpretive Centre

A Local History Interpretive Centre is vital for ongoing public information, research resources and heritage education, and there has been strong support for this concept in the consultation process. A centr.al location is best for such an Interpretive Centre, where tourists can immediately see and are attracted to the Centre, and where local residents can easily use the facilities without being intimidated or inconvenienced.



Alternatively, it may be possible to seek support and sponsorship from the Holdfast Shores Developers.

The Centre could contain early photographs and resource material on the history of Glenelg and Brighton as well as Council records such as rate books and Board of Health records. It could also become a collection point for local history material currently in individual hands. Experience in other Councils indicates that community support for such a centre develops over time as personal involvement increases. It becomes the natural focus for Cultural Development Programs.

Action Required

• investigate conversion of sections of Town Hall to History Centre, as part of consideration of property assets available to the City ofHoldfast Bay.

• investigate sponsorship of process.

• set up a steering committee to oversee process and determine feasibility.

• determine ways to ensure a degree of ongoing self-funding of this facility.

• determine level of staffing required, and degree of volunteer and part-time staff alternatives available.

4.3 Implementation

Heritage Management Strategies are aimed at achieving the best heritage conservation outcomes, whilst still ensuring that development can take place. Strategies should be based on positive and open communication, regarding Council policies and approaches, owners' rights, and community involvement. The earlier information about the nature of the objectives and controls and available incentives and programs is made available, the more effective the process becomes and the less contentious the discussion generated.

As noted before it is important that these Heritage Strategies be seen as a total package by

Counci~ as the most effective management of heritage will come through a variety of strategies and not simply through Legislative controls.

Council should anticipate establishing a three year program for the implementation of these strategies. At the end of three years a review should be undertaken to determine the success and demonstrated need for continuing sections of the strategy package. · Most of these strategies will be achievable through modifying and extending existing programs and incorporating heritage objectives into current programs.

In recent years Council has committed considerable budget amounts for heritage issues. The establishment of a Heritage Fund by the continuation of funding of the order of $10, 000 per annum would be a possibility.

There will need to be strong commitment from Council at a political level and full endorsement for these strategies prior to the implementation of the Heritage PAR process.



Strategy/Policy 1996/97 Year 1 Year2 Year3

Heritage PAR 10,000

Government Grants Info

* * *

Glenelg Heritage Fund 5,000 10,000 10,000

Development Application Fees # # #


* * *

Architecturral advice on DAs 2,000 2,000 3,000 4,000

Flexibility on DAs

* * *

Council Property Assets 3,000 ongoing capital

expenditure - reserve funded.

Public Environment Works 3,000 ongoing capital ongoing capital works program works program

Staff Education 2,000

Heritage Advisor?

Guidelines 3,000 2,000 1,000

Seminars/Workshops 1,000 1,000

Tourism/Walks 3,000 2,000 2,000

Bay News/Media

* * *

Character Restoration Awards 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000


* * *

Advisory Committee

* * *

Interpretive Centre

Feasibility 2,000 #2 1,000 #2

Implementation 100,000 ?#2

Operation 20,000 pa

(beyond yr 3)

TOTAL PROGRAM 15,000 23,000 25,000 21,000

CAPITAL 2,000 10,000 100,000

OVERALL TOTAL $15,000 $24,000 $35,000 $121,000


in house staff resources, not costed.

# lost Development Application fee income,< $1,000, not costed.

#' reserve funded capital expenditure, not programmed, budget cost.



5.1 Introduction

Due to its significance as the first point of settlement on the mainland of South Australia and its position as seat of government of the new colony until the town acres in Adelaide were sold during 1837, Glenelg has held an important position in the history of South Australia.

Substantial histories on various elements of the town and suburban development have been written, most notable of these being Dulcie M. Perry's The Place of Waters (1985) which covers the history of Glenelg for its first fifty years of existence. A Heritage Survey of the local government area was undertaken in 1983, in conjunction with the State Government.

Summary histories of Glenelg have also been written for further Heritage analyses which were subsequently undertaken. These include Historical Background prepared for the 1983 Heritage Survey of Glenelg (Hignett & Company) and also a general thematic history prepared for the 1985 Western Metropolitan Region Heritage Study (Lester, Firth & Murton Pty Ltd). A short background history of the central area of Glenelg was also prepared as the introduction to the Glenelg Central Area Strategy report undertaken by McDougall & Vines in 1988.

