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Index of /CTAN/macros/latex/contrib/isomath


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Mathematical style for science and technology

Günter Milde 2012-09-04

Copyright: © 2008, 2012 Günter Milde

Licence: This work may be distributed and/or modified under the conditions of theLaTeX Project Public License, either version 1.3 of this license or (at your option) any later version.

Theisomathpackage provides tools for a mathematical style that conforms to the International Standard ISO 80000-2 and is common in science and technology.

It changes the default shape of capital Greek letters to italic, sets up bold italic and sans-serif bold italic math alphabets with Latin and Greek characters, and defines macros for markup of vector, matrix and tensor symbols.


1 Features 2

1.1 “ISO” math style . . . 2

1.2 New math alphabets. . . 3

1.3 Semantic markup . . . 3

2 Usage 3 2.1 Options . . . 4

2.2 Examples . . . 5

3 Related packages 7 3.1 Requirements . . . 7

3.2 Recommendations . . . 7

3.3 Alternatives . . . 7

3.4 Conflicts . . . 8

4 Background 8 4.1 Math font selection . . . 8

4.2 OML font encoding . . . 11

4.3 Unicode mathematical typesetting . . . 15


4.4 Conclusions and outlook . . . 18

5 References 19

1 Features

In their style guides, e. g. [typefaces], [checklist], [SI], [fonts_for_symbols], [Red-Book], [Green-Book], many international scientific organisations recommend layout rules for mathe- matics in line with the International Standard [ISO-80000-2].

International standard layout rules

• The overall rule is that symbols representing physical quantities (or variables) are italic, but symbols representing units, or labels, are roman.

• Symbols for vectors and matrices are bold italic, symbols for tensors are sans- serif bold italic.

• The above rules apply equally to letter symbols from the Greek and the Latin alphabet.

TeX’s default mathematical style deviates from this rules in several points:

• Capital Greek letters default to upright shape,

• small Greek letters are excluded from font changes with themath alphabetcommands, and

• the\veccommand produces an arrow accent.

Theisomathpackage implements an“ISO” math style, providesnew math alphabetswithbold italic andsans-serif bold italictype and macros for semantic markupof vector, matrix and tensor symbols. It can be combined with most packages for mathematical typesetting (see isomath-test.texand the sections onalternativesandconflicts).

1.1 “ISO” math style

Isomath builds on the packagefixmathby Walter Schmidt to change the default mathematics layout to the “ISO”math style:

• Capital Greek letters are typeset in italic shape by default.

• Both, Greek and Latin letters change shape if a differentmath alphabetis used.



Be careful with Greek letters in the argument of \mathit, \mathrm, \mathbf,

\mathsf, and \mathtt. By default, these math alphabets use text fonts. Fonts in OT1 text font encoding have capital (but not small) Greek letters at the expected places, T1 encoded text fonts have no Greek letters at all.

See theexamplessection onhow to get upright small Greek lettersin mathematical context.

1.2 New math alphabets

Isomathdefines the newmath alphabets:

\mathbfit boldface italic vector and matrix symbols

\mathsfit sans-serif italic optional (see OMLmath*_ options)

\mathsfbfit sans-serif bold italic tensor symbols

For compatibility with earlier versions andrelated packages, the new math alphabets are also available under the aliases\mathbold,\mathsans, and\mathboldsans.

Thermdefaultandsfdefault optionsset the font family used for these alphabets.


Using the new math alphabets for numbers can result in upright old-style numbers instead of italic ones, because some italic math fonts (e. g.,cmr,cmbr) contain old-style in place of italic digits.

1.3 Semantic markup

The following commands set the argument in an ISO-conformingmath alphabet:

\vectorsym, \matrixsym bold italic for Greek and Latin letters, bold up- right for numbers

\tensorsym sans-serif bold italic

2 Usage

Make sure that LaTeX can findisomath.styand load it with:


Optionally redefine the standard vector macro\vec:



(see alsoOptions,Examples, andisomath-test.tex).

