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Andy Buckley, [email protected] December 1, 2014


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The hepnames packages for L A TEX

Andy Buckley, [email protected] December 1, 2014

The hepnames, heppennames and hepnicenames packages provide a large, though not entirely comprehensive, library of established high-energy particle names. These are flexibly typeset using the hepparticles package, which gracefully adapts the particle typesetting depending on context.

heppennamesre-implements and augments the particle entity notation scheme (PEN) using hepparticles macros; hepnicenames uses an alternative, more intuitive macro naming scheme to access the simple subset of PEN symbols;

and hepnames is a convenience interface to both notations simultaneously.

Several missing particles have been implemented to augment the naming scheme. As well as distinct particle states that were missing in the original im- plementation, alternative representations and “simple forms” of existing PEN states have been added, occasionally with minimal renaming.

Particle names not in this scheme can be easily implemented usinghepparticles.

Contributions to the package, including requests, are of course encouraged.

1 Introduction

hepnicenames provides a less formally prescribed but more “natural language” set of macro names to access the particle names. Listings of macro-to-particle mappings can be found in the accompanyingheppennamesand hepnicenamesPDF and PS files and in this document. All of the macros can be used both in and out of math mode. Unlisted particles can be easily implemented using hepparticlesdirectly: please contact the author if you find a missing state, so it can be added to the library.


2 Package options

Bothheppennamesand hepnicenamessupport the hepparticlesoptions, simply passing those options tohepparticles. Loading more than one of the packages with contradictory options has undefined behaviour, at least as far as the author is concerned! For your convenience, the hepparticles options documentation is repeated below:

By request, the package now typesets particles in italic as well as upright convention.

The choice of convention can be made when the package is loaded with the italic and notitalic options, e.g. \usepackage[italic]{hepnames}. The default mode is upright (i.e. notitalic).

In addition, theforceitoption will force everything in particle names to be italic, even if they aren’t normally italic in math mode (such as Arabic numerals). Note that the italic font that will appear here is that used by \mathitand so will appear more script-like than normal math mode. I can’t say that I recommend using this option, but it’s there for flexibility’s sake.

Finally, a pair of options, maybess and noss, are available: using maybess will allow particle names to be typeset in sans-serif if the surrounding context is sans-serif and noss has the converse effect. Note that since there is no italic sans-serif math font in LaTeX, generic particle names will not be typeset in italic sans font. Maybe this behaviour will change in future if there’s lots of enthusiasm for a fix. However, it looks pretty good at the moment and I suspect most people will want sans-serif particle names in sans documents, so maybessis set by default.

3 Installation

Requirements: You will need to be using a LATEX 2ε system, and have installed copies of the hepparticles package and the maybemathpackage on which it depends.

To install, simply copy the hep*names.sty files into a location in your LATEXINPUTS path. Tada!

Now we move on to the lists of macro names in the hepnicenames and heppennames schemes. I’m taken the liberty of placing the hepnicenames macros first, since for most purposes they’re more intuitive, memorable and (dare I say it?) modern than the PEN codes.


4 hepnicenames macros

The scheme for the naming of these macros is less rigorous than PEN, but is still largely prescribed. The main features of the “nicename” macro naming scheme are:

All particle macros start with \P, all antiparticle macros with \AP. In some cases, such as the positron, both \Ppositron and \APelectron are provided for the e+ symbol, so as not to surprise the user.

The core of the name is the particle type name in natural language and appropriately capitalised, e.g. B, Lambda etc.

The optional end part of the command usually specifies the super- or sub-script state qualifier, e.g. \PBplus for the B+ symbol, \PZzero for a Z with an explicit superscript zero. The “zero”, “plus”, “minus” and “pm”/“mp” strings (for ± or respectively) are implemented for every state for which they are possible.

To combine particle sybol macros in reaction expressions, you should use thehepparticles

\HepProcess macro, which groups particles together with nice spacings, including a re- defined \tomacro. Complex PEN-specified particles (essentially, the set of excited states with resonance qualifiers) have not been implemented in the “nicenames” scheme. A prime motivation for this is that LATEX does not support numbers in macro names: spelling the resonance mass numbers out as words would be lengthy and ridiculous, so the PEN scheme is pretty much as easy to remember as any other in my opinion. Okay, that’s not quite true: “nicenames” macros with the “i, ii, iii”/“a, b, c” suffixes would probably be easier, but unless there’s demand for that feature, I can’t be bothered implementing it!