The following brief outline history is based on the themes developed for the Principal Australian Historic Themes Project developed under the National Heritage Coordination Strategy of the Australian Heritage Commission and adapted substantially for use in assessing Glenelg' s history.

The scope of this project did not allow for the consideration of pre-European settlement patterns of the aboriginal residents within what has become the Glenelg Council area.

However, the issue of aboriginal heritage sites should be considered as an adjunct study to this report.


Land and Settlement

Glenelg was the site of the initial white settlement on mainland South Australia, and the first immigrants arrived late in 1836 when Colonel William Light had chosen the site of Adelaide as the location of the Colony's main city. Holdfast Bay provided a reasonably safe anchorage for larger vessels and there was supply of fresh water for settlement, creating a convenient place for immigrants to South Australia to disembark. Sixty-five acres were reserved for a township at Glenelg, and the town was laid out by Light, Finnis and Company. The acres were sold by ballot to a syndicate headed by William Finke, Osmond Gilles, H.R.Wigley and Matthew Smith for £65 and the town, as subdivided by Light, was created as a well planned grid with the Anglican Church sited as the focus of the settlement. Two centres developed, at St Leonard's and at Glenelg proper. Glenelg was centred around St Peter's Square and St Leonard's fronted the Patawalonga. The most intense settlement was centred on this original subdivision and the town was surrounded by country sections. Moseley Square, Glenelg's major public space, developed because the southern end of the Government Reserve between Light's subdivision and the seafront, and adjoining the South Australian Company's Section 204, was not used for settlement.



The township of New Glenelg was created by J B Neales with the subdivision of the Broadway/Partridge Street area (Section 205) and was part of the initial wave of subdivision.

However, it was not built up to any degree until the 1870s and 1880s. During that time land use became more intensive and there were changes in the form of building. Many of the gardens attached to larger old homes were subdivided and sold in this area of South Glenelg.

Little further subdivision occurred until after World War One and the return of servicemen which created a demand for housing. At this time North Glenelg was subdivided and the sand dunes levelled. The area to the east of the original early subdivision was also subdivided in the 1920s with the creation of areas such as Da Costa Park in 1923 in Section 214. The Depression of the 1930s meant a falling off in land development in Glenelg and it was not until after World War Two in the 1940s that another significant wave of subdivision occurred. This was part of the rapid growth of the whole metropolitan area. Further parts of North Glenelg and Glenelg East were also intensively subdivided at this time.

Inevitably, the original natural environment of Glenelg was severely altered by settlement and subdivision. Basic changes included the flattening of the sand hills and dunes which formed a barrier between the Patawalonga and the sea, and the removal of much of the original native vegetation including pines. The actual sea frontage and sea bed into Holdfast Bay were irrevocably altered with the construction of the jetty and the fabrication of the sea wall to prevent storm damage along the coastline and the heavy flooding which had been a danger to early settlement. Unfortunately, the sea wall did not always prevent the broaching the .

coastline. Much of the original swamp land which existed behind the sand dunes was reclaimed for housing, particularly during the 1920s. The South-West Metropolitan Drainage Scheme redirected the Sturt Creek into the Patawalonga, and the lock and gates were installed as part of the Patawalonga Boat Haven project, begun in 1956. The breakwater was constructed in 1963 as part of this project.

As Glenelg developed as an urban centre, the supply of everyday services to the growing population was constantly increased. Gas was available to Glenelg residents from August 1875 when a gas works was constructed on Osmond Terrace (Tapleys Hill Road). The South Australian Gas Company works comprised a retort house, coal store, purifying house, a store workshop and cottage. Initially gas was used for street and household lighting only, but by 1890 was also in demand for cooking. Electric light was available from 1910 onwards. Much of the provision of those urban services was the responsibility of the Glenelg Corporation and supply was also dependent on progressive intelligent citizens recognising the need for such services within the urban area. A water works on Osmond Terrace was also constructed in 1875 and eleven and quarter miles of water mains were laid at Glenelg. The provision of town sewerage and an effective deep drainage system was difficult because of the flat and low-lying nature of the ground, and was not actually achieved until early in the twentieth century. Work began on a septic tank system of sanitation in 1904 and by 1905 seven hundred and thirty houses were connected. A Volunteer Fire Brigade was set up in 1877 to provide Glenelg residents with some protection from house fires.