2.1 Options 2.1.1 rmdefault

Family for serif math fonts (\mathrm,\mathbf,\mathit,\mathbfit). The default is to use the corresponding text font family (the value of\rmdefault). The font must be available in OML font encoding(cf.Table 3).

2.1.2 sfdefault

Family for sans-serif math fonts. The default iscmbrbecause most sans-serif fonts define the Computer Roman fontcmmas OML substitution (seeTable 4).

There are only few sans serif fonts inOML font encoding:

Name Package Comment

cmbr cmbright Computer Modern Bright, bitmap, slightly lighter than cmss (Type 1 fonts withhfbright)

fav arev Arev(Vera Sans), large x-height

hvm hvmath Helvetica Math, commercial, free bitmap version

iwona iwona Iwona, humanistic sans serif, some shapes very similar to roman

jkpss kpfonts Kepler Sans, quite light

llcmss lxfonts LX Fonts, “slide fonts”, very wide, large x-height

2.1.3 scaled

To improve the chances of finding a matching sans serif math font, the fontsfav,iwona,jkpss, andllcmsscan be scaled with thescaledoption (cf.Examples). For other fonts, the option is ignored.

2.1.4 reuseMathAlphabets

The definition of new math alphabets can lead to a “too many math alphabets used in version normal” error. As a workaround, this option tellsisomathto re-use the existing\mathbfand


\mathsfalphabets for italic bold and sans-serif bold.1

2.1.5 OMLmathrm, OMLmathbf, OMLmathsf, OMLmathsfit, OMLmathtt

TheOMLmath*options bind the corresponding\math*command to an OML-encoded font.

The\mathsfitalphabet is not required for ISO conforming mathematical layout and therefore only defined if theOMLmathsfitargument is used.

The predefinedmath alphabets\mathrm,\mathbf, and\mathttuse OT1 encoded text fonts with ligatures and accents in place of the small Greek letters. TheOMLmath*options enable the use of small Greek letters inmath alphabetcommands, e. g. \mathrm{\pi}, if the corre- sponding font is available inOML font encoding.Table 3lists font families supporting the OML encoding.


If no matching OML encoded font is found, LaTeX’s substitute mechanism selects a font with different font attributes (for all letters, not only Greek). Currently, only the mathdesignpackage provides upright fonts in OML encoding. Many font packages define anitalicfont as OML substitute for roman fonts.

With some packages, these options can result in a “too many math alphabets used in version normal” error.

2.2 Examples

• Use scaledarevfonts for the sans serif math alphabets (adapt the scaling factor to your needs):


• Define the\mathsfitsans-serif italic math alphabet:


• The\mathbfitand\mathsfbfitalphabets do not have a different weight in thebold math versionbecause the number of LaTeX math fonts providingextraboldorultrabold series is negligible.

As a workaround, use the heavier arev font, scaled to 0,875, in the bold version of



\DeclareFontShape{OML}{fav}{bx}{it}{<-> s * [0.875] zavmbi7m}{}


1To access the upright shapes, the corresponding\textbfand\textsfcommands might be used. Watch for side-effects, as these commands switch to text mode so that the font settings in the embedding text apply.


See also theisomath-test.textest document.

2.2.1 How to get upright small Greek letters

Of the following methods, only the first requiresisomath:

a) Useisomathand themathdesignpackage:



Now, e. g.,\mathrm{\pi}and\mathbf{\pi}work as expected.

b) To get upright small Greek letters without affecting other fonts, set the math alphabet manually to one of the threemathdesignfonts, e. g.:


(check if the letter shapes match with the rest of the document).

c) Use a package that provides macros for upright Greek letters in math mode:

fourier \otheralpha ... \otherOmega kpfonts \alphaup ... \Omegaup

mathdesign \alphaup ... \Omegaup upgreek \upalpha ... \upOmega

d) Use an upright text character (requires a matching LGR-encoded Greek text font).