\PBpm B±

\PBmp B

\PBplus B+

\PBminus B

\PBzero B0

\PBstar B

\PBd B0d

\PBu B+

\PBc B+c

\PBs B0s


\APBzero B0

\APBd B0d



\APBc Bc

\APBs B0s


\PKpm K±

\PKmp K

\PKplus K+

\PKminus K

\PKzero K0

\PKshort K0S

\PKs K0S

\PKlong K0L

\PKl K0L

\PKstar K


\APKzero K0

\Pphoton ⇒γ

\Pgamma γ

\Pphotonx γ

\Pgammastar γ

\Pgluon g


\PWpm W±

\PWmp W

\PWplus W+

\PWminus W

\PWprime W


Z with a zero

\PZzero Z0


\PZprime Z


\Paxion A0

\Pfermion ⇒f

\Pfermionpm f±

\Pfermionmp f

\Pfermionplus f+

\Pfermionminus ⇒f

\APfermion f



charged lepton

\Pleptonpm ±

charged lepton


positive lepton

\Pleptonplus +


negative lepton





\Pnu ⇒ν


\APnu ν


\Pneutrino ν


\APneutrino ν

lepton-flavour neutrino

\Pnulepton ν

lepton-flavour antineutrino

\APnulepton ν

\Pe e

\Pepm e±

\Pemp e

\Pelectron e

\APelectron e+

\Ppositron e+

\APpositron e+

\Pmu ⇒µ

\Pmupm µ±

\Pmump µ

\Pmuon µ

\APmuon µ+

\Ptau ⇒τ

\Ptaupm τ±

\Ptaump τ

\Ptauon τ

\APtauon τ+

\Pnue ⇒νe

\Pnum ⇒νµ

\Pnut ⇒ντ

\APnue νe

\APnum νµ

\APnut ντ

\Pquark q

\APquark q

\Pdown d

\Pup u

\Pstrange s

\Pcharm c

\Pbottom b

\Pbeauty b

\Ptop t

\Ptruth t


\APdown d

\APqd d

\APup u

\APqu u

\APstrange s

\APqs s

\APcharm c

\APqc c

\APbottom b

\APbeauty b

\APqb b

\APtop t

\APtruth t

\APqt t

\Pproton p

\Pneutron n

\APproton p

\APneutron n

\Pchic χc


\PLambda Λ

\APLambda Λ

\PLambdac Λ+c

\PLambdab Λb


\POmegapm ±







\PSigma Σ

\PSigmapm Σ±

\PSigmamp Σ

\PSigmaminus Σ

\PSigmaplus Σ+

\PSigmazero Σ0

\PSigmac Σc

\APSigmaminus Σ

\APSigmaplus Σ+

\APSigmazero Σ0

\APSigmac Σc

\PUpsilon Υ

\PUpsilonOneS Υ(1S)

\PUpsilonTwoS Υ(2S)

\PUpsilonThreeS Υ(3S)


\PUpsilonFourS Υ(4S)

\PXi Ξ

\PXiplus Ξ+

\PXiminus Ξ

\PXizero Ξ0

\APXiplus Ξ+

\APXiminus Ξ

\APXizero Ξ0

\PXicplus Ξ+c

\PXiczero Ξ0c

\Pphi ϕ

\Peta η

\Petaprime η

\Petac ηc

\Pomega ω

\Ppi ⇒π

\Ppipm π±

\Ppimp π

\Ppiplus ⇒π+

\Ppiminus π

\Ppizero ⇒π0

\Prho ρ

\Prhoplus ρ+

\Prhominus ρ

\Prhopm ρ±

\Prhomp ρ

\Prhozero ⇒ρ0

\PJpsi J

\PJpsiOneS J/ψ(1S)

\Ppsi ⇒ψ

\PpsiTwoS ⇒ψ(2S)