With the growth of Glenelg as a settlement, the predominant form of building was residential and housing types and styles are easily related to the stages of subdivision and settlement of the various areas of Glenelg. An important housing type in Glenelg was the seaside mansion, emphasising the use of Glenelg as a recreational area and retreat for wealthy citizens during summer months. There were local tradesmen, builders, carpenters and plasterers residing in Glenelg and one of the greatest periods of growth in residential development came with the establishment of the railway link with Adelaide during the early 1870s. Houses from this period between 1870 and 1890 form a large part of the built fabric of the suburb. Later



5.3 Primary Production

The early years of Glenelg settlement required that the new colonists support themselves and fishing and oyster gathering were early activities. The early native food supplies, such as samphire and wild strawberries noted by the original settlers (including Mary Thomas) were soon exhausted, overwhelmed and disappeared. By 1843, the country sections around Glenelg supported a number of farms growing wheat and barley and raising sheep, cattle and pigs, but as in other early agricultural areas, yeilds fell drastically in a very short time. The fishing industry thrived in the 1880s with boats anchored off the jetty and fish loaded onto trucks to be transported by rail to the fish market near Victoria Square. Often, livestock was grazed on the well watered land west of the Sturt Creek and also in the St Leonards area.

Sheep offloaded at Glenelg were rested there before being driven in to the Adelaide saleyards off West Terrace. Glenelg had a slaughterhouse in Alison Street for the local requirements for fresh meat. However, over time, and with changes in health regulations, this primary production activity ceased.

Most of the intensive horticultural activity was carried on further north along the Reed Beds and there is little indication of orchards or other agricultural activities being established for any length of time in Glenelg proper. Most of the agricultural development which did continue was in St Leonards to the north of the suburb, and some Chinese market gardeners grew vegetables for local sale, but this ceased after World War I. The supply of daily fresh milk and bread was important. There were many dairies established in the area, but residential development pushed these activities further inland, away from the seafront. Bakeries attached to small shops such as those .on Moseley Street and on the Adelaide Road were a common enterprise.

The provision of food supplies to the residents of Glenelg was initially undertaken by merchants delivering around the streets using horses and carts. Deliveries of products such as ice, bread, groceries, wood, milk and newspapers by horse and cart were a common sight up to the introduction of the motor car in the early years of the twentieth century. The focus of Jetty Road as the main food shopping area and the development of supermarkets reduced the reliance of residents on local shops and home deliveries.

5.4 Transport and Communications

As the initial port for the new settlement, Glenelg was quickly linked with Adelaide by road and later rail. The first major road in the colony was the Bay to City Road (which became known as Anzac Highway). Basic road transportation was provided by horse and spring cart for the first years. An omnibus service was soon established by John MacDonald, proprietor of the St Leonards Inn and by 1854 four 'buses' were running between Glenelg and Adelaide.

A much improved Anzac Highway was opened in 1923 as a major gesture of commemoration of the First World War. It has remained the main city to coast link.



In 1873 the first railway from Glenelg to Adelaide was opened by the Adelaide, Glenelg and Suburban Railway Company Limited and was a W-eat success. A second service was introduced in 1880 by the Holdfast Bay Railway Company and this then amalgamated with the first company in 1881. The establishment of the railway link accelerated the development of the area significantly and allowed holiday-makers and beach-goers to reach Glenelg in relative comfort. Further lines ran from Glenelg to Marino and a short-lived military line was established along the coast in response to the perceived threat from the Russians in the 1890s.

The trains were later replaced by trams and the Glenelg electric tram began running in 1929 along the line of the earlier railway. It is interesting to note that horse trainers living in the Glenelg district who relied on the railway for transporting their horses were the only group who objected to the conversion of the train service to tram, and special carriages were supplied for their horses.

Communication systems developed slowly in the early years of settlement. A flagstaff, constructed from spars brought to the colony on the Buffalo was erected soon after settlement, indicating the position of settlement to ships coming up St Vincents Gulf. In 1839 a permanent flagstaff was erected near the Customs House on Adelphi Terrace. It was used for about seven years as a signal station, communicating with the signal station on West Terrace. Glenelg was important as an off-loading point for mailboats and steamers. Holdfast Bay remained an alternative to Port Adelaide for some time as it avoided the circuitous voyage to Port Adelaide and then into the city itself But the Government continued to develop Port Adelaide and during the late 1840s the prominence of Glenelg as the first port of the colony was reduced. The Glenelg signal station was demolished and the timber used to repair the West Terrace flagstaff. Customs facilities and other mercantile activities were focussed on Port Adelaide, and the early Glenelg Customs House on Adelphi Terrace was converted to a summer residence for the Governor in 1848. This building was demolished in 1969.