The following lines redefine\pito set the mathematical constant pi upright:





\renewcommand{\pi}{\text{\textrm{\greektext p }}}

e) Use the text character with thealphabetapackage from thelgrxbundle:



and in the body

$ u = 2 \text{\pi} r $


3 Related packages

3.1 Requirements

fixmath by Walter Schmidt defines Greek letters as alphabetic symbols.

kvoptions by Heiko Oberdiek facilitates the setup of package options and provides a key=value interface (based onkeyval).

3.2 Recommendations

cmbright by Walter Schmidt provides sans serif and sans-serif bold fonts for the\mathsfit and\mathsfbfitalphabets that match with Computer Modern and derivatives. Free Type 1 versions of the fonts are provided byhfbright.

arev by Stephen Hartke provides the not-so-lightArevsans serif font with letters that are clearly distinguishable from the roman or italic counterparts (important if used to distin- guish vectors and tensors).

Arevhas a large x-height. For many fonts, either small or capital letters will not match in size.

3.3 Alternatives

The TUGboat article by Claudio Beccari [becc97] discusses tricks and commands for physicists and engineers in order to satisfy the international regulations and to distinguish similar symbols with different meanings.

SeeTable 2for other packages that implement the “ISO”math styleandTable 6for packages that provide bold italic math fonts.

“In-line math versions” can be used as ISO-conforming replacement for\vec:

• \bmfrom thebmpackage. Combiningbmandisomathmay lead to thetoo many math alphabets used in version normalerror.

• \boldsymbolfromamsbsy(part ofamsmath, the near-indispensable adjunct to serious mathematical typesetting in LaTeX),

amsmath provides the command\text, that can be used to get, e. g., upright or sans-serif bold italic Greek symbols from a text font into a formula (seeHow to get upright small Greek letters).

unicode-math for XeTeX and LuaTeX allows mathematical typesetting using OpenType math fonts. It supports the “ISO”math styleand all mathematical characters in the Unicode standard.


unicode-math cannot be used together with isomath. It can, however, replace all of isomath’s functionality. See the discussion ofthe unicode-math packagebelow.

3.4 Conflicts

“too many math alphabets used in version normal” This error occurs if the combination of packages tries to load more than 16 fonts into thenormalmath version.

Isomathcan reduce the number of math alphabet definitions with thereuseMathAlphabets option (see there for side-effects).

Examples for problematic combinations:

• Thekpfonts,pxfonts, andtxfontspackages define many additional math alphabets

(kpfontsworks withisomath, if it is loaded with\usepackage[nomathscript]{kpfonts}).

• Thebmpackage normally allocates several symbol fonts for bold and heavy fonts.

Their number can be customised by defining\bmmaxand\hmmaxbefore loading the package.

fourier provides upright and italic Greek letters, but uses non-standard math font encodings.

It cannot be used withisomath.

However, it is possible to use the non-alphanumeric symbols fromfouriertogether with math alphabets from another package, e.gmathdesign:




sansmath defines asans math version usingtext fonts in OT1 or T1 font encoding. As fixmath/isomath expect math fonts inOML font encoding, Greek letters will not work inside thesansmath version defined by sansmath.

4 Background

This section discusses LaTeXmath font selection, theOML font encoding, and the relation of LaTeX andUnicode mathematical typesetting.

4.1 Math font selection

There are three complementary methods to set font attributes in LaTeX math mode: LaTeX 2e font selection[fntguide] describesmath alphabetsandmath versions, several extension packages provide alternativemath styles.


4.1.1 Math alphabets

TeX’s math alphabets correspond to themathematical alphanumeric symbols block in Uni- code. Both are “to be used for mathematical variables where style variations are important semantically”. The font guide [fntguide] defines in section 3:

Some math fonts are selected explicitly by one-argument commands such as

\mathsf{max}or\mathbf{vec}; such fonts are calledmath alphabets.

Math fonts [...] have the same five attributes as text fonts: encoding, family, series, shape and size. However, there are no commands that allow the attributes to be individually changed. Instead, the conversion from math fonts to these five attributes is controlled by themath version.