\PDpm D±

\PDmp D

\PDzero D0

\PDminus D

\PDplus D+

\PDstar D


\APDzero D0

\PDs Ds

\PDsminus Ds

\PDsplus D+s

\PDspm D±s

\PDsmp Ds

\PDsstar Ds

\PHiggs H


\PHiggsheavy H

\PHiggslight h

\PHiggsheavyzero H0

\PHiggslightzero h0

\PHiggsps A

\PHiggspszero A0

\PHiggsplus H+

\PHiggsminus H

\PHiggspm H±

\PHiggsmp H

\PHiggszero H0

\PSHiggs He

\PSHiggsino He

\PSHiggsplus He+

\PSHiggsinoplus He+

\PSHiggsminus He

\PSHiggsinominus He

\PSHiggspm He±

\PSHiggsinopm He±

\PSHiggsmp He

\PSHiggsinomp He

\PSHiggszero He0

\PSHiggsinozero He0




\PSBino Be


\PSWplus fW+

\PSWminus fW

\PSWpm fW±

\PSWmp fW

\PSWino fW

\PSWinopm fW±

\PSWinomp fW


\PSZzero eZ0



\PSphoton eγ


\PSphotino eγ


\Pphotino eγ


\PSmu ⇒µe


\PSnu ⇒νe



\PStau eτ


\PSino χe


\PSgaugino χe

chargino pm

\PScharginopm χe±

chargino mp

\PScharginomp χe


\PSneutralino χe0

lightest neutralino

\PSneutralinoOne χe01

next-to-lightest neutralino

\PSneutralinoTwo χe02


\PSgluino eg


\PSlepton e


\PSslepton e

duplicate slepton macro

\Pslepton e


\APSlepton e


\APslepton e

\PSq qe

\Psquark qe

\APSq ⇒qe

\APsquark ⇒qe

\PSdown ed

\PSup eu

\PSstrange es


\PSbottom eb

\PStop et

\PASdown ed

\PASup eu


\PAScharm ec

\PASbottom eb


\eplus e+

\eminus e


5 heppennames macros

heppennames re-implements and augments the particles in the particle entity notation (PEN) scheme, specifically the pennames.sty LATEX style. In several cases, simplified forms of the original PEN macros (e.g. Z0’s without the superscript zero, J(1S) without the resonance specifier. . . ) have been provided. Where this is the case, the PEN notation has usually been changed to make the simpler form of the symbol correspond to the simplest macro name.


\PBpm B±

\PBmp B

\PBp B+

\PBm B

\PBz B0

\PBst B

\PdB B0d

\PuB B+

\PcB B+c

\PsB B0s

\PaB B

\PaBz B0

\PadB B0d

\PauB B

\PacB Bc

\PasB B0s



charged kaon

\PKpm K±

charged kaon

\PKmp K

negative kaon

\PKm K

positive kaon

\PKp K+

neutral kaon

\PKz K0





K star

\PKst K


\PaK K


neutral anti-kaon

\PaKz K0

\PKeiii Ke3

\PKgmiii Kµ3

\PKzeiii K0e3

\PKzgmiii K0µ3

\PKia K1(1400)

\PKii K2(1770)

\PKi K1(1270)

\PKsti K(892)

\PKsta K(1370)

\PKstb K(1680)

\PKstiii K3(1780)

\PKstii K2(1430)

\PKstiv K4(2045)

\PKstz K0(1430)


\PNa N(1440) P11

\PNb N(1520) D13

\PNc N(1535) S11

\PNd N(1650) S11

\PNe N(1675) D15

\PNf N(1680) F15

\PNg N(1700) D13

\PNh N(1710) P11

\PNi N(1720) P13

\PNj N(2190) G17

\PNk N(2220) H19

\PNl N(2250) G19

\PNm N(2600) I1,11


\Pg g


\Pgg γ


\Pggx ⇒γ

W boson


charged W boson

\PWpm W±

charged W boson

\PWmp W


\PWp W+


\PWm W


W-prime boson

\PWpr W


Z boson


neutral Z boson

\PZz Z0

Z-prime boson

\PZpr Z

left-right Z boson


\PZgc Zχ

\PZge Zη

\PZgy Zψ

\PZi Z1


\PAz A0

standard/heavy Higgs


explicitly neutral standard/heavy Higgs

\PHz H0

light Higgs

\Ph h

explicitly neutral light Higgs

\Phz h0

pseudoscalar Higgs


explicitly neutral pseudoscalar Higgs

\PAz A0

charged Higgs

\PHpm H±

charged Higgs

\PHmp H

positive-charged Higgs

\PHp H+

negative-charged Higgs

\PHm H


\Pf f

charged fermion

\Pfpm ⇒f±

charged fermion

\Pfmp ⇒f

positive fermion

\Pfp f+

negative fermion

\Pfm f


\Paf f



charged lepton

\Plpm ⇒ℓ±

charged lepton

\Plmp ⇒ℓ

positive lepton

\Plp +


negative lepton

\Plm ⇒ℓ


\Pal ⇒ℓ

generic neutrino

\Pgn ⇒ν

neutrino (for lepton ell)