Postal and telegraph services developed in early Glenelg. The initial postal services functioned in a small part of St Leonards Inn from 1849. Then during the 1850s it was transferred to Hitchcock's Pharmacy in Jetty Road. Services were formalised with the erection of the Post Office in Moseley Square in 1860. This early post office was replaced in 1912 with the current post office and an official residence was constructed adjacent to the building.

Glenelg's jetty was opened in 1859. The initial jetty was 1250 feet long and 20 feet wide, constructed of jarrah wood on iron piles. Its main function was as a landing place for cargo, passengers and mail, although it also served as a focus for holiday makers. A wooden lighthouse was erected at the end of the jetty in 1871 and was replaced in 1874 by an iron lighthouse. These were destroyed by storms in 1948.

The stabilisation of the seafront and the construction of sea walls began as early as 1856, soon after the incorporation of Glenelg and these extended to the north as far as the Adelaide Road (Anzac Highway) and to the south as far as Pier Street by 1860. This created a splendid promenade along the sea front which has been retained to the present. The construction of bathing areas associated with the jetty occurred from the 1870s onwards, when baths were erected north of the jetty by the Glenelg Bathing Company. Glenelg continued to be a popular swimming place into the 1950s, but the baths were damaged severely in 1920 and were demolished by Council in 1928. Another storm destroyed the jetty in April 1948. A new jetty was constructed in 1969 but the breakwater at the end of the jetty, which was mooted as early as 1917, was not ever completed. Thejetty itself is now shorter than it was in 1969 as the end of the jetty was removed by a more recent storm.



that it would be the colony's major port. The reality of the port did not materialise, but the attraction of Glenelg as a seaside retreat and tourist destination continued to attract new residents, particularly through the 1870s and with the railway links with Adelaide. A significant part of Glenelg' s population consisted of wealthy residents who used their houses along the Esplanade as summer retreats. It is interesting to note that over the years, Glenelg' s population has remained essentially Anglo-Saxon, with no notable ethnic communities developing and no intensive concentration of particular national groups.

Educational and social facilities for residents of Glenelg developed quickly. Numerous private schools were established prior to the opening of the Glenelg Public School in 1875 some of which continued in tandem with the government school, and all the major religious denominations were represented in Glenelg by the construction of chapels and churches from the 1850s onwards. Most of these buildings remain essentially in the form in which they were constructed and are representative of the provision of social and spiritual facilities for Glenelg' s growing population.

Hotels were another important social facility providing meals and accommodation for visitors to Glenelg, particularly during the summer holiday period. One early hotel building which remains is the former Berkshire Inn, now Berkshire Court, on Anzac Highway, first licensed in 1855. Hotels have continued to be constructed and redeveloped, with the most recent being the Grand Hotel on the site of Moseley's original Pier Hotel of 1856.

Due to its location, sport and recreation, particularly beachside activities are important in the social life of Glenelg. Along the foreshore large amusement structures were installed. Lunar Park was created from the earlier Amusement Park in 1930 and had a big dipper and the usual fairgroi,md rides. These have now been converted to the Magic Mountain, continuing the recreational function of the foreshore. The Rotunda constructed on Colley reserve in 1926 provided a venue for beachside concerts by the Glenelg Citizens Band. Sport was particularly important activity in the nineteenth century and Glenelg was involved in fielding teams in cricket, football, tennis, swimming and horse racing. The Glenelg Oval on Brighton Road was a focus for these activities. The oval was established in 1889 with a 21 year lease on 12 acres ofland on Brighton Road. Then in 1918, the site was purchased by Council and annexed to Glenelg by agreement with the Marion District Council.

The Patawalonga, through all the stages of its physical rearranging, has also been an important recreational focus. Adjacent to Wigley Reserve, it has served as a marina for Glenelg, and a popular venue for water sports.