The predefined math alphabets are:

\mathnormal default2

\mathrm roman3

\mathbf bold roman

\mathsf sans serif

\mathit text italic

\mathtt typewriter

\mathcal calligraphic

Many packages define additional math alphabets (cf.Table 6).

In contrast to the similar named text commands, math alphabets arenotorthogonal, e. g., the code$\mathit{\mathbf{a}}$sets the letterainuprightbold type.

4.1.2 Math versions

Math versionsspecify the mapping from commands for mathematical symbols andmath alpha- betsto a set of mathematical fonts4. They are intended for mathematical content in a special context like a bold section heading. Selecting a math version resembles the individual selection of text font attributes.

Example: Some alternatives to set the letterain a bold upright sans-serif font:

Text Math

\textbf{\textsf{a}} $\bm{\mathsf{a}}$

... continued on next page

2\mathnormalis used by default for alphanumeric characters in math mode. It sets the letter shape according to character class andmath style. (Table 1shows the default letter shapes for common math styles).

3The specifier “roman” is ambiguous: roman shape stands forupright, while roman type stands forserif(as opposed to sans serif).


Text Math

\bfseries \textsf{a} \mathversion{bold}


\bfseries \sffamily a $\mathsfbf{a}$

The predefined math versions are normal and bold with the following defaults for non- specified font attributes:

attribute normal bold

type serif serif

weight medium bold

shape upright upright

Packages can define additional math versions, e. g., thekpfontspackage defines asansmath version (anothersansmath version example is available from acomp.text.tex post‘) and the wrisympackage defines amonomath version.

Math versions can only be changed outside of math mode. The commands\boldsymbol (amsmath) and\bm(bm) behave like “in-line math versions”: they typeset their argument using the fonts of theboldmath version but can be used inside math mode.

4.1.3 Math styles

Amath styleis a document-level feature that determines the default letter shape in math mode (i. e. the shape attribute of letters in the\mathnormalmath alphabet).5LaTeX defaults to the

“TeX” math style (without naming it such). Alternative math styles are introduced by extension packages (Table 2).

Table 1: Default letter shapes for common math styles math style latin Latin greek Greek

TeX it it it up

ISO it it it it

... continued on next page

4The number of mathematical symbols exceeds the maximal number of characters in a TeX font file by an order of magnitude: Unicode defines about 2500 mathematical characters [tr25], font files used by 8-bit TeX engines are limited to 256 characters. The standard math fonts adhere to the original limit of 128 characters. Grouping math fonts with common characteristics in math versions simplifies the setting of font attributes for mathematical expressions. TeX limits the number of (symbol + alphanumeric) fonts per math version to 16.

5Themath-styleoption ofunicode-mathchanges also the shape attribute of other math alphabets (see also sectionthe unicode-math package).


Table 1: Default letter shapes for common math styles (... continued) math style latin Latin greek Greek

French it up up up

upright up up up up

Table 2: Packages providing alternative math styles math style Package Option(s)

ISO fixmath


kpfonts slantedGreeks lucimatx math-style=iso

mathdesign greekuppercase=italicized mathpazo slantedGreek

mathptmx slantedGreek unicode-math math-style=ISO

French fourier upright

kpfonts frenchstyle (or upright) lucimatx math-style=french

mathdesign uppercase=upright, greeklowercase=upright unicode-math math-style=french

upright eulervm

lucimatx math-style=upright unicode-math math-style=upright

4.2 OML font encoding

The equal treatment of Latin and Greek letters in the“ISO” math styleis best achieved with a font that contains all required letters in one file.

There is only one established LaTeX font encoding that contains Latin and Greek letters, the OML font encoding. The standard Greek font encodingT7is just a “reserved name” and the de-facto standard Greek text font encodingLGR has no Latin letters. Unfortunately, OML supportis limited to a few (mostly italic) fonts.


4.2.1 Discussion

The LaTeX font encodingsguide [encguide] names the OML encoding TeX math italic and defines:

The OML encoding contains italic Latin and Greek letters for use in mathematical formulae (typically used for variables) together with some symbols.