\Pgnl ν

generic anti-neutrino

\Pagn ν

anti-neutrino (for lepton ell)

\Pagnl ν


\Pe e

e plus/minus

\Pepm e±

e minus/plus

\Pemp e


\Pem e


\Pep e+


\Pgm ⇒µ

mu plus/minus

\Pgmpm µ±

mu minus/plus

\Pgmmp µ


\Pgmm ⇒µ


\Pgmp ⇒µ+


\Pgt τ

tau plus/minus

\Pgtpm τ±

tau minus/plus

\Pgtmp τ

tau lepton

\Pgtm ⇒τ


\Pgtp ⇒τ+

electron neutrino

\Pgne ⇒νe

muon neutrino

\Pgngm νµ

tau neutrino

\Pgngt ντ

electron anti-neutrino

\Pagne νe

muon anti-neutrino

\Pagngm νµ

tau anti-neutrino

\Pagngt ντ


\Pq q



\Paq ⇒q

down quark

\Pqd d

up quark

\Pqu u

strange quark

\Pqs s

charm quark

\Pqc c

bottom quark

\Pqb b

top quark

\Pqt t

down anti-quark

\Paqd d

up anti-quark

\Paqu u

strange anti-quark

\Paqs s

charm anti-quark

\Paqc c

bottom anti-quark

\Paqb b

top anti-quark

\Paqt t

\Pqb b

\Pqc c

\Pqd d

\Pqs s

\Pqt t

\Pqu u

\Pq q

anti-bottom quark

\Paqb b

anti-charm quark

\Paqc c

anti-down quark

\Paqd d

anti-strange quark

\Paqs s

anti-top quark

\Paqt t

anti-up quark

\Paqu u


\Paq q


\Pp p


\Pn n


\Pap p



\Pan n

\Pcgc χc

\Pcgcii χc2(1P)

\Pcgci χc1(1P)

\Pcgcz χc0(1P)

\Pfia f1(1390)

\Pfib f1(1510)

\Pfiia f2(1720)

\Pfiib f2(2010)

\Pfiic f2(2300)

\Pfiid f2(2340)

\Pfiipr f2(1525)

\Pfii f2(1270)

\Pfiv f4(2050)

\Pfi f1(1285)

\Pfza f0(1400)

\Pfzb f0(1590)

\Pfz f0(975)


\PgDa ∆(1232) P33

\PgDb ∆(1620) S31

\PgDc ∆(1700) D33

\PgDd ∆(1900) S31

\PgDe ∆(1905) F35

\PgDf ∆(1910) P31

\PgDh ∆(1920) P33

\PgDi ∆(1930) D35

\PgDj ∆(1950) F37

\PgDk ∆(2420) H3,11

\PgL Λ

\PagL Λ

\PcgLp Λ+c

\PbgL Λb

\PgLa Λ(1405) S01

\PgLb Λ(1520) D03

\PgLc Λ(1600) P01

\PgLd Λ(1670) S01

\PgLe Λ(1690) D03

\PgLf Λ(1800) S01

\PgLg Λ(1810) P01

\PgLh Λ(1820) F05

\PgLi Λ(1830) D05

\PgLj Λ(1890) P03

\PgLk Λ(2100) G07

\PgLl Λ(2110) F05

\PgLm Λ(2350) H09



\PgOpm ±


\PgOp +


\PgOma Ω(2250)



\PagOp +


\PgS Σ

\PgSpm Σ±

\PgSmp Σ

\PgSm Σ

\PgSp Σ+

\PgSz Σ0

\PcgS Σc

\PagSm Σ

\PagSp Σ+

\PagSz Σ0

\PacgS Σc

\PgSa Σ(1385) P13

\PgSb Σ(1660) P11

\PgSc Σ(1670) D13

\PgSd Σ(1750) S11

\PgSe Σ(1775) D15

\PgSf Σ(1915) F15

\PgSg Σ(1940) D13

\PgSh Σ(2030) F17

\PgSi Σ(2050)

\PcgSi Σc(2455)

\PgU Υ

\PgUi Υ(1S)

\PgUa Υ(2S)

\PgUb Υ(3S)

\PgUc Υ(4S)

\PgUd Υ(10860)

\PgUe Υ(11020)

\PgX Ξ

\PgXp Ξ+

\PgXm Ξ

\PgXz Ξ0

\PgXa Ξ(1530) P13

\PgXb Ξ(1690)