Social institutions, groups and associations typical of all South Australia, developed in Glenelg over time. The Rechabite and Masonic Lodges were established and commercial and social organisatiqns developed. Glenelg would seem to have had more than its fair share of notable residents and public benefactors. The use of summer residences by significant South Australian politicians, including Sir Henry Ayers, Sir Thomas Elder and others, meant important associations for Glenelg in terms of its social position in the State. Other significant residents who were also influential in the development of South Australia resided in Glenelg, including William Parkin, W B Rounsevell, Sir James Penn Boucaut, Reverend James Jefferis, Edward M Bagot, John Bentham Neales, and many others, including in more recent times sportsmen such as Adrian Quist (tennis), and the Chappell brothers (Test cricketers). Many of Glenelg's



public buildings benefited from donations made by these significant residents and a large number of prominent residential buildings remain as an indicative of the activities of these citizens in Glenelg.

Health care in Glenelg was overseen in the initial stages by the local Board of Health. (The early reports of the Board are held by Glenelg Council.) Hospital care was available in private homes or houses which had been converted to private hospitals. One such hospital is Waterworth which was formerly a residence in Pier Street. (The documentation of the lives of individual doctors has not been undertaken as yet.)

A major issue in the area of public health was the matter of sewerage disposal. The installation of deep drainage in Glenelg was comparatively late due to the problem of a high water table. The cesspool system used created an unfortunate stench within Glenelg, working against its reputation as a healthy seaside resort. At last in 1904 work began on a septic tank system of sanitation and by 1905, 730 houses were connected to this. The other issue relating to public health was the overcrowding which was inevitably a problem during the summer holidays. But the Glenelg Council kept a close eye on the cleanliness of the streets and seafront area and generally, public health has not been a problem for the suburb.

The cemetery for Glenelg's dead was located with St Judes in Brighton. A small cemetery may have been established at the rear of Glenelg' s first Congregational Church on the south- west comer of Gordon Street and Anzac Highway, but this has not been confirmed.

Significant Glenelg residents who are interred in St Judes cemetery include J B Neales, the Moseley family, the Tennant family and the Colley family, William Croxall, the Wigleys, the Millers, the Bickfords, the Chamberlains, Dr James Jefferis, Catherine Helen Spence, William Rounseveli W L Beare, Thomas Caterer, the Law-Smith family and the Manthorpe family, among others.



After the passing of the District Council Act in 1852, the early Glenelg Township was split between the District Council of Brighton and the District Council of West Torrens, north and south of the Adelaide Road. A sucessful petition by Glenelg residents meant that Glenelg was declared a municipal corporation in August 1855. This municipality initially comprised Glenelg Ward and the St Leonards Ward, a total area of less than one square mile. In 1857, the boundaries were extended to include the village of New Glenelg and part of Section 203 between the Patawalonga and the sea, which was actually 16 acres of uninhabited sand hills.

This gave Glenelg control of the mouth of the Patawalonga. The Council met in various locations, including the St Leonards Inn and Tremere (comer of Anzac Highway and Durham Street, now demolished). Finally, the Institute Public Library and Reading Room was established in 1875 with funds raised by the local community and the land donated on the seafront by the government. Glenelg Council contributed to the cost of the building on the understanding it would use some of the rooms for municipal purposes, including Council meetings, and Council then acquired the Institute building as its Town Hall. In 1882, the clock tower was added.

Henry Sparks, who was Mayor in 1898-9 was typical of the public spiritedness and dedication of many of Glenelg' s citizens to the advancement and management of the area. Sparks was manager of the South Australian Company in 1894, and built his house "Waterworth" in Pier Street. Among other notable philanthropic gestures, including the initial lease of the Glenelg



including police, postal and telegraph services, were the responsibility of the South Australian government and many Glenelg residents were members of the Legislative Council or the House of Representatives. In the early years these included Sir Henry Ayers, William Rounsevell, F C Singleton, A Tennant, the Hon R A Tarleton, Ebenezer Ward, and C G Everard.

5. 7 Work, Secondary Production and Service Industries

Throughout its history Glenelg has not been a centre for industrial production of any particular size. The major industrial concerns in Glenelg were the gas works and the railway workshops in St Leonards. Workshops, associated buildings and a weighbridge on 6 acres were constructed by the Holdfast Bay Railway Company in 1880 and the railway employees were provided with cottages in Glenelg and St Leonards, some of which remain in Alison Street.

Ownership of the railway yards was transferred to the government in 1899 with the railway service and there is little record of their existence physically today. The Holdfast Bay Bowling Club and a Glenelg Council depot now occupy part of the site of the railway yards.

The South Australia Gas Company built a storehouse, coal store, purifying house, store, workshop and cottage in 1875 on a two acre site on Osmond Terrace, now Tapleys Hill Road, adjacent to the Waterworks. Initially the gas was used for street and household lighting only, but by 1890 was in demand for cooking. This gasworks employed a number of men in the production of gas and the management of the gasworks. It ceased production in 1923.