The reference toitalicshape is odd:

• No other font encoding is specific to a font shape.

• The different font selection and the semantic of font features in mathematical formulae do not interfere with the fontencoding: Both,\DeclareSymbolFontand\DeclareMathAlphabet require a shape argument. Thus it is possible to set up OML encoded math alphabets in roman {n} as well as italic {it} shape without conflicts.

This seems to be more a remnant of pre-NFSS times than a necessary restriction – there is only one OML encoded font in Knuth’s Computer Modern fonts:Computer Modern Math Italic (cmmi).


• Drop theitalicfrom the definition. Optionally add an explanation:

The OML encoding contains Latin and Greek letters for use in mathematical formulae (typically used for variables) together with some symbols. It first appeared in theComputer Modern Math Italic(cmmi) font.

• The nameTeX math italiccan be interpreted as “the encodingofComputer Modern Math Italic” rather than “an encodingformath italic” fonts.

A less confusing name would beTeX math lettersorOriginal/Old Math Letters. The latter would also explain the acronym OML.

4.2.2 OML Support

Unfortunately, support for the OML encoding is missing for many font families even if the text font defines Greek letters. Supported font families can be found searching foroml*.fdfiles and grepping forDeclareFont.*OMLin*.styfiles.

Table 3lists the findings for a selection of TeXLive 2012 + some additionally installed font packages.

• If there is an alias (substitution) from the text font to a math-variant, only the text font is listed.

• Many text fonts define substitutions also for upright shape, however mapping to an italic variant of the OML encoded font. These are not listed as supportingm/norbx/nhere.


Table 4lists some fonts that definecmmas OML substitution. Withisomath, a better matching substitution can be set using thermdefaultorsfdefaultoptions.

Table 3: Font families supporting the OML encoding

Name Family (package) m/it bx/it m/n bx/n

antt Antykwa Torunska (anttor) 3 3

cmr Computer Modern 3 3

ccr Concrete Roman (concmath) 3 3

cmbr CM Bright (cmbright) 3 3

hlh Lucida 3 3

hfor CM with old-style digits 3 3

iwona Iwona (sans serif) (iwona) 3 3

iwonal Iwona light 3 3

iwonac Iwona condensed 3 3

iwonalc Iwona light condensed 3 3

jkp Kepler Serif (kpfonts) 3 3

jkpw Kepler Serif wide 3 3

jkpvos Kepler Serif oldstyle 3 3

jkpvosw Kepler Serif oldstyle wide 3 3

jkpl Kepler Serif light 3 3

jkplw Kepler Serif light wide 3 3

jkplvos Kepler Serif light oldstyle 3 3

jkplvosw Kepler Serif light os wide 3 3

jkpss Kepler Sans (kpfonts) 3 3

jkpssvos Kepler Sans oldstyle 3 3

jtm expanded Times (jamtimes) 3 3

llcmm LX Fonts (sans serif) (lxfonts) 3 3

lmr Latin Modern Roman (lmodern) 3 3

mak Kerkis (kerkis) 3

kurier Kurier (sans serif) (kurier) 3 3

kurierc Kurier condensed 3 3

kurierl Kurier light 3 3

kurierlc Kurier light condensed 3 3

mdbch Math Design Charter (mathdesign) 3 3 3 3

mdput Math Design Utopia 3 3 3 3

mdugm Math Design Garamond 3 3 3 3

... continued on next page


Table 3: Font families supporting the OML encoding (... continued)