\PgXc Ξ(1820) D13

\PgXd Ξ(1950)

\PgXe Ξ(2030)


\PagXp Ξ+

\PagXm Ξ

\PagXz Ξ0

\PcgXp Ξ+c

\PcgXz Ξ0c

\Pgf ⇒ϕ

\Pgfi ϕ(1020)

\Pgfa ϕ(1680)

\Pgfiii ϕ3(1850)

\Pgh ⇒η

\Pghpr η

\Pcgh ηc

\Pgha η(1295)

\Pghb η(1440)

\Pghpri η(958)

\Pcghi ηc(1S)

\Pgo ⇒ω

\Pgoi ω(783)

\Pgoa ω(1390)

\Pgob ω(1600)

\Pgoiii ω(3)1670


\Pgp ⇒π

charged pion

\Pgppm π±

charged pion

\Pgpmp π

negative pion

\Pgpm ⇒π

positive pion

\Pgpp ⇒π+

neutral pion

\Pgpz ⇒π0

\Pgpa ⇒π(1300)

\Pgpii π2(1670)

resonance removed

\Pgr ρ

\Pgrp ⇒ρ+

\Pgrm ⇒ρ

\Pgrpm ρ±

\Pgrmp ρ

\Pgrz ⇒ρ0


\Pgri ⇒ρ(770)

\Pgra ⇒ρ(1450)

\Pgrb ⇒ρ(1700)

\Pgriii ρ3(1690)

\PJgy J

\PJgyi J/ψ(1S)


\Pgy ⇒ψ

\Pgyii ψ(2S)

\Pgya ψ(3770)

\Pgyb ψ(4040)

\Pgyc ψ(4160)

\Pgyd ψ(4415)


\PDpm D±

\PDmp D

\PDz D0

\PDm D

\PDp D+

\PDst D

\PaD D

\PaDz D0

new 2005-07-08

\PsD Ds

\PsDm Ds

\PsDp D+s

\PsDpm D±s

\PsDmp Ds

\PsDst Ds

\PsDipm Ds1(2536)±

\PsDimp Ds1(2536)

\PDiz D1(2420)0

\PDstiiz D2(2460)0

\PDstpm D(2010)±

\PDstmp D(2010)

\PDstz D(2010)0

\PEz E0

\PLpm L±

\PLmp L

\PLz L0

\Paii a2(1320)

\Pai a1(1260)

\Paz a0(980)

\Pbgcia χb1(2P)

\Pbgciia χb2(2P)

\Pbgcii χb2(1P)

\Pbgci χb1(1P)

\Pbgcza χb0(2P)

\Pbgcz χb0(1P)

\Pbi b1(1235)

\Phia h1(1170)



positive Higgsino

\PSHp He+


negative Higgsino

\PSHm He

charged Higgsino

\PSHpm He±

charged Higgsino

\PSHmp He

neutral Higgsino

\PSHz He0



positive wino

\PSWp fW+

negative wino

\PSWm fW

wino pm

\PSWpm fW±

wino mp

\PSWmp fW




\PSZz eZ0




\PSe ee


\PSgg eγ


\PSgm ⇒µe


\PSgn ⇒νe


\PSgt ⇒τe


\PSgx ⇒χe

chargino pm

\PSgxpm χe±

chargino mp

\PSgxmp χe


\PSgxz χe0

lightest neutralino

\PSgxzi χe01

next-to-lightest neutralino

\PSgxzii χe02


\PSg eg

slepton (generic)

\PSl e

anti-slepton (generic)

\PaSl e

squark (generic)

\PSq qe

anti-squark (generic)

\PaSq ⇒qe


down squark

\PSqd ed

up squark

\PSqu eu

strange squark

\PSqs es

charm squark

\PSqc ec

bottom squark (sbottom)

\PSqb eb

top squark (stop)

\PSqt et

anti-down squark

\PaSqd ed

anti-up squark

\PaSqu eu

anti-strange squark

\PaSqs es

anti-charm squark

\PaSqc ec

anti-bottom squark

\PaSqb eb

anti-top squark (stop)

\PaSqt et

Any feedback is appreciated! Email it to [email protected], please.

In particular, if you find that a particle name is missing, please let me know, prefer- ably with a recommended pair of macro names (for the PEN and “nice” names) and a description of how it should by typeset. The best form is to give me an implementation in terms of the hepparticles macros, of course!


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