Small industrial concerns also flourished in Glenelg. For instance, John Inverarity developed a rag collecting business in St Leonards, which he developed into a cloth recycling works. The fishing industry continued into the early twentieth century, particularly crayfish boats which operated on the Kangaroo Island and Yorke Peninsula coast and moored at Glenelg. The growth in the residential character of Glenelg also provided much work for builders, plasterers, carpenters and other tradesmen who resided in Glenelg due to the availability of work. The development nearby of quarries at Brighton and the production of cement aided the building and construction industry in Glenelg.

Service industries in Glenelg including commercial, financial and retail areas developed particularly along Jetty Road which was a well known and well patronised shopping centre.

Many long standing commercial houses were created in Jetty Road and remain to service Glenelg residents today. Other village centres, particularly the South Glenelg focused on Broadway, also provided neighbourhood services for local residents.

Jetty Road's retail status has been overtaken by regional retail centres particularly Marion, but it is still significant in local and State terms, as an example of a village-type shopping centre which has survived for reasons other than retail drawing power.

The attraction of Glenelg as a seaside resort meant that hotels, guesthouses and other places of accommodation were essential, particularly along the seafront and associated side streets.

Many of the businesses along Jetty Road which provided food and meals profited greatly from the summer influx. Provision of theatres and later cinemas, providing entertainment for holiday



makers, were also important in developing facilities and businesses in Glenelg. Over time commercial premises have displaced the residential and accommodation structures in Jetty Road.

5.8 Events

The most significant event in Glenelg' s history which is celebrated each year, is the commemoration of the declaration of the colony at Glenelg by the first Governor, Sir John Hindmarsh, on 28 December 1836. The proclamation was read close to, or possibly under, the Old Gum Tree which is located in McFarlane Street, Glenelg North. This commemoration has been, since 1857, repeated annually and is a major date in the history of South Australia.

Associated with this commemoration each year is the Bay-Sheffield foot race and a large seaside carnival on Colley Reserve attended by thousands of South Australians.



Within the Council area, the Development Plan may identify precincts, known as Historic Conservation Zones, which delineate and highlight the distinctive historic, architectural and other characteristics of the particular area considered to be of heritage value. Places and elements, such as buildings, street patterns, street planting and kerbing, which contribute to this historic character may be included in the description of the Zone, scheduled and mapped.

Individually documented state and local heritage places may be located within an Historic Conservation Zone and included in the schedule.

These areas should reflect important themes in the development of Glenelg and should provide context for the understanding of the history of the suburb. Boundaries of Historic Conservation Zones should be clearly defined and all places of heritage value within the Zone marked clearly. The following areas exhibit distinctive historic character and are clearly identifiable within the built environment of Glenelg. They have been assessed both historically and physically to determine their suitability for delineation as specific Historic Conservation Zones, within a Heritage PAR, or whether other planning controls are more appropriate.

The Historic Conservation Zones delineated here may not necessarily accord with current zoning, and consideration needs to be given to the appropriate method of integrating conservation principles into the existing zoning framework.

6.2 Historic Conservation Zones or Character Areas Assessed

6.2.1 Early Village Development of Glenelg

An Historic Conservation Zone based on Torrens Square, incorporating the early streets of Lights plan, clearly represents the early residential development of the initial subdivision around St Peters Anglican Church, and the village of Glenelg. It could be named Central Glenelg Village Historic Conservation Zone.

History and Description

The first survey of Glenelg Township included the rectangular section bounded by Colley Terrace, Jetty Road, Gordon Street and Anzac Highway, as well as a less regular section to the north along the edge of the Patawalonga. Typically for subdivision undertaken by Colonel William Light, the focal point of the southern section of the village was the central square, named Torrens Square, to be occupied by the church. Each small section of street had a different name on the original plan, although for practical reasons the one name was continued the full length of each street before too long. This plan was lodged at the General Records Office as G.P 24/1855 but was actually drawn up in 1839.

This section of Glenelg still contains some examples of buildings constructed in the earliest period of settlement, and these are distinguishable by their low scale, relatively small dimensions, and basic building details. Unfortunately, houses of this period, unless extremely well maintained, are often in poor structural condition. Many, such as the row at 40 Nile Street, have recently been demolished.



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