Name Family (package) m/it bx/it m/n bx/n

neohellenic Neohellenic (gfsneohellenic) 3

ntxmi Times (newtx) 3 3

nxlmi Libertine (newtx) 3 3

plcm CM (PLaTeX) 3

ptmom Times (Omega or MB-Times) 3 3

ptmomu Times (Omega or MB-Times) 3 3

ptmcm Times (mathptmx) 3

pxr Palatino (pxfonts) 3 3

qpl Palatino/Pagella (qpxmath) 3 3

qtm Times/Termes (qtxmath) 3 3

txr Times (txfonts) 3 3

udidot Didot (gfsdidot) 3

ywclm (greektex) 3 3

zavm Arev (Vera Sans-Serif) 3 3

zplm Palatino (mathpazo) 3 3

zpple Palatino 3 3

ztmcm Times (mathptmx) 3

zer Computer Modern (zefonts) 3 3

Table 4: Non-CM fonts withcmmas OML substitution

Family Name

bch Charter (psnfss)

pag Avant Garde (psnfss)

pbk Bookman (psnfss)

pcr Courier (psnfss)

phv Helvetica (psnfss)

pnc New Century Schoolbook (psnfss)

ppl Palatino (psnfss)

ptm Times Roman (psnfss)

put Utopia (psnfss)

pzc Zapf Chancery (psnfss)

... continued on next page


Table 4: Non-CM fonts withcmmas OML substitution (... continued)

Family Name

uag Avant Garde (avantgar)

ubk Bookman (bookman)

ucr Courier (courier)

ucrs Courier

unc New Century Schoolbook (psnfss)

uni Universal (universa)

uhv Helvetica (helvetic)

upl Palatino (palatino)

utm Times (times)

uzc Zapf Chancery (zapfchan)

4.3 Unicode mathematical typesetting

This section comparesmath font selectionin LaTeX and Unicode. It suggests a set of 14 math alphabet commands that covers all Unicodemathematical alphanumeric symbolsand discusses compatibility issues between math typesetting with traditional (8-bit) TeX engines versusthe unicode-math packagefor Unicode-enabled TeX engines (XeTeX, LuaTeX).

The technical report [tr25] presents an in-depth discussion of the mathematical character repertoire of the Unicode Standard as well as mathematical notation in general.

4.3.1 Unicode mathematical alphabets

Chapter 2Mathematical Character Repertoireof [tr25] lists 14Mathematical Alphabetsin Table 2.1. These mathematical alphabets are a superset of the predefinedmath alphabetsin the LaTeX core.

Unicode assigns code points to most letters of the mathematical alphabets in themathematical alphanumeric symbols Unicode block. The plain (upright) letters have been unified with the existing characters in the Basic Latin and Greek blocks.

Table 5maps the 14 Unicode mathematical alphabets to LaTeX commands according to thenam- ing schemebelow.Table 6lists the status of LaTeX support for the mathematical alphanumeric symbols.


Naming scheme The naming scheme is an extension of the predefined math alphabet commands with the established short-cuts:

bf bold

it italic

cal script (calligraphic) frak fraktur

bb double-struck (blackboard bold) sf sans serif

combined to commands in the form\math<type><weight><shape>.

The <type>, <weight>, and <shape> specifiers are optional (defaults depend on themath version).

Their order matches the names of UnicodeMathematical Alphanumeric Symbols.




Table 5: Mapping Unicodemathematical alphanumeric symbolsto LaTeX math alphabets.

serifs weight shape symbols math alphabet

serif medium upright Latin/Greek/digits6 \mathrm

bold Latin/Greek/digits \mathbf

italic Latin/Greek \mathit

bold italic Latin/Greek \mathbfit

script Latin \mathcal

bold script Latin \mathbfcal

fraktur Latin \mathfrak

double-struck Latin/digits \mathbb

bold fraktur Latin \mathbffrak

sans serif Latin/digits \mathsf

sans serif bold Latin/Greek/digits \mathsfbf

sans serif italic Latin \mathsfit

sans serif bold italic Latin/Greek \mathsfbfit

monospace Latin/digits \mathtt

6plain standard characters outside themathematical alphanumeric symbolsUnicode block.


LaTeX support Most commonly used math alphabets are supported either by the TeX kernel or additional packages. Full support is only provided bythe unicode-math package.

Table 6: LaTeX support formathematical alphanumeric symbols.

style math alphabet package, comment

plain6 \mathrm predefined7

\mathup unicode-math,kpfonts

bf \mathbf predefined7

it \mathit predefined7

bf it \mathbfit isomath8

\mathbold fixmath, mathpazo, mathptmx, tmmath8

\boldsymbol amsmath

\bm bm

cal \mathcal predefined9

\mathscr mathrsfs,euscript,mathdesign

bf cal \mathbfscr unicode-math

frak \mathfrak amssymb,amsfonts,eufrak

bf frak \mathbffrak unicode-math

bb \mathbb amssymb,bbold,mathbbol,mb-


\mathbbm bbm

\mathds dsfont (doublestoke)

sf \mathsf predefined7

sf bf \mathbfsfup unicode-math

sf it \mathsfit isomath8

sf bf it \mathsfbfit isomath8

\mathbold cmbright,hvmath

\mathbfsfit unicode-math

tt \mathtt predefined7

7no small Greek, full Greek withOMLmath*options and OML-encoded fonts

8Some italic math fonts (e. g., cmr, cmbr) have old-style numbers in place of italic digits.

9formal script withcalrsfs,eucal,fourier, small Latin letters only withurwchancal


4.3.2 The unicode-math package

Users of UTF-8 enabled TeX engines (XeTeX, LuaTeX) can typeset mathematics with the experimental unicode-mathpackage by Will Robertson. It provides a LaTeX interface to OpenType fonts with math support, e. g.,Asana Math, Cambria Math,New EulerorXITS, with commands to access the complete mathematical character repertoire of the Unicode Standard.

LaTeXmath font selectionmethods with unicode-math:

• Math alphabetsmap to a range of themathematical alphanumeric symbolsblock in the current font (or a substitution defined with therangemath font option).

Some command names differ from thepredefined math alphabetsor the abovenaming scheme:

LaTeX unicode-math

\mathbf \mathbfup

\mathsf \mathsfup

\mathsfbf \mathbfsfup

\mathsfbfit \mathbfsfit

With unicode-math,\mathbf,\mathsf, and\mathsfbfbehave similar to“in-line math versions”: they consider themath stylefor upright vs. italic shape. Compatibility can be achieved via the optionsbold-style=uprightandsans-style=upright.

\mathbfsfitreverses the order of thesfandbfselectors, so that, e. g., the Unicode character MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF BOLD ITALIC CAPITAL A is selected by the non-mnemonic\mathbfsfit{A}.

• Math versions can be set up using the syntax \setmathfont[version=<version name>,<font features>]{<font name>}

• Severalmath stylesare supported with themath-stylepackage option that accepts the valuesTeX,ISO,french,upright, andliteral.

4.4 Conclusions and outlook

It is hoped, that in the future more font families will support the OML encoding in normal and bold weight as well as upright and italic shape. This would be a major step towards a LaTeX equivalent of themathematical alphanumeric symbolsUnicode block.

This should be (relatively) easy to achieve via virtual fonts when the glyphs for the Greek letters already exist. Examples are Latin Modern, Kerkis, GFS Neohellenic, LX Fonts and KP-Serif.

Upright small Greek letters in\mathrm would enable the specification of the constant pi, Myons, Pions, alpha-particles, photons, and neutrinos withmath alphabets. (Withmathdesign


fonts, this is already possible today.)

With the development of theunicode-mathpackage, an interesting alternative for ISO-conforming math typesetting became available to users of Unicode-enabled TeX engines (XeTeX or LuaTeX).

5 References

[ISO-80000-2] Quantities and units – Part 2: Mathematical signs and symbols to be used in the natural sciences and technology:http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/


[ISO-31] Quantities and units, Superseded by [ISO-80000].

[typefaces] National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),Typefaces for Sym- bols in Scientific Manuscripts:http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/pdf/typefaces.


[checklist] National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),SI Unit rules and style conventionsCheck List for Reviewing Manuscripts:http://physics.


[fonts_for_symbols] International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC),On the use of italic and roman fonts for symbols in scientific text, (Revised December 1999): http://old.iupac.org/standing/idcns/fonts_for_symbols.html.

[SI] Bureau international des poids et mesures (BIPM),The International Sys- tem of Units (SI):http://www.bipm.org/en/si/si_brochure/.

[Green-Book] International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC),Quantities, Units and Symbols in Physical Chemistry, 3rd edition, RSC Publishing, Cambridge 2007: [ISBN 0 85404 433 7; ISBN-13 978 0 85404 433 7].

[Red-Book] International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), Sym- bols, Units, Nomenclature and Fundamental Constants in Physics:



[becc97] Claudio Beccari,Typesetting mathematics for science and technology ac- cording to ISO 31 XI, TUGboat, Volume 18, 1997, No. 1: http://www.tug.


[encguide] Frank Mittelbach, Robin Fairbairns, Werner Lemberg, LaTeX3 Project Team, LaTeX font encodings: http://mirror.ctan.org/macros/latex/doc/


[fntguide] LaTeX3 Project Team, LaTeX 2e font selection: http://mirror.ctan.org/



[tr25] Barbara Beeton, Asmus Freytag, Murray Sargent III,Unicode Support for Mathematics, Unicode Technical Report #25: http://www.unicode.org/


[beeton:2000] Barbara Beeton:Unicode and math, a combination whose time has come – Finally!, TUGBoat, 21#3, 2000:http://www.tug.org/TUGboat/Articles/



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Le lieu et le titre sont mis en premier dans la seconde colonne, chacun dans la bonne fonte, et en les faisant suivre d’un point. Ensuite, on ajoute, si elle existe,

The latex8 option instructs IEEEconf to violate the IEEE Computer Society Press guidelines in the same manner that the latex8 package provided by the IEEE Computer Society

M AGNETICS formats present a difficulty in that compsoc and transmag journal (but not compsoc conference) papers place the abstract and index terms sections in single column format

The package consists of a preprocessor that converts an indented list tree format into L A TEX input (plain TEX doesn’t seem to work), and some macro files which lay out the trees

\nodeconnect takes the same arguments as in tree-dvips, with a final optional [ ] argument taking PSTricks graphics parameters:.. (4) \nodeconnect[from loc]{from node}[to

In the amsmath package \boldsymbol is used for getting individual bold math symbols and bold Greek letters—.. everything in math except for letters of the Latin alphabet, where

Some families have non standard shapes; the default Latin Modern compatible Greek fonts extra shapes are already defined in their specific .fd font files; the same is true with

nocolor no colored markup, underlined for added text, wavy underlined for highlighted text, default for deleted text and

nocolor no colored markup, underlined for added text, wavy underlined for highlighted text, default for deleted text and

Ohne andere Definition gilt, dass der Text durchgestrichen wird oder je nach Option markup bzw.

Index Numbers written in italic refer to the page where the corresponding entry is de- scribed; numbers underlined refer to the code line of the definition; numbers in roman refer

If you want some text typeset with the duerer fonts for a short text you can use one of the commands. \

Index Numbers written in italic refer to the page where the corresponding entry is described; numbers underlined refer to the code line of the definition; numbers in roman refer to

Text Output If you want to change the appeareance of all your cards, for example, bold face on backside and italic on front side, you can simply redefine \ cardtextstylef and

Its features include simplicity of use, compatibility with L A TEX, large sans serif font as default, extra macros to start foils with bold headings and special mechanisms to

I think slanted and italic type are different enough that you can leave, say, an italic word in the midst of a slanted context and it will still communicate to the reader whatever

The hep-math package provides some additional features beyond the math- tools and amsmath packages.. To use the package place \usepackage{hep-math} in

The correct spacing for units is provided by the macro \unit[ h value i ]{ h unit i } from the units package [5] which can also be used in text mode..

Greek letters are adjusted to always be italic and upright in math and text mode, respectively, using the hep-math-font [6] package..



In the amsmath package \boldsymbol is used for getting individual bold math symbols and bold Greek letters—.. everything in math except for letters of the Latin alphabet, where

Finally, the \printindex command is used in your L A TEX document to indicate where the file foo.idx should be inserted, i.e., where the index should appear in your document.